52 Works

Latch-based control of energy output in spring actuated systems

Sarah Bergbreiter, Sathvik Divi, Xiaotian Ma, Mark Ilton, Ryan St. Pierre, Babak Eslami & S. N. Patek
The inherent force-velocity trade-off of muscles and motors can be overcome by instead loading and releasing energy in springs to power extreme movements. A key component of this paradigm is the latch that mediates the release of spring energy to power the motion. Latches have traditionally been considered as switches; they maintain spring compression in one state and allow the spring to release energy without constraint in the other. Using a mathematical model, we demonstrate...

Molecular underpinning of intracellular pH regulation on TMEM16F

Pengfei Liang & Huanghe Yang
TMEM16F, a dual functional phospholipid scramblase and ion channel, is important in blood coagulation, skeleton development, HIV infection and cell fusion. Despite advances in understanding its structure and activation mechanism, how TMEM16F is regulated by intracellular factors remains largely elusive. Here we report that TMEM16F lipid scrambling and ion channel activities are strongly influenced by intracellular pH (pHi). We found that low pHi attenuates, whereas high pHi potentiates, TMEM16F channel and scramblase activation under physiological...

Duncan and Rausher 2020

Mark Rausher & Tanya Duncan
Data set for Figures 2-4 from Duncan and Rausher, Selection. favors loss of floral pigmentation in a highly selfing morning glory. Data are for qPCR and pyrosequencing of anthocyanin pathway genes, and microsatellite genotypes for plants from various study sites.

Do dog breeds differ in pain sensitivity? Veterinarians and the public believe they do

Margaret Gruen, Brian Hare & Philip White
Humans do not respond to the pain of all humans equally; physical appearance and associated group identity affect how people respond to the pain of others. Here we ask if a similar differential response occurs when humans evaluate different individuals of another species. Beliefs about pain in pet dogs (Canis familiaris) provide a powerful test, since dogs vary so much in size, shape, and color, and are often associated with behavioral stereotypes. Using an on-line...

Assessing the effects of elephant foraging on the structure and diversity of an Afrotropical forest

Cooper Rosin, Kendall Beals, Michael Belovitch, Ruby Harrison, Megan Pendred, Megan Sullivan, Nicolas Yao & John Poulsen
African forest elephants (Loxodonta cyclotis) are ecosystem engineers that browse and damage large quantities of vegetation during their foraging and movement. Though elephant trail networks and clearings are conspicuous features of many African forests, the consequences of elephant foraging for forest structure and diversity are poorly documented. In this study in northeastern Gabon, we compare stem size, stem density, proportional damage, species diversity, and species relative abundance of seedlings and saplings in the vicinity of...

Divergent evolution of mutation rates and biases in the long-term evolution experiment with Escherichia coli

Rohan Maddamsetti & Nkrumah A. Grant
Abstract All organisms encode enzymes that replicate, maintain, pack, recombine, and repair their genetic material. For this reason, mutation rates and biases also evolve by mutation, variation, and natural selection. By examining metagenomic time series of the Lenski long-term evolution experiment (LTEE) with Escherichia coli (Good, et al. 2017), we find that local mutation rate variation has evolved during the LTEE. Each LTEE population has evolved idiosyncratic differences in their rates of point mutations, indels,...

Identifying the fitness consequences of sex in complex natural environments

Catherine Rushworth, Yaniv Brandvain & Thomas Mitchell-Olds
In the natural world, sex prevails, despite its costs. While much effort has been dedicated to identifying the intrinsic costs of sex (e.g. the cost of males), few studies have identified the ecological fitness consequences of sex. Furthermore, correlated biological traits that differ between sexuals and asexuals may alter these costs, or even render the typical costs of sex irrelevant. We conducted a large-scale multi-site reciprocal transplant using multiple sexual and asexual genotypes of a...

Harnessing environmental Ca2+ for extracellular protein thermostabilization

Homme Hellinga & Malin Allert
Ca2+ is the third-most prevalent metal ion in the environment. EF hands are common Ca2+-binding motifs found in both extracellular and intracellular proteins of eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Cytoplasmic EF hand proteins often mediate allosteric control of signal transduction pathway components in response to intracellular Ca2+ concentration fluctuations by coupling Ca2+ binding to changes in protein structure. We show that an extracellular structural Ca2+-binding site mediates protein thermostabilization by such conformational coupling as well. Binding Ca2+...

