241 Works

Performance and Perception: The Impact of the Extraordinary Chambers in the Court of Cambodia

Heather Ryan & Laura McGrew
When the forces of the Party of Democratic Kampuchea―the Khmer Rouge―seized Cambodia’s capital Phnom Penh in April 1975, they began a reign of terror that brought death to nearly a quarter of the country’s eight million people, and added a new chapter to the 20th century’s grim history of mass atrocities. The Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia (ECCC) is tasked with bringing to trial those responsible for the war crimes, crimes against humanity,...

On the Road to the EU: Monitoring Equal Opportunities for Women and Men in Kosovo

Besim M. Kajtazi
Although a number of legal institutions for equal opportunities have been established in Kosovo, more priority has been given to political issues (such as the solution of the final status of Kosovo) than to issues such as the equal treatment of women and men. This reflects the need for more social and institutional dialogue regarding gender equality and more engagement in promoting equal opportunities. This report is one of a seven-part series, "On the Road...

Parliamentary Power to the People: Analyzing Online and Offline Strategies in Latin America

Greg Michener
With their ability to shape a nation’s economic, social, and political future, national parliaments wield an incredible amount of power and influence over the citizens they represent. Yet in Latin America, public trust in the deliberative branch of government is alarmingly low. Part of the solution is political reform, but if parliaments are to become more trustworthy and effective, citizens also need to proactively engage representatives by means of greater participation and monitoring. Through the...

North Macedonia: What’s Next?

Ioannis Armakolas, Ivan Bandovic, Dimitar Bechev & Bodo Weber
In January 2019, Macedonia’s parliament approved, by a two-thirds majority, a constitutional amendment to change the country’s name to the Republic of North Macedonia. While this represented a major step toward North Macedonia’s ultimate goal of establishing a durable, stable democracy, the name change must still be endorsed by Greece’s parliament before it can go into full effect. But as a new report from the Open Society European Policy Institute shows, a newly-named North Macedonia...

Muslims in Marseille

Françoise Lorcerie & Vincent Geisser
“Christmas and Easter are marked as holidays, but not Eid or the end of the fast [of Ramadan]. Every time, we need to explain why we are asking for a day off, because according to the calendar it's a normal working day. In private firms, if you want [holiday] leave, you have to ask for a day off. Then it’s either yes or no. It's up to the boss, if he doesn’t want it, we...

Muslims in Europe: A Report on 11 EU Cities

Tufyal Choudhury
The Open Society Foundations' Muslims in Europe report series constitutes the comparative analysis of data from 11 cities in seven European countries. It points out common trends and offers recommendations at the local, national, and international levels, including to the European Union and to international organizations. While not representative of the situation of all Muslims in these cities, this report does capture a snapshot of the experiences of Muslim communities in select neighborhoods in Amsterdam...

Muslims in London

Tufyal Choudhury, Gavin Moorhead & Myriam Cherti
“I have grown up here so I believe it is my place. I don’t feel that I am an outsider. This is my country. I had my education here and I am very pleased that I am a British Muslim.” —Focus group respondent Muslims in London highlights the complexities around belonging and identity amongst Muslim and non-Muslim residents living in Waltham Forest, one of London’s 2012 Olympic boroughs. The research reveals that that local not...

Muslims in Antwerp

Noel Clycq
"I feel very much at home in Antwerp, but there are moments when I don't. For example, the headscarf—people are talking about it more and more and think of you negatively when they see you wearing it." —Open Society Foundations questionnaire respondent, Antwerp Muslims in Antwerp confirms the deep sense of belonging to the city among Muslim residents and the city's strong commitment to innovative programs that promote diversity and inclusion. It also reveals, however,...

Media Policy and Independent Journalism in Greece

Petros Iosifidis & Dimitris Boucas
Today, Greece is the European Union member state where journalism and the media face their most acute crisis. This study identifies the urgent problems facing media policy in Greece and how they affect independent journalism. Since the 1980s and ’90s, deregulation has increased the viewing choices for audiences in Greece. At the same time, the legal and regulatory framework has helped concentrate ownership of press, television, and radio outlets. Private channels operate with temporary licenses...

