57 Works

Phylogenetic diversity rankings in the face of extinctions: The robustness of the fair proportion index

Mareike Fischer, Andrew Francis & Kristina Wicke
Planning for the protection of species often involves difficult choices about which species to prioritize, given constrained resources. One way of prioritizing species is to consider their "evolutionary distinctiveness'', i.e. their relative evolutionary isolation on a phylogenetic tree. Several evolutionary isolation metrics or phylogenetic diversity indices have been introduced in the literature, among them the so-called Fair Proportion index (also known as the "evolutionary distinctiveness" score). This index apportions the total diversity of a tree...

Data for: Growing faster, longer or both? Modelling plastic response of Juniperus communis growth phenology to climate change

Jan Tumajer, Allan Buras, Jesús Julio Camarero, Marco Carrer, Rohan Shetti, Martin Wilmking, Jan Altman, Gabriel Sangüesa-Barreda & Jiří Lehejček
Aim: Plant growth and phenology plastically respond to changing climatic conditions both in space and time. Species-specific levels of growth plasticity determine biogeographical patterns and the adaptive capacity of species to climate change. However, a direct assessment of spatial and temporal variability in radial-growth dynamics is complicated, as long records of cambial phenology do not exist. Location: 16 sites across European distribution margins of Juniperus communis L. (the Mediterranean, the Arctic, the Alps and the...

Data from: Indirect genetic effects and sexual conflicts: Partner genotype influences multiple morphological and behavioural reproductive traits in a flatworm

Lucas Marie-Orleach, Nadja Vogt-Burri, Pierick Mouginot, Aline Schlatter, Dita B. Vizoso, Nathan W. Bailey & Lukas Schärer
The expression of an individual's phenotypic traits can be influenced by genes expressed in its social partners. Theoretical models predict that such indirect genetic effects (IGEs) on reproductive traits should play an important role in determining the evolutionary outcome of sexual conflict. However, empirical tests of (i) whether reproductive IGEs exist, (ii) how they vary among genotypes, and (iii) whether they are uniform for different types of reproductive traits are largely lacking. We addressed this...

Data from: Bat overpasses: an insufficient solution to restore habitat connectivity across roads

Fabien Claireau, Yves Bas, Sébastien J. Puechmaille, Jean-François Julien, Benjamin Allegrini & Christian Kerbiriou
1. Roads have many negative effects on wildlife, including their role in habitat fragmentation. Habitat fragmentation affects bats during their daily movements between roosts and foraging areas. As bats are protected in Europe, developers must implement specific mitigation measures that are hierarchically structured to achieve a null net impact. However, very few specific mitigation measures have been undertaken specifically for bats. Bat overpasses are among proposed improvements intended to reduce the impact of roads, but...

Data from: How diverse is Mitopus morio? Integrative taxonomy detects cryptic species in a small-scale sample of a widespread harvestman

Wolfgang Arthofer, Hannes Rauch, Barbara Thaler-Knoflach, Karl Moder, Christoph Muster, Birgit C. Schlick-Steiner & Florian M. Steiner
Mitopus morio is a widespread harvestman species occurring in most of Europe and in moderate and cold-moderate zones of Asia and North America. The species is characterized by extreme variability in body size and leg length. As leg length is correlated with habitat temperature, M. morio has been considered as an example of Allen's rule. Recently, observations for a single location in Tyrol, Austria, indicated the absence of mating between short- and long-legged individuals. This...

Data from: The program STRUCTURE does not reliably recover the correct population structure when sampling is uneven: sub-sampling and new estimators alleviate the problem

Sébastien J. Puechmaille
Inferences of population structure and more precisely the identification of genetically homogeneous groups of individuals are essential to the fields of ecology, evolutionary biology, and conservation biology. Such population structure inferences are routinely investigated via the program STRUCTURE implementing a Bayesian algorithm to identify groups of individuals at Hardy-Weinberg and linkage equilibrium. While the method is performing relatively well under various population models with even sampling between subpopulations, the robustness of the method to uneven...

