15 Works

Data from: Higher predation risk for insect prey at low latitudes and elevations

Tomas Roslin, Bess Hardwick, Vojtech Novotny, William K. Petry, Nigel R. Andrew, Ashley Asmus, Isabel C. Barrio, Yves Basset, Andrea Larissa Boesing, Timothy C. Bonebrake, Erin K. Cameron, Wesley Dáttilo, David A. Donoso, Pavel Drozd, Claudia L. Gray, David S. Hik, Sarah J. Hill, Tapani Hopkins, Shuyin Huang, Bonny Koane, Benita Laird-Hopkins, Liisa Laukkanen, Owen T. Lewis, Sol Milne, Isaiah Mwesige … & Eleanor M. Slade
Biotic interactions underlie ecosystem structure and function, but predicting interaction outcomes is difficult. We tested the hypothesis that biotic interaction strength increases toward the equator, using a global experiment with model caterpillars to measure predation risk. Across an 11,660-kilometer latitudinal gradient spanning six continents, we found increasing predation toward the equator, with a parallel pattern of increasing predation toward lower elevations. Patterns across both latitude and elevation were driven by arthropod predators, with no systematic...

Data from: When a clonal genome finds its way back to a sexual species: evidence from ongoing but rare introgression in the hybridogenetic water frog complex

Peter Mikulíček, Matej Kautman, Boris Demovič & Karel Janko
Besides several exceptions, asexual metazoans are usually viewed as ephemeral sinks for genomes, which become ‘frozen’ in clonal lineages after their emergence from ancestral sexual species. Here, we investigated whether and at what rate the asexuals are able to introgress their genomes back into the parental sexual population, thus more or less importantly affecting the gene pools of sexual species. We focused on hybridogenetic hybrids of western Palaearctic water frogs (Pelophylax esculentus), which originate through...

Data from: Avoiding erroneous citations in ecological research: read before you apply

Martin Šigut, Hana Šigutová, Petr Pyszko, Aleš Dolný, Michaela Drozdová & Pavel Drozd
The Shannon–Wiener index is a popular nonparametric metric widely used in ecological research as a measure of species diversity. We used the Web of Science database to examine cases where papers published from 1990 to 2015 mislabelled this index. We provide detailed insights into causes potentially affecting use of the wrong name ‘Weaver’ instead of the correct ‘Wiener’. Basic science serves as a fundamental information source for applied research, so we emphasize the effect of...

Data from: Phylogenetic composition of host plant communities drives plant-herbivore food web structure

Martin Volf, Petr Pyszko, Tomokazu Abe, Martin Libra, Nela Kotaskova, Martin Šigut, Rajesh Kumar, Ondrej Kaman, Philip Butterill, Jan Šipoš, Haruka Abe, Hiroaki Fukushima, Pavel Drozd, Naoto Kamata, Masashi Murakami, Vojtech Novotny & Philip T. Butterill
1. Insects tend to feed on related hosts. The phylogenetic composition of host plant communities thus plays a prominent role in determining insect specialization, food web structure, and diversity. Previous studies showed a high preference of insect herbivores for congeneric and confamilial hosts suggesting that some levels of host plant relationships may play more prominent role that others. 2. We aim to quantify the effects of host phylogeny on the structure of quantitative plant-herbivore food...

Plant-caterpillar interaction matrices of temperate broadleaf forests

Carlo Lutz Seifert, Martin Volf, Leonardo R. Jorge, Tomokazu Abe, Grace Carscallen, Pavel Drozd, Rajesh Kumar, Greg P. A. Lamarre, Martin Libra, Maria E. Losada, Scott E. Miller, Masashi Murakami, Geoffrey Nichols, Petr Pyszko, Martin Šigut, David L. Wagner & Vojtěch Novotny
1. Assemblages of insect herbivores are structured by plant traits such as nutrient content, secondary metabolites, physical traits, and phenology. Many of these traits are phylogenetically conserved, implying a decrease in trait similarity with increasing phylogenetic distance of the host plant taxa. Thus, a metric of phylogenetic distances and relationships can be considered a proxy for phylogenetically conserved plant traits and used to predict variation in herbivorous insect assemblages among co-occurring plant species. 2. Using...

Comparative phylogeography reveals consistently shallow genetic diversity in a mitochondrial marker in Antarctic bdelloid rotifers

Diego Fontaneto, Zeyneb Vildan Cakil, Giuseppe Garlasché, Nataliia Iakovenko, Andrea Di Cesare, Ester M. Eckert, Roberto Guidetti, Lina Hamdan, Karel Janko, Dzmitry Lukashanets, Lorena Rebecchi, Stefano Schiaparelli, Tommaso Sforzi, Eva Štefková Kašparová, Alejandro Velasco-Castrillón & Elizabeth Walsh
Aim: The long history of isolation of the Antarctic continent, coupled with the harsh ecological conditions of freezing temperatures could affect the patterns of genetic diversity in the organisms living there. We aim (1) to test whether such pattern can be seen in a mitochondrial marker of bdelloid rotifers, a group of microscopic aquatic and limno-terrestrial animals, and (2) to speculate on the potential mechanisms driving the pattern. Location: focus on Antarctica. Taxon: Rotifera Bdelloidea....

Data from: Wolves at the crossroad: fission-fusion range biogeography in the Western Carpathians and Central Europe

Pavel Hulva, Barbora Černá Bolfíková, Vendula Woznicová, Milena Jindřichová, Markéta Benešová, Robert W. Myslajek, Sabina Nowak, Maciej Szewczyk, Natalia Niedzwiecka, Michał Figura, Andrea Hájková, Atilla D. Sándor, Vladimír Zyka, Dušan Romportl, Miroslav Kutal, Slavomír Finďo & Vladimír Antal
Aim: Population fragmentation represents a leitmotif of conservation biology, but the impact of population reconnection is less well studied. The recent recolonization of large carnivores in Europe is a good model for studying this phenomenon. We aim to show novel data regarding distribution and population genetic structure of the grey wolf in Central Europe, a region considered a frequent crossroad and contact zone of different phylogeographic lineages, in a biogeographic context. Location: Western Carpathians, Central...

Data from: Vertical canopy gradient shaping the stratification of leaf-chewer-parasitoid interactions in a temperate forest

Martin Šigut, Hana Šigutová, Jan Šipoš, Petr Pyszko, Nela Kotásková & Pavel Drozd
Knowledge about herbivores and their parasitoids in forest canopies remains limited, despite their diversity and ecological importance. Thus, it is important to understand the factors that shape the herbivore–parasitoid community structure, particularly the effect of vertical gradient. We investigated a quantitative community dataset of exposed and semiconcealed leaf‐chewing larvae and their parasitoids along a vertical canopy gradient in a temperate forest. We sampled target insects using an elevated work platform in a 0.2 ha broadleaf...

Data from: Habitat use, but not gene flow, is influenced by human activities in two ecotypes of Egyptian fruit bat (Rousettus aegyptiacus)

Alejandro Centeno-Cuadros, Pavel Hulva, Dusan Romportl, Simone Santoro, Tereza Stříbná, David Shohami, Ivan Horáček, Asaf Tsoar, Ran Nathan & P. Benda
Understanding the ecological, behavioral and evolutionary response of organisms to changing environments is of primary importance in a human-altered world. It is crucial to elucidate how human activities alter gene flow and what are the consequences for the genetic structure of a species. We studied two lineages of the Egyptian fruit bat (Rousettus aegyptiacus) throughout the contact zone between mesic and arid ecozones in the Middle East to evaluate the species' response to the growing...

Data from: Genetic diversity and distribution patterns of diploid and polyploid hybrid water frog populations (Pelophylax esculentus complex) across Europe

Alexandra Hoffmann, Jörg Plötner, Nicolas B. M. Pruvost, Ditte G. Christiansen, Sandra Röthlisberger, Peter Mikulíček, Lukáš Choleva, Dan Cogălniceanu, István Sas-Kovács, Dmitry Shabanov, Svyatoslav Morozov-Leonov & Heinz-Ulrich Reyer
Polyploidization is a rare yet sometimes successful way for animals to rapidly create geno- and phenotypes that may colonize new habitats and quickly adapt to environmental changes. In this study, we use water frogs of the Pelophylax esculentus complex, comprising two species (Pelophylax lessonae, genotype LL; Pelophylax ridibundus, RR) and various diploid (LR) and triploid (LLR, LRR) hybrid forms, summarized as P. esculentus, as a model for studying recent hybridization and polyploidization in the context...

Genomics of new ciliate lineages provides insight into the evolution of obligate anaerobiosis - single gene datasets for phylogenomic analysis of anaerobic ciliates (SAL, Ciliophora), protein datasets for mitochondrial pathways prediction, and mitochondrial genomes

Johana Rotterova, Eric Salomaki, Tomas Panek, William Bourland, David Zihala, Petr Taborsky, Virginia Edgcomb, Roxanne Beinart, Martin Kolisko & Ivan Cepicka
Oxygen plays a crucial role in energetic metabolism of most eukaryotes. Yet, adaptations to low oxygen concentrations leading to anaerobiosis have independently arisen in many eukaryotic lineages, resulting in a broad spectrum of reduced and modified mitochondrial organelles (MROs). In this study, we present the discovery of two new class-level lineages of free-living marine anaerobic ciliates, Muranotrichea, cl. nov. and Parablepharismea, cl. nov., that, together with the class Armophorea, form a major clade of obligate...

Data from: Population biology of establishment in New Zealand hedgehogs inferred from genetic and historical data: conflict or compromise?

Barbora Bolfikova, Adam Konečný, Miriam Pfäffle, Jasmin Skuballa & Pavel Hulva
The crucial steps in biological invasions, related to the shaping of genetic architecture and the current evolution of adaptations to a novel environment, usually occur in small populations during the phases of introduction and establishment. However, these processes are difficult to track in nature due to invasion lag, large geographic and temporal scales compared with human observation capabilities, the frequent depletion of genetic variance, admixture and other phenomena. In this study, we compared genetic and...

Data from: The global distribution of diet breadth in insect herbivores

Matthew L. Forister, Vojtech Novotny, Anna K. Panorska, Leontine Baje, Yves Basset, Philip T. Butterill, Lukas Cizek, Phyllis D. Coley, Francesca Dem, Ivone R. Diniz, Pavel Drozd, Mark Fox, Andrea E. Glassmire, Rebecca Hazen, Jan Hrcek, Joshua P. Jahner, Ondrej Kaman, Tomasz J. Kozubowski, Thomas Kursar, Owen T. Lewis, John Lill, Robert J. Marquis, Scott E. Miller, Helena C. Morais, Masashi Murakami … & Lee A. Dyer
Understanding variation in resource specialization is important for progress on issues that include coevolution, community assembly, ecosystem processes, and the latitudinal gradient of species richness. Herbivorous insects are useful models for studying resource specialization, and the interaction between plants and herbivorous insects is one of the most common and consequential ecological associations on the planet. However, uncertainty persists regarding fundamental features of herbivore diet breadth, including its relationship to latitude and plant species richness. Here...

Data from: Hybrid asexuality as a primary postzygotic barrier between nascent species: on the interconnection between asexuality, hybridization and speciation

Karel Janko, Jan Pačes, Hilde Wilkinson-Herbots, Rui J. Costa, Jan Roslein, Pavel Drozd, Nataliia Iakovenko, Jakub Rídl, Miluše Hroudová, Jan Kočí, Radka Reifová, Věra Šlechtová & Lukáš Choleva
Although sexual reproduction is ubiquitous throughout nature, the molecular machinery behind it has been repeatedly disrupted during evolution, leading to the emergence of asexual lineages in all eukaryotic phyla. Despite intensive research, little is known about what causes the switch from sexual reproduction to asexuality. Interspecific hybridization is one of the candidate explanations but the reasons for the apparent association between hybridization and asexuality remain unclear. In this study we combined cross-breeding experiments with population...

Data from: Genomic islands of differentiation in two songbird species reveal candidate genes for hybrid female sterility

Libor Mořkovský, Václav Janoušek, Jiří Reif, Jakub Rídl, Jan Pačes, Lukáš Choleva, Karel Janko, Michael W. Nachman & Radka Reifová
Hybrid sterility is a common first step in the evolution of postzygotic reproductive isolation. According to Haldane’s Rule it affects predominantly the heterogametic sex. While the genetic basis of hybrid male sterility in organisms with heterogametic males has been studied for decades, the genetic basis of hybrid female sterility in organisms with heterogametic females has received much less attention. We investigated the genetic basis of reproductive isolation in two closely related avian species, the Common...

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