Winner effects and switching assessment strategies facilitate fast and frugal decisions in territorial contests

Jason Dinh, Joshua Azza & S.N. Patek
Animals compete in contests over limited resources, and contestants with greater fighting ability, or resource holding potential (RHP), typically win contests. Contest strategies have evolved to balance contest costs with the benefit of winning resources. Sometimes, contestants decide to leave by estimating their opponent’s relative RHP . This strategy (mutual assessment) is cost-effective because it allows weaker opponents to leave contests against formidable opponents before accruing higher costs. However, acquiring reliable information can be costly....

Ancestral reconstruction of sunflower karyotypes reveals non-random chromosomal evolution

Kate Ostevik, Kieran Samuk & Loren Rieseberg
Mapping the chromosomal rearrangements between species can inform our understanding of genome evolution, reproductive isolation, and speciation. Here we present a novel algorithm for identifying regions of synteny in pairs of genetic maps, which is implemented in the accompanying R package, syntR. The syntR algorithm performs as well as previous methods while being systematic and repeatable and can be used to map chromosomal rearrangements in any group of species. In addition, we present a systematic...

Feel-Sad TV

Blake K. Beaver
This article develops a theory of sadness pornographies in contemporary feel-sad television. Under the sad porn category, the essay explores a key sub-genre in contemporary serial dramas: trauma porn. The article is anchored in an affective analysis of two contemporary serials: Amazon's Transparent and NBC's This Is Us, both of which center multigenerational, familial trauma. Through a combined Berlantian and Spinozist optic, the essay attends to various episodes from the two serials to illuminate the...

Latitudinal gradients in population growth do not reflect demographic responses to climate

Megan Peterson, Graham Bailes, Lauren Hendricks, Laurel Pfeifer-Meister, Paul Reed, Scott Bridgham, Bart Johnson, Robert Shriver, Ellen Waddle, Hannah Wroton, Daniel Doak, Bitty Roy & William Morris
Spatial gradients in population growth, such as across latitudinal or elevational gradients, are often assumed to primarily be driven by variation in climate, and are frequently used to infer species’ responses to climate change. Here, we use a novel demographic, mixed model approach to dissect the contributions of climate variables vs. other latitudinal or local site effects on spatiotemporal variation in population performance in three perennial bunchgrasses. For all three species, we find that performance...

Genomic analyses of phenotypic differences between native and invasive populations of diffuse knapweed (Centaurea diffusa)

Kathryn Turner, Kate Ostevik, Christopher Grassa & Loren Rieseberg
Invasive species represent excellent opportunities to study the evolutionary potential of traits important to success in novel environments. Although some ecologically-important traits have been identified in invasive species, little is typically known about the genetic mechanisms that underlie invasion success in non-model species. Here, we use a genome-wide association (GWAS) approach to identify the genetic basis of trait variation in the non-model, invasive, diffuse knapweed (Centaurea diffusa Lam. [Asteraceae]). To assist with this analysis, we...

Data from: Priorities and motivations of marine coastal restoration research

Elisa Bayraktarov, Shantala Brisbane, Phoebe J Stewart-Sinclair, Audrey Van Herwaarden, Keila Stark, Valerie Hagger, Carter S Smith, Kerrie A Wilson, Catherine E Lovelock, Chris Gillies, Andrew D L Steven & Megan I Saunders
Active restoration is becoming an increasingly important conservation intervention to counteract the degradation of marine coastal ecosystems. Understanding what has motivated the scientific community to research the restoration of marine coastal ecosystems and how restoration research projects are funded is essential if we want to scale-up restoration interventions to meaningful extents.Here, we systematically review and synthesize data to understand the motivations for research on the restoration of coral reefs, seagrass, mangroves, saltmarsh, and oyster reefs....