Coffee Shops and Compromise: Separated Illicit Drug Markets in the Netherlands

Jean-Paul Grund & Joost J. Breeksema
Though famous for its coffee shops, where cannabis can be purchased and consumed, the Netherlands has accomplished many enviable public health outcomes through its drug policy. These include low prevalence of HIV among people who use drugs, negligible incidence of heroin use, lower cannabis use among young people than in many stricter countries, and a citizenry that has generally been spared the burden of criminal records for low level, nonviolent drug offenses. Coffee Shops and...

Broken Justice in Mexico’s Guerrero State

Eric A. Witte
On September 26, 2014, dozens of student activists from a teachers’ college were detained and loaded into police vehicles by armed men in the town of Iguala, in Mexico’s Guerrero state. None of the students—43 in all—have been seen since. The disappearances of the 43, blamed on corrupt collusion between local politicians, drug gangs, and police, galvanized protests across Mexico, fueled by frustration over the lack of justice. The atrocity became a symbol of Mexico’s...

Buying the News: A Report on Financial and Indirect Censorship in Argentina

Martha Farmelo &
Buying the News: A Report on Financial and Indirect Censorship in Argentina, exposes the many subtle yet powerful ways in which government officials wield influence over Argentina's media—from the misuse of government advertising to the exertion of private pressure on reporters and editors. Such violations of media independence often go unexposed and unpunished.

Buyer Beware? Global Fund Grants and Procurement of Harm Reduction Supplies in Eastern Europe and Central Asia

Shannon Kowalski, Viorel Soltan, Andrei Mosneaga, Liliana Caraulan & Daniel Wolfe
In Eastern Europe and Central Asia, where the HIV epidemic is concentrated largely among injection drug users, harm reduction programs are crucial to prevent new HIV infections and reduce illness and death. Support from the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria has been instrumental in increasing the availability of harm reduction services and supplies, such as clean needles and syringes. However, harm reduction organizations in the region are confronting an influx of poor...

Illegal Settlements and City Registration in Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan: Implications for Legal Empowerment, Politics, and Ethnic Tensions

Balihar Sanghera, Elmira Satybaldieva, Adil Rodionov, Sabira Serikzhanova, Nurlan Choibekov & Kunduz Sultanmuratova
Illegal settlements represent a major social, economic and political challenge in Central Asia, where 20 to 30 percent of the urban population of major cities is estimated to be unregistered residents. Using original research and fieldwork carried out in 2011, the fifth paper of CEP’s Occasional Paper Series examines the scale and significance of illegal and unregistered residents in four major cities in Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan (Bishkek, Osh, Almaty, and Astana). It then considers the...

Harm Reduction in Prison: The Moldova Model

Jeff Hoover & Ralf Jürgens
Prevalence of HIV infection among prisoners in many countries is significantly higher than in the general population. Hepatitis C virus prevalence is even higher. Though most prisoners living with HIV contract their infection prior to imprisonment, the risk of being infected in prison, specifically through the sharing of contaminated injecting equipment, is high. Even countries that have invested heavily in drug demand and drug supply reduction efforts in prisons have not been able to stop...

License to Be Yourself: Law and Advocacy for Legal Gender Recognition of Trans People

Jack Byrne
When trans people’s passports, driver licenses, and national ID cards, do not reflect their gender identity, it can exclude them from fundamental aspects of daily life—like receiving health care, schooling, housing, or a bank account. And it can prevent trans people from exercising basic liberties like the right to vote or freedom of movement. The vast majority of trans people around the world cannot obtain official documents under their appropriate name and sex that match...

Kenya: Democracy and Political Participation

Karuti Kanyinga
The active and meaningful participation of citizens in public affairs is the distinguishing feature of democratic societies, which are judged by the extent to which governments open up to citizen involvement in public affairs and the space they give for citizens to hold the government accountable. It is because of this that citizens in Kenya and Africa in general continue to demand increased space for participation. This report is about the challenges of participatory democracy...

