69 Works

Contribution of genetic versus plastic responses to adaptive patterns in a widespread butterfly along a latitudinal cline

Franziska Günter, Michaël Beaulieu, Kasimir Freiberg, Ines Welzel, Nia Toshkova, Anamarija Žagar, Tatjana Simčič & Klaus Fischer
Understanding how organisms adapt to complex environments is a central goal of evolutionary biology and ecology. This issue is of special interest in the current era of rapidly changing climatic conditions. Here, we investigate clinal variation and plastic responses in life history, morphology, and physiology in the butterfly Pieris napi along a pan-European gradient by exposing butterflies raised in captivity to different temperatures. We found clinal variation in body size, growth rates and concomitant development...

Ecological impacts of photosynthetic light harvesting in changing aquatic environments: A systematic literature map

Nils Hendrik Hintz, Brian Schulze, Alexander Wacker & Maren Striebel
Underwater light is spatially as well as temporally variable and directly affects phytoplankton growth and competition. Here we systematically (following the guidelines of PRISMA-EcoEvo) searched and screened the published literature resulting in 640 individual articles. We mapped the conducted research for the objectives of (1) phytoplankton fundamental responses to light, (2) effects of light on the competition between phytoplankton species and (3) effects of climate change induced changes in the light availability in aquatic ecosystems....

Data from: How diverse is Mitopus morio? Integrative taxonomy detects cryptic species in a small-scale sample of a widespread harvestman

Wolfgang Arthofer, Hannes Rauch, Barbara Thaler-Knoflach, Karl Moder, Christoph Muster, Birgit C. Schlick-Steiner & Florian M. Steiner
Mitopus morio is a widespread harvestman species occurring in most of Europe and in moderate and cold-moderate zones of Asia and North America. The species is characterized by extreme variability in body size and leg length. As leg length is correlated with habitat temperature, M. morio has been considered as an example of Allen's rule. Recently, observations for a single location in Tyrol, Austria, indicated the absence of mating between short- and long-legged individuals. This...

Data from: The program STRUCTURE does not reliably recover the correct population structure when sampling is uneven: sub-sampling and new estimators alleviate the problem

Sébastien J. Puechmaille
Inferences of population structure and more precisely the identification of genetically homogeneous groups of individuals are essential to the fields of ecology, evolutionary biology, and conservation biology. Such population structure inferences are routinely investigated via the program STRUCTURE implementing a Bayesian algorithm to identify groups of individuals at Hardy-Weinberg and linkage equilibrium. While the method is performing relatively well under various population models with even sampling between subpopulations, the robustness of the method to uneven...

Data from: Calculating structural complexity in phylogenies using ancestral ontologies

Martín J. Ramírez & Peter Michalik
Complexity is an important aspect of evolutionary biology, but there are many reasonable concepts of complexity, and its objective measurement is an elusive matter. Here we develop a simple measure of complexity based on counts of elements, incorporating the hierarchical information as represented in anatomical ontologies. Neomorphic and transformational characters are used to identify novelties and individuated morphological regions, respectively. By linking the characters to terms in an anatomical ontology a node-driven approach is implemented,...

Long-term study shows that increasing body size in response to warmer summers is associated with a higher mortality risk in a long-lived bat species

Carolin Mundinger, Alexander Scheuerlein & Gerald Kerth
Change in body size is one of the universal responses to global warming, with most species becoming smaller. While small size in most species corresponds to low individual fitness, small species typically show high population growth rates in cross-species comparisons. It is unclear, there- fore, how climate-induced changes in body size ultimately affect population persistence. Unravelling the relationship between body size, ambient temperature and individual survival is especially important for the conservation of endangered long-lived...

Phylogenetic diversity rankings in the face of extinctions: The robustness of the fair proportion index

Mareike Fischer, Andrew Francis & Kristina Wicke
Planning for the protection of species often involves difficult choices about which species to prioritize, given constrained resources. One way of prioritizing species is to consider their "evolutionary distinctiveness'', i.e. their relative evolutionary isolation on a phylogenetic tree. Several evolutionary isolation metrics or phylogenetic diversity indices have been introduced in the literature, among them the so-called Fair Proportion index (also known as the "evolutionary distinctiveness" score). This index apportions the total diversity of a tree...

Data for: Growing faster, longer or both? Modelling plastic response of Juniperus communis growth phenology to climate change

Jan Tumajer, Allan Buras, Jesús Julio Camarero, Marco Carrer, Rohan Shetti, Martin Wilmking, Jan Altman, Gabriel Sangüesa-Barreda & Jiří Lehejček
Aim: Plant growth and phenology plastically respond to changing climatic conditions both in space and time. Species-specific levels of growth plasticity determine biogeographical patterns and the adaptive capacity of species to climate change. However, a direct assessment of spatial and temporal variability in radial-growth dynamics is complicated, as long records of cambial phenology do not exist. Location: 16 sites across European distribution margins of Juniperus communis L. (the Mediterranean, the Arctic, the Alps and the...

Population-specific responses of an insect herbivore to variation in host-plant quality

Josephine Kuczyk, Ange Raharivololoniaina & Klaus Fischer
Anthropogenic climate change poses a substantial challenge to many organisms, to which they need to respond to avoid fitness reductions. Investigating responses to environmental change is particularly interesting in herbivores, as they are potentially affected by indirect effects mediated via variation in host-plant quality. We here use the herbivorous insect Pieris napi to investigate geographic variation in the response to variation in food quality. We performed a common garden experiment using replicated populations from Germany...

Data from: Light availability impacts structure and function of phototrophic stream biofilms across domains and trophic levels

Mia M. Bengtsson, Karoline Wagner, Clarissa Schwab, Tim Urich & Tom J. Battin
Phototrophic biofilms are ubiquitous in freshwater and marine environments where they are critical for biogeochemical cycling, food webs and in industrial applications. In streams, phototrophic biofilms dominate benthic microbial life and harbor an immense prokaryotic and eukaryotic microbial biodiversity with biotic interactions across domains and trophic levels. Here, we examine how community structure and function of these biofilms respond to varying light availability, as the crucial energy source for phototrophic biofilms. Using metatranscriptomics, we found...

Data from: Effects of inbreeding and temperature stress on life history and immune function in a butterfly

Kristin Franke & Klaus Fischer
Theory predicts that inbreeding depression should be more pronounced under environmental stress due to an increase in the expression of recessive deleterious alleles. If so, inbred populations may be especially vulnerable to environmental change. Against this background we here investigate effects of inbreeding, temperature stress and its interactions with inbreeding in the tropical butterfly Bicyclus anynana. We use a full-factorial design with three levels of inbreeding (F = 0 / 0.25 / 0.38) and three...

Data from: A phylogeographical survey of a highly dispersive spider reveals eastern Asia as a major glacial refugium for Palaearctic fauna

Henrik Krehenwinkel, Maxene Graze, Dennis Roedder, Tanaka Kazuhiro, Yuki G. Baba, Christoph Muster, Gabriele Uhl & Kazuhiro Tanaka
Aim: The phylogeographical history of wide-ranging Palaearctic species is not well understood. Here, we present a range-wide phylogeographical study of the wasp spider, Argiope bruennichi (Scopoli, 1772), a highly dispersive and widely distributed Palaearctic species. We aim to identify glacial refugia and patterns of interglacial gene flow across the Palaearctic. Location: Palaearctic region, including the Azores, Madeira, Europe, North Africa and Asia. Methods: We conduct a range-wide phylogeographical survey. Our study is based on nuclear...

Data from: Diversity and palaeoecology of the enigmatic genus Knebelia (Eucrustacea, Decapoda, Eryonidae) from Upper Jurassic plattenkalks in southern Germany

Denis Audo, Günter Schweigert, Joachim T. Haug, Carolin Haug, Jean-Paul Saint Martin & Sylvain Charbonnier
For a long time, the genus Knebelia Van Straelen, 1922 has comprised two species of eryonid lobster, K. bilobata (Münster, 1839) and K. schuberti (Meyer, 1836), both recorded exclusively from Late Jurassic Lagerstätten in southern Germany. Recently, the latter has been suggested to represent a juvenile individual of Cycleryon propinquus (Schlotheim, 1822). A re-examination of the type and new material has led to our rejection of that interpretation and confirmation of assignment of this species...

Data from: Complex migration and breeding strategies in an elusive bird species illuminated by genetic and isotopic markers

Nina Seifert, Martin Haase, Steven L. Van Wilgenburg, Christian C. Voigt & Angela Schmitz Ornés
Unlike the annual bi-directional movements of over 200 bird species within the Palaearctic–Afrotropical region, irregular movements such as irruptive migration with a low degree of philopatry are reported for a variety of species depending on highly seasonal and unpredictable resources. These flexible movements allow for itinerant breeding – consecutive breeding attempts in two or more geographically different regions during the same annual reproductive cycle. In order to illuminate migratory and breeding strategies of the erratic...

Data from: Carried over: heat stress in the egg stage reduces subsequent performance in a butterfly

Michael Klockmann, Friederike Kleinschmidt & Klaus Fischer
Increasing heat stress caused by anthropogenic climate change may pose a substantial challenge to biodiversity due to associated detrimental effects on survival and reproduction. Therefore, heat tolerance has recently received substantial attention, but its variation throughout ontogeny and effects carried over from one developmental stage to another remained largely neglected. To explore to what extent stress experienced early in life affects later life stages, we here investigate effects of heat stress experienced in the egg...

Data from: Young male mating success is associated with sperm number but not with male sex pheromone titres

Tobias Kehl, Ian A. N. Dublon & Klaus Fischer
Background: Intraspecific communication is of crucial importance throughout the animal kingdom and may involve a combination of visual, gustatory, olfactory and acoustic cues. Variation in male sex pheromone amount and composition may convey important information to female conspecifics, for instance on species identity or age. However, whether increased male pheromone titres are associated with fitness benefits for the female, thus indicating a role as an honest signal, is under debate. Results: Against this background, we...

Data from: Adaptive phenotypic plasticity in a clonal invader

Gerlien Verhaegen, Kyle E. McElroy, Laura Bankers, Maurine Neiman & Martin Haase
Organisms featuring wide trait variability and occurring in a wide range of habitats, such as the ovoviviparous freshwater New Zealand snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum, are ideal models to study adaptation. Since the mid-19th century, P. antipodarum, characterized by extremely variable shell morphology, has successfully invaded aquatic areas on four continents. Because these obligately and wholy asexual invasive populations harbor low genetic diversity compared to mixed sexual/asexual populations in the native range, we hypothesized that 1) this...

Data from: Characterization of microsatellite loci and reliable genotyping in a polyploid plant, Mercurialis perennis (Euphorbiaceae)

Tanja Pfeiffer, Anna M. Roschanski, John R. Pannell, Grażyna Korbecka & Martin Schnittler
For many applications in population genetics, codominant simple sequence repeats (SSRs) may have substantial advantages over dominant anonymous markers such as AFLPs. In high polyploids, however, allele dosage of SSRs cannot easily be determined and alleles are not easily attributable to potentially diploidized loci. Here, we argue that SSRs may nonetheless be better than AFLPs for polyploid taxa if they are analyzed as effectively dominant markers, because they are more reliable and more precise. We...

Rewetting does not return drained fen peatlands to their old selves

Juergen Kreyling, Franziska Tanneberger, Florian Jansen, Sebastian Van Der Linden, Camiel Aggenbach, Volker Blüml, John Couwenberg, Willem-Jan Emsens, Hans Joosten, Agatha Klimkowska, Wiktor Kotowski, Lukasz Kozub, Bernd Lennartz, Yvonne Liczner, Haojie Liu, