47 Works

Jaw and lip amplitude and velocity in stuttered disfluencies. A preliminary study

Ivana Didirková, Shakeel Ahmad Sheikh, Slim Ouni, Anaïs Vallé & Fabrice Hirsch

n°1|2020 - Faire dialoguer les disciplines via l'indexation des connaissances : la recherche interdisciplinaire en débat

Julien Mary & Lise Verlaet

Data from: Sex-specific effects of fisheries and climate on the demography of sexually dimorphic seabirds

Dimas Gianuca, Stephen C. Votier, Deborah Pardo, Andrew G. Wood, Richard B. Sherley, Louise Ireland, Remi Choquet, Roger Pradel, Stuart Townley, Jaume Forcada, Geoffrey N. Tuck & Richard A. Phillips
1. Many animal taxa exhibit sex-specific variation in ecological traits, such as foraging and distribution. These differences could result in sex-specific responses to change, but such demographic effects are poorly understood. 2. Here we test for sex-specific differences in the demography of northern (NGP, Macronectes halli) and southern (SGP, M. giganteus) giant petrels - strongly sexually size-dimorphic birds that breed sympatrically at South Georgia, South Atlantic Ocean. Both species feed at sea or on carrion...

Data from: Using a forest dynamics model to link community assembly processes and traits structure

Mickaël Chauvet, Georges Kunstler, Jacques Roy & Xavier Morin
1. Trait-based approaches have been increasingly used to understand the role of environmental and biotic filters on species assembly. However, our understanding of the relationships between traits and community assembly processes remain limited. Indeed, various assembly processes may lead to similar functional patterns, and the effects of a given process may vary with the considered traits. Especially, competition can result in trait divergence or convergence depending on whether the trait is related to niche differences...

Data from: Adaptive diversification of growth allometry in the plant Arabidopsis thaliana

François Vasseur, Moises Exposito-Alonso, Oscar J. Ayala-Garay, George Wang, Brian J. Enquist, Denis Vile, Cyrille Violle & Detlef Weigel
Seed plants vary tremendously in size and morphology. However, variation and covariation between plant traits may at least in part be governed by universal biophysical laws and biological constants. Metabolic Scaling Theory (MST) posits that whole-organismal metabolism and growth rate are under stabilizing selection that minimizes the scaling of hydrodynamic resistance and maximizes the scaling of resource uptake. This constrains variation in physiological traits and in the rate of biomass accumulation, so that they can...

Guide pratique de valorisation des géomorphosites

Martine Ambert & Nathalie Cayla

Data from: Plant demographic and functional responses to management intensification: a long-term study in a Mediterranean rangeland

Eric Garnier, Adeline Fayolle, Marie-Laure Navas, Christian Damgaard, Pablo Cruz, Daniel Hubert, Jean Richarte, Paul Autran, Corentin Leurent & Cyrille Violle
1. Understanding how functional traits, which are key for plant functioning, relate to demographic parameters of populations is central to tackle pending issues in plant ecology such as the forecast of the fate of populations and communities in a changing world, the quantification of community assembly processes or the improvement of species distribution models. We addressed this question in the case of species from a Mediterranean rangeland of southern France. 2. Changes in species abundance...

Data from: Selection on skewed characters and the paradox of stasis

Suzanne Bonamour, Céline Teplitsky, Anne Charmantier, Pierre-André Crochet & Luis-Miguel Chevin
Observed phenotypic responses to selection in the wild often differ from predictions based on measurements of selection and genetic variance. An overlooked hypothesis to explain this paradox of stasis is that a skewed phenotypic distribution affects natural selection and evolution. We show through mathematical modelling that, when a trait selected for an optimum phenotype has a skewed distribution, directional selection is detected even at evolutionary equilibrium, where it causes no change in the mean phenotype....

Data from: Recasting the dynamic equilibrium model through a functional lens: the interplay of trait-based community assembly and climate

Jessy Loranger, Cyrille Violle, Bill Shipley, Sandra Lavorel, Anne Bonis, Pablo Cruz, Frédérique Louault, Grégory Loucougaray, François Mesléard, Nicole Yavercovski & Éric Garnier
1. According to the dynamic equilibrium hypothesis (DEH), plant species richness is locally controlled by productivity and disturbance. Given that regional conditions widely affect local environmental variables such as soil nutrient availability, the DEH predictions could be improved by considering how climate influences local controls of species richness. Further, a trait-based approach to community assembly has the potential to reveal a deeper, mechanistic understanding of species richness variation across environments. Here we bring together DEH...

Data from: A combinatorial analysis using observational data identifies species that govern ecosystem functioning

Benoît Jaillard, Philippe Deleporte, Michel Loreau & Cyrille Violle
Understanding the relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning has so far resulted from two main approaches: the analysis of species' functional traits, and the analysis of species interaction networks. Here we propose a third approach, based on the association between combinations of species or of functional groups, which we term assembly motifs, and observed ecosystem functioning. Each assembly motif describes a biotic environment in which species interactions have particular effects on a given ecosystem function....

Data from: Seabird diversity hotspot linked to ocean productivity in the Canary Current Large Marine Ecosystem

W. James Grecian, Matthew J. Witt, Martin J. Attrill, Stuart Bearhop, Peter H. Becker, Carsten Egevang, Robert W. Furness, Brendan J. Godley, Jacob González-Solís, David Grémillet, Matthias Kopp, Amélie Lescroël, Jason Matthiopoulos, Samantha C. Patrick, Hans-Ulrich Peter, Richard A. Phillips, Iain J. Stenhouse & Stephen C. Votier
Upwelling regions are highly productive habitats targeted by wide-ranging marine predators and industrial fisheries. In this study, we track the migratory movements of eight seabird species from across the Atlantic; quantify overlap with the Canary Current Large Marine Ecosystem (CCLME) and determine the habitat characteristics that drive this association. Our results indicate the CCLME is a biodiversity hotspot for migratory seabirds; all tracked species and more than 70% of individuals used this upwelling region. Relative...

No evidence of inbreeding depression in fast declining herds of migratory caribou

Marianne Gagnon, Glenn Yannic, Charles Perrier & Steeve D. Côté
Identifying inbreeding depression early in small and declining populations is essential for management and conservation decisions. Correlations between heterozygosity and fitness (HFCs) provide a way to identify inbreeding depression without prior knowledge of kinship among individuals. In Northern Quebec and Labrador, the size of two herds of migratory caribou (Rivière‐George, RG and Rivière‐aux‐Feuilles, RAF) has declined by one to two orders of magnitude in the last three decades. This raises the question of a possible...

Data from: Moving in the Anthropocene: global reductions in terrestrial mammalian movements

Marlee A. Tucker, Katrin Böhning-Gaese, William F. Fagan, John M. Fryxell, Bram Van Moorter, Susan C. Alberts, Abdullahi H. Ali, Andrew M. Allen, Nina Attias, Tal Avgar, Hattie Bartlam-Brooks, Buuveibaatar Bayarbaatar, Jerrold L. Belant, Alessandra Bertassoni, Dean Beyer, Laura Bidner, Floris M. Van Beest, Stephen Blake, Niels Blaum, Chloe Bracis, Danielle Brown, P. J. Nico De Bruyn, Francesca Cagnacci, Justin M. Calabrese, Constança Camilo-Alves … & Thomas Mueller
Animal movement is fundamental for ecosystem functioning and species survival, yet the effects of the anthropogenic footprint on animal movements have not been estimated across species. Using a unique GPS-tracking database of 803 individuals across 57 species, we found that movements of mammals in areas with a comparatively high human footprint were on average one-half to one-third the extent of their movements in areas with a low human footprint. We attribute this reduction to behavioral...

Data from: Linkage of plant trait space to successional age and species richness in boreal forest understory vegetation

Bright B. Kumordzi, Francesco De Bello, Grégoire Freschet, Yoann Le Bagousse-Pinguet, Jan Lepš & David A. Wardle
Determining the changes in within- and between-species functional diversity in plant communities, and their contribution to overall species trait overlap, can enhance efforts at understanding mechanisms of species coexistence. However, little is known about how variation in species functional diversity influences variation in species trait overlap among contrasting environments. Here, we studied the understorey vegetation in a well-characterized 5000-year-old chronosequence involving 30 forested islands that differ greatly in size, soil fertility, and species diversity. Across...

Data from: Resurrection ecology in Artemia

Thomas Lenormand, Odrade Nougué, Roula Jabbour-Zahab, Fabien Arnaud, Laurent Dezileau, Luis-Miguel Chevin & Marta I. Sanchez
Resurrection Ecology (RE) is a very powerful approach to address a wide range of question in ecology and evolution. This approach rests on using appropriate model systems, and only few are known to be available. In this paper, we show that Artemia has multiple attractive features (short generation time, cyst bank and collections, well documented phylogeography and ecology) for a good RE model. We show in detail with a case study how cysts can be...

Data from: Evidence of reduced individual heterogeneity in adult survival of long-lived species

Guillaume Peron, Jean-Michel Gaillard, Christophe Barbraud, Christophe Bonenfant, Anne Charmantier, Rémi Choquet, Tim Coulson, Vladimir Grosbois, Anne Loison, GIlbert Marzolin, Norman Owen-Smtih, Déborah Pardo, Floriane Plard, Roger Pradel, Carole Toïgo, Olivier Gimenez & Norman Owen-Smith
The canalization hypothesis postulates that the rate at which trait variation generates variation in the average individual fitness in a population determines how buffered traits are against environmental and genetic factors. The ranking of a species on the slow-fast continuum – the covariation among life-history traits describing species-specific life cycles along a gradient going from a long life, slow maturity, and low annual reproductive output, to a short life, fast maturity, and high annual reproductive...

Data from: A reassessment of explanations for discordant introgressions of mitochondrial and nuclear genomes

Timothée Bonnet, Raphaël Leblois, Francois Rousset & Pierre-André Crochet
Hybridization is increasingly recognized as a significant evolutionary process, in particular because it can lead to introgression of genes from one species to another. A striking pattern of discordance in the amount of introgression between mitochondrial and nuclear markers exists such that substantial mitochondrial introgression is often found in combination with no or little nuclear introgression. Multiple mechanisms have been proposed to explain this discordance, including positive selection for introgressing mitochondrial variants, several types of...

Data from: Fire evolution in the radioactive forests of Ukraine and Belarus: future risks for the population and the environment

Nikolaos Evangeliou, Yves Balkanski, Anne Cozic, Wei Min Hao, Florent Mouillot, Kirsten Thonicke, Ronan Paugam, Sergey Zibtsev, Timothy A. Mousseau, Rong Wang, Benjamin Poulter, Alex Petkov, Chao Yue, Patricia Cadule, Brigitte Koffi, Johannes W. Kaiser & Anders Pape Møller
This paper analyzes the current and future status of forests in Ukraine and Belarus that were contaminated after the nuclear disaster in 1986. Using several models, together with remote sensing data and observations, we studied how climate change in these forests may affect fire regimes. We investigated the possibility of 137Cs displacement over Europe by studying previous fire events, and examined three fire scenarios that depended on different emission altitudes of 137Cs, assuming that 10%...

Data from: Mitochondrial metagenomics reveals the ancient origin and phylodiversity of soil mites and provides a phylogeny of the Acari

Paula Arribas, Carmelo Andújar, María Lourdes Moraza, Benjamin Linard, Brent C. Emerson & Alfried P. Vogler
High-throughput DNA methods hold great promise for phylogenetic analysis of lineages that are difficult to study with conventional molecular and morphological approaches. The mites (Acari), and in particular the highly diverse soil-dwelling lineages, are among the least known branches of the metazoan Tree-of-Life. We extracted numerous minute mites from soils in an area of mixed forest and grassland in southern Iberia. Selected specimens representing the full morphological diversity were shotgun sequenced in bulk, followed by...

Interspecific interactions regulate plant reproductive allometry in cereal-legume intercropping systems

Noémie Gaudio, Cyrille Violle, Xavier Gendre, Florian Fort, Rémi Mahmoud, Elise Pelzer, Safia Médiène, Henrik Hauggaard-Nielsen, Laurent Bedoussac, Catherine Bonnet, Guénaëlle Corre-Hellou, Antoine Couëdel, Philippe Hinsinger, Eric Steen Jensen, Etienne-Pascal Journet, Eric Justes, Bochra Kammoun, Isabelle Litrico, Nathalie Moutier, Christophe Naudin & Pierre Casadebaig
1. Calls for the application of ecological principles in agriculture have gained momentum. Intercropping systems are designed by growing two, or more, annual crop species in the same field, aiming for a better resource use efficiency. However, assembly rules for their design are lacking. Notably, it is unknown whether species performances are maximized during both the vegetative and reproductive phases given the sensitivity of reproductive allocation rules to resource limitation. Interestingly, ecological theory provides expectations...

Climate associated genetic variation in Fagus sylvatica and potential responses to climate change in the French Alps

Thibaut Capblancq, Xavier Morin, Maya Gueguen, Julien Renaud, Stéphane Lobreaux & Eric Bazin
Local adaptation patterns have been found in many plants and animals, highlighting the genetic heterogeneity of species along their range of distribution. In the next decades, global warming is predicted to induce a change in the selective pressures that drive this adaptive variation, forcing a reshuffling of the underlying adaptive allele distributions. For species with low dispersion capacity and long generation time such as trees, the rapidity of the change could imped the migration of...

Les inondations dans le bassin amont de la Seine

Alexandre Brun & Frédéric Gache

Exploration spatio-temporelle d’objets géographiques ponctuels

Marion Le Texier
Cette fiche rend compte d’une série de traitements permettant d’explorer la base de données MERIMEE qui consigne l’ensemble des bâtiments classés aux monuments historiques. Nous prenons l’exemple des fiches “Mérimée” du patrimoine architectural toulousain disponibles sur le site data.gouv.fr.

La protection contre les crues dans le bassin amont de la Seine

Alexandre Brun & Frédéric Gache

Traces, données et preuves en contexte numérique : quelles acceptions interdisciplinaires?

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