Ethnic Profiling in the European Union: Pervasive, Ineffective, and Discriminatory

Rachel Neild
Pervasive use of ethnic and religious stereotypes by law enforcement across Europe is harming efforts to combat crime and terrorism, according to this report released by the Open Society Justice Initiative. Ethnic profiling occurs most often in police decisions about who to stop, question, search, and, at times, arrest. Yet there is no evidence that ethnic profiling actually prevents terrorism or lowers crime rates. Throughout Europe, minorities and immigrant communities have reported discriminatory treatment by...

From Enlargement to the Unification of Europe: Why the European Union Needs a Directorate General Europe for Future Members and Association Countries

Srdjan Cvijic, Iskra Kirova, Marie Jelenka Kirchner & Zoran Nechev
The need for the European Union’s involvement in the Western Balkans, Georgia, Moldova, and Ukraine has never been more acute. The European Commission’s structures are not up to the job. A new approach is needed to respond to the realities on the ground and in member states. The European Union needs to boost the tools of the European Commission to move the process on from enlargement and move decisively towards the unification of Europe. This...

Ethnic Profiling in the Moscow Metro

Mirna Adjami
Riders on the Moscow Metro who appear non-Slavic are over twenty times more likely to be stopped by police than those who look Slavic, according to this report by the Open Society Justice Initiative, in partnership with JURIX and Lamberth Consulting. Riders who appear non-Slavic make up less than five percent of all Moscow Metro patrons but account for over half of all people stopped by the Moscow Metro police. Ethnic Profiling in the Moscow...

Confronting a Hidden Disease: TB in Roma Communities

Marta Schaaf
Confronting a Hidden Disease: TB in Roma Communities outlines the available literature and data on Roma and TB in Central and Eastern Europe and current efforts by governments and NGOs to address TB in Roma communities. Produced by the Open Society Public Health Program in collaboration with the World Lung Foundation, the report aims to bring research needs and program opportunities to the attention of national TB programs, ministries of health, social affairs, or minority...

Education Justice in the Middle East and North Africa: A Scoping Study of Education Contexts in Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Palestine, and Syria

Reem Jorman & Helen Murray
This scoping study of education contexts in the Middle East and North Africa was carried out for the Open Society Foundations Education Support Program to inform the development of its “education justice” strategy in the region. The Open Society Foundations defines education justice as “an equal chance for every child and an equal chance for every adult,” a potentially powerful concept in a region affected by prolonged conflict and significant political, social and economic tensions....

Easing the Pain: Successes and Challenges in International Palliative Care

Judith Levine
This report offers a snapshot of the work of the International Palliative Care Initiative of the Open Society Public Health Program. For the past decade, the Open Society Foundations has worked with countless partners and advocates in nearly ever corner of the world to relieve the suffering of millions of people. Easing the Pain aims to inspire other donors, government leaders, and potential partners and advocates to support innovative palliative care programs and leaders throughout...

Death by Drone

Amrit Singh
In 2013, President Obama promised that before any U.S. drone strike, “there must be near-certainty that no civilians will be killed or injured.” Death by Drone questions whether he has kept that promise. The report casts serious doubt on whether the United States’ “near-certainty” standard is being met on the ground, and whether the U.S. is complying with international law. The nine case studies documented in this report provide credible evidence that U.S. airstrikes have...

Ensuring Justice for Vulnerable Communities in Kenya

Jonathan Cohen & Kristin Kalla
In Kenya, a range of human rights abuses fuels HIV infection among the country's most socially disadvantaged populations. Abuses such as domestic violence, rape, early marriage, child sexual abuse, and trafficking into sexual exploitation help drive the epidemic among women and girls, and are indicators of the epidemic's impact on communities and livelihood security. While litigation and legal services can go a long way toward addressing these issues, the vast majority of Kenyans living with...

Registration Year

  • 2021

Resource Types

  • Report


  • Open Society Foundations
  • Carleton University
  • University of Calgary
  • York University