Data from: Calculating structural complexity in phylogenies using ancestral ontologies

Martín J. Ramírez & Peter Michalik
Complexity is an important aspect of evolutionary biology, but there are many reasonable concepts of complexity, and its objective measurement is an elusive matter. Here we develop a simple measure of complexity based on counts of elements, incorporating the hierarchical information as represented in anatomical ontologies. Neomorphic and transformational characters are used to identify novelties and individuated morphological regions, respectively. By linking the characters to terms in an anatomical ontology a node-driven approach is implemented,...

Data from: Trait variation in response to varying winter temperatures, diversity patterns and signatures of selection along the latitudinal distribution of the widespread grassland plant Arrhenatherum elatius

Stefan G. Michalski, Andrey V. Malyshev & Juergen Kreyling
Across Europe, genetic diversity can be expected to decline toward the North because of stochastic and selective effects which may imply diminished phenotypic variation and less potential for future genetic adaptations to environmental change. Understanding such latitudinal patterns can aid provenance selection for breeding or assisted migration approaches. In an experiment simulating different winter temperatures, we assessed quantitative trait variation, genetic diversity, and differentiation for natural populations of the grass Arrhenatherum elatius originating from a...

Contribution of genetic versus plastic responses to adaptive patterns in a widespread butterfly along a latitudinal cline

Franziska Günter, Michaël Beaulieu, Kasimir Freiberg, Ines Welzel, Nia Toshkova, Anamarija Žagar, Tatjana Simčič & Klaus Fischer
Understanding how organisms adapt to complex environments is a central goal of evolutionary biology and ecology. This issue is of special interest in the current era of rapidly changing climatic conditions. Here, we investigate clinal variation and plastic responses in life history, morphology, and physiology in the butterfly Pieris napi along a pan-European gradient by exposing butterflies raised in captivity to different temperatures. We found clinal variation in body size, growth rates and concomitant development...

Data from: Does selection on increased cold tolerance in the adult stage confer resistance throughout development?

Anneke Dierks, Nadine Kölzow, Kristin Franke & Klaus Fischer
Artificial selection is a powerful approach to unravel constraints on genetic adaptation. While it has been frequently used to reveal genetic trade-offs among different fitness-related traits, only a few studies have targeted genetic correlations across developmental stages. Here we test whether selection on increased cold tolerance in the adult stage increases cold resistance throughout ontogeny in the butterfly Bicyclus anynana. We used lines selected for decreased chill-coma recovery time and according controls, which had originally...

Data from: Causes and consequences of living in closed societies: lessons from a long-term socio-genetic study on Bechstein's bats

Gerald Kerth & Jaap Van Schaik
Understanding the ecological, behavioural and genetic factors influencing animal social systems is crucial to investigating the evolution of sociality. Despite the recent advances in population genetic methods and the analysis of social interactions, long-term studies exploring the causes and consequences of social systems in wild mammals are rare. Here, we provide a synthesis of 15 years of data on the Bechstein’s bat (Myotis bechsteinii), a species that raises its young in closed societies of 10-45...

Data from: Male spiders reduce pre- and postmating sexual investment in response to sperm competition risk

Cristina Tuni, Sabrina Weber, Trine Bilde & Gabriele Uhl
The interplay between pre- and post-mating responses to intra-sexual competition remains enigmatic. Sperm competition models often assume a trade-off between pre- and post-mating traits that enhance mate acquisition and fertilization success, respectively. However, when males court females through food donations (i.e. nuptial gifts), pre- and post-mating responses may be aligned, as nuptial gifts have the dual function of facilitating both mate acquisition and sperm transfer. In the spider Pisaura mirabilis nuptial gifts consist of silk-wrapped...

Data from: Modelling landscape connectivity for greater horseshoe bat using an empirical quantification of resistance

David Pinaud, Fabien Claireau, Maxime Leuchtmann & Christian Kerbiriou
1. Habitat fragmentation and isolation as a result of human activities have been recognized as great threats to population viability. Evaluating landscape connectivity in order to identify and protect linkages has therefore become a key challenge in applied ecology and conservation. 2. One useful approach to evaluate connectivity is Least-Cost Path (LCP) analysis. However, several studies have highlighted importance of parameterization with empirical, biologically-relevant proxies of factors affecting movements, as well as the need to...

Data from: Successful despite poor flight performance: range expansion is associated with enhanced exploratory behaviour and fast development

Elisabeth Reim, Simone Blesinger, Lisa Förster & Klaus Fischer
Anthropogenic interference forces species to respond to changing environmental conditions. One possible response is dispersal and concomitant range shifts, allowing individuals to escape unfavourable conditions or to track the shifting climate niche. Range expansions depend on both dispersal capacity and the ability to establish populations beyond the former range. We here compare well-established core populations with recently established edge populations in the currently northward expanding butterfly Lycaena tityrus. Edge populations were characterized by shorter development...

Data from: Genetic barcoding of dark-spored myxomycetes (Amoebozoa)—Identification, evaluation and application of a sequence similarity threshold for species differentiation in NGS studies

Mathilde Borg Dahl, Asker D. Brjenrod, Martin Unterseher, Thomas Hoppe, Yun Feng, Yuri Novozhilov, Søren J. Sørensen, Martin Schnittler & Asker D. Brejnrod
Unicellular, eukaryotic organisms (protists) play a key role in soil food webs as major predators of microorganisms. However, due to the polyphyletic nature of protists, no single universal barcode can be established for this group, and the structure of many protistean communities remains unresolved. Plasmodial slime moulds (Myxogastria or Myxomycetes) stand out among protists by their formation of fruit bodies, which allow for a morphological species concept. By Sanger sequencing of a large collection of...

Data from: Inbreeding interferes with the heat-shock response

Kristin Franke & Klaus Fischer
Inbreeding is typically detrimental to individual fitness, with negative effects being often exaggerated in stressful environments. However, the causal mechanisms underlying inbreeding depression in general and the often increased susceptibility to stress in particular are not well understood. We here test whether inbreeding interferes with the heat-shock response, comprising an important component of the stress response which may therefore underscore sensitivity to stress. To this end we subjected the tropical butterfly Bicyclus anynana to a...

Data from: Genetic Monogamy despite frequent extra-pair Copulations in “strictly monogamous” wild Jackdaws

Lisa Gill, Jaap Van Schaik, Auguste Von Bayern & Manfred Gahr
“Monogamy” refers to different components of pair exclusiveness: the social pair, sexual partners, and the genetic outcome of sexual encounters. Avian monogamy is usually defined socially or genetically, while quantifications of sexual behavior remain scarce. Jackdaws (Corvus monedula) are considered a rare example of strict monogamy in songbirds, with lifelong pair bonds and little genetic evidence for extra-pair offspring. Yet jackdaw copulations, although accompanied by loud copulation calls, are rarely observed, since they occur visually...

Data from: Soils from cold and snowy temperate deciduous forests release more nitrogen and phosphorus after soil freeze–thaw cycles than soils from warmer, snow-poor conditions

Juergen Kreyling, Rhena Schumann & Robert Weigel
Effects of global warming are most pronounced in winter. A reduction in snow cover due to warmer atmospheric temperature in formerly cold ecosystems, however, could counteract an increase in soil temperature by reduction of insulation. Thus, soil freeze-thaw cycles (FTC) might increase in frequency and magnitude with warming, potentially leading to a disturbance of the soil biota and release of nutrients. Here, we assessed how soil freeze-thaw magnitude and frequency affect short-term release of nutrients...

Data from: Potentially peat-forming biomass of fen sedges increases with increasing nutrient levels

Tjorven Hinzke, Guixiang Li, Franziska Tanneberger, Elke Seeber, Camiel Aggenbach, Jelena Lange, Łukasz Kozub, Klaus-Holger Knorr, Juergen Kreyling & Wiktor Kotowski
Peat formation is a key carbon sequestration process in the terrestrial biosphere. In temperate fens, peat is mainly formed by below-ground biomass of vascular plants. Nutrient availability in temperate fens is naturally variable, and nowadays increasing due to atmospheric deposition, runoff from agriculture, and mineralization of peat caused by drainage. To maintain or restore peat formation, it is important to understand how increased nutrient availability influences the main controls of peat formation, i.e., below-ground biomass...