Host-plant choices determined by reproductive interference between closely related butterflies

Naota Ohsaki, Masaaki Ohata, Yoshibumi Sato & Mark D. Rausher
A number of empirical studies have concluded that reproductive interference, RI, contributes to parapatric species distributions or sexual exclusion. However, the possibility that divergent host-plant use in phytophagous insects is due to sexual exclusion has seldom been considered. Here we present evidence that RI is responsible for different host-plant use by two Pierid butterfly species, Pieris napi and P. melete . When a novel host species was introduced about 50 years ago, two Pierid butterfly...

Experimental data from: On Simultaneous Buckling, Contact and Load Carrying Capacity

Lawrence Virgin
This paper considers the case of a relatively large number of parallel columns that buckle simultaneously. The close proximity between columns results in the possibility of contact between adjacent columns as buckling proceeds, and this brings with it some interesting observations on load carrying capacity. Some experimental results verify the theoretical development based on the versatility of high-fidelity 3D-printing. The sensitive nature of initial geometric imperfections (slight lack of straightness) and load eccentricity strongly influence...

Data from: The effect of urban habitat use on parasitism in mammals: a meta-analysis

Courtney Werner & Charles Nunn
Rates of urbanization are increasing globally, with potential consequences for the dynamics of parasites and their wildlife hosts. A small subset of mammal species have the dietary and behavioural flexibility to survive in urban settings. The changes that characterize urban ecology – including landscape transformation, modified diets, and shifts in community composition – can either increase or decrease susceptibility and exposure to parasites. We used a meta-analytic approach to systematically assess differences in endoparasitism between...

A molecular phylogenetic evaluation of the Ramalina siliquosa complex, with notes on species circumscription and relationships within Ramalina

Scott LaGreca
Lichens of the Ramalina siliquosa complex dominate seashore cliffs in Europe and Southeast Asia, but their taxonomy has been vigorously debated for over a century. On many cliffs, they exhibit a bewildering zonation of chemotypes that resembles the classic zonation of organisms that occupy the littoral zone below. Do the chemotypes represent separate species, or infraspecific variation? To better understand the systematics of this group, sequences from four genetic loci (ITS, IGS RPB1 and RPB2)...

An empirical evaluation of camera trap study design: how many, how long, and when?

Roland Kays, Brian Arbogast, Megan Baker-Whatton, Chris Beirne, Hailey Boone, Mark Bowler, Santiago Burneo, Michael Cove, Ping Ding, Santiago Espinosa, André Gonçalves, Christopher Hansen, Patrick Jansen, Joseph Kolowski, Travis Knowles, Marcela Lima, Joshua Millspaugh, William McShea, Krishna Pacifici, Arielle Parsons, Brent Pease, Francesco Rovero, Fernanda Santos, Stephanie Schuttler, Douglas Sheil … & Wilson Spironello
1. Camera traps deployed in grids or stratified random designs are a well-established survey tool for wildlife but there has been little evaluation of study design parameters. 2. We used an empirical subsampling approach involving 2225 camera deployments run at 41 study areas around the world to evaluate three aspects of camera trap study design (number of sites, duration and season of sampling) and their influence on the estimation of three ecological metrics (species richness,...

Global gradients in intraspecific variation in vegetative and floral traits are partially associated with climate and species richness

Jonas Kuppler, Cécile H. Albert, Gregory M. Ames, W. Scott Armbruster, Gerhard Boenisch, Florian C. Boucher, Diane R. Campbell, Liedson T. Carneiro, Eduardo Chacón-Madrigal, Brian J. Enquist, Carlos R. Fonseca, José M. Gómez, Antoine Guisan, Pedro Higuchi, Dirk N. Karger, Jens Kattge, Michael Kleyer, Nathan J. B. Kraft, Anne-Amélie C. Larue-Kontić, Amparo Lázaro, Martin Lechleitner, Deirdre Loughnan, Vanessa Minden, Ülo Niinemets, Gerhard E. Overbeck … & Robert R. Junker
Aim Intraspecific trait variation (ITV) within natural plant communities can be large, influencing local ecological processes and dynamics. Here, we shed light on how ITV in vegetative and floral traits responds to large-scale abiotic and biotic gradients (i.e. climate and species richness). Specifically, we tested if associations of ITV with temperature, precipitation and species richness were consistent with any of from four hypotheses relating to stress-tolerance and competition. Furthermore, we estimated the degree of correlation...

Sex, Race, and Risk of Dementia after Traumatic Brain Injury among Older Veterans

Erica Kornblith, Carrie Peltz, Feng Xia, Brenda Plassman, Tatjana Novakovic-Apopain & Kristine Yaffe
Objective: To investigate whether sex and race differences exist in dementia risk associated with TBI among older Veterans. Materials and Methods: Using Fine-Gray regression models, we investigated incident dementia risk with TBI exposure by sex and race. Results: After excluding baseline prevalent dementia, the final sample (all Veterans 55+ diagnosed with TBI during the 2001-2015 study period and a random sample of all Veterans receiving Veterans Health Administration care) included nearly one million Veterans (4.3%...

Social bonds, social status and survival in wild baboons: a tale of two sexes

Fernando Campos, Francisco Villavicencio, Elizabeth Archie, Fernando Colchero & Susan Alberts
People who are more socially integrated or have higher socio-economic status live longer. Recent studies in nonhuman primates show striking convergences with this human pattern: female primates with more social partners, stronger social bonds or higher dominance rank all lead longer lives. However, it remains unclear whether social environments also predict survival in male nonhuman primates, as it does in men. This gap persists because, in most primates, males disperse among social groups, resulting in...

Comparison of the costs of HPV testing through Community health campaigns versus Home-based testing in rural western Kenya: A micro-costing study

Easter Olwanda, James Khan, Yujung Choi, Jessica Islam & Megan Huchko
Objectives: To estimate the cost of HPV-based screening through Community health campaigns (CHCs) and home-based testing. Setting: Community health campaigns (CHCs) and home-based testing in six communities in rural western Kenya. Participants: CHCs and home-based screening reached 2297 and 1002 women aged 25 to 65 years respectively. Outcome measures: Outcome measures were overall cost per woman screened achieved through the CHCs and home-based testing, and the cost per woman for each activity comprising the screening...

Data from: Evolutionary and phylogenetic insights from a nuclear genome sequence of the extinct, giant subfossil koala lemur Megaladapis edwardsi

Stephanie Marciniak, Mehreen R. Mughal, Laurie R. Godfrey, Richard J. Bankoff, Heritiana Randrianatoandro, Brooke E. Crowley, Christina M. Bergey, Kathleen M. Muldoon, Jeannot Randrianasy, Brigitte M. Raharivololona, Stephan C. Schuster, Ripan S. Malhi, Anne D. Yoder, , Logan Kistler & George H. Perry
No endemic Madagascar animal with body mass >10 kg survived a relatively recent wave of extinction on the island. From morphological and isotopic analyses of skeletal ‘subfossil’ remains we can reconstruct some of the biology and behavioral ecology of giant lemurs (primates; up to ~160 kg), elephant birds (up to ~860 kg), and other extraordinary Malagasy megafauna that survived well into the past millennium. Yet much about the evolutionary biology of these now extinct species...

Data from: Trait-based variation in host contribution to pathogen transmission across species and resource supplies

Miranda Welsh, James Cronin & Charles Mitchell
Two key knowledge gaps currently limit the development of more predictive and general models of pathogen transmission: (1) the physiological basis of heterogeneity in host contribution to pathogen transmission (reservoir potential) remains poorly understood, and (2) a general means of integrating the ecological dynamics of host communities has yet to emerge. If the traits responsible for differences in reservoir potential also modulate host community dynamics, these traits could be used to predict pathogen transmission as...

Registration Year

  • 2020
    52

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    49
  • Text
    2
  • Data Paper
    1

Affiliations

  • Duke University
    52
  • University of Georgia
    4
  • North Carolina State University
    4
  • The Nature Conservancy
    3
  • University of Notre Dame
    3
  • University of California, Berkeley
    3
  • University of British Columbia
    3
  • Princeton University
    2
  • University of North Carolina
    2
  • University of Minnesota
    2