Expression levels and activities of energy-yielding ATPases in the oligohaline neritid snail Theodoxus fluviatilis under changing environmental salinities

Jan Knobloch, Jan-Peter Hildebrandt & Christian Müller
The aquatic gastropod Theodoxus fluviatilis occurs in Europe and adjacent areas of Asia. The snail species has formed two genetically closely related subgroups, the freshwater ecotype (FW) and the brackish water ecotype (BW). Other than individuals of the FW ecotype, those of the BW ecotype survive in salinities of up to 28‰. Coastal aquatic ecosystems may be affected by climate change due to salinization. Thus, we investigated how the two Theodoxus ecotypes adjust to changes...

Data from: Cardiomyocyte mechanodynamics under conditions of actin remodelling

Ricardo H. Pires, Nithya Shree, Emmanuel Manu, Ewa Guzniczak & Oliver Otto
The mechanical performance of cardiomyocytes is an important indicator of their maturation state and of primary importance for the development of therapies based on cardiac stem-cells. As the mechanical analysis of adherent cells at high-throughput remains challenging, we explore the applicability of real-time deformability cytometry (RT-DC) to probe cardiomyocytes in suspension. RT-DC is a microfluidic technology allowing for real-time mechanical analysis of thousands of cells with a throughput exceeding 1,000 cells per second. For cardiomyocytes...

Phylogenomic resolution of sea spider diversification through integration of multiple data classes

Jesus Ballesteros, Emily Setton, Carlos Santibáñez-López, Claudia Arango, Georg Brenneis, Saskia Brix, Kevin Corbett, Esperanza Cano-Sánchez, Merai Dandouch, Geoffrey Dilly, Marc Eleaume, Guilherme Gainett, Cyril Gallut, Sean McAtee, Lauren McIntyre, Randy Moran, Pablo López-González, Gerhard Scholtz, Clay Williamson, Arthur Woods, Jakob Zehms, Ward Wheeler & Prashant Sharma
Despite significant advances in invertebrate phylogenomics over the past decade, the higher-level phylogeny of Pycnogonida (sea spiders) remains elusive. Due to the inaccessibility of some small-bodied lineages, few phylogenetic studies have sampled all sea spider families. Previous efforts based on a handful of genes have yielded unstable tree topologies. Here, we inferred the relationships of 89 sea spider species using targeted capture of the mitochondrial genome, 56 conserved exons, 101 ultraconserved elements, and three nuclear...

Data from: Lowest drought sensitivity and decreasing growth synchrony towards the dry distribution margin of European beech

Lena Muffler, Robert Weigel, Andrew J. Hacket-Pain, Marcin Klisz, Ernst Van Der Maaten, Martin Wilmking, Juergen Kreyling & Marieke Van Der Maaten-Theunissen
Aim: Climate limits the potential distribution ranges of species. Establishment and growth of individuals at range margins is assumed to be more limited by extreme events such as drought or frost events than in the centre of their range. We explore whether the growth of beech is more sensitive to drought towards the dry distribution margin and more sensitive to frost towards the cold distribution margin. Furthermore, we aim to gain insight into the adaptive...

Data from: Taking the discovery approach in integrative taxonomy: decrypting a complex of narrow-endemic Alpine harvestmen (Opiliones: Phalangiidae: Megabunus)

Gregor A. Wachter, Christoph Muster, Wolfgang Arthofer, Günther Raspotnig, Petra Föttinger, Christian Komposch, Florian M. Steiner & Birgit C. Schlick-Steiner
Species delimitation is fundamental for biological studies, yet precise delimitation is not an easy task, and every involved approach has an inherent failure rate. Integrative taxonomy, a method that merges multiple lines of evidence, can profoundly contribute to reliable alpha taxonomy and shed light on the processes behind speciation. In this study, we explored and validated species limits in a group of closely related Megabunus harvestmen (Eupnoi, Phalangiidae) endemic to the European Alps. Without a...

Data from: High male density favors maintenance over reproduction in a butterfly

Rina Geiger, Michaël Beaulieu, Kristin Franke & Klaus Fischer
Environmental factors exert strong effects on phenotypic expression. A particularly intriguing factor capable of inducing such plastic responses is the social environment experienced by a specific individual. Such social effects may alter the fitness of focal individuals if they affect the expression of reproductive traits and thus life-history strategies. To examine this question, we investigated the effects of individual density on morphology, reproduction, and behavior of male Bicyclus anynana butterflies. Increasing density significantly increased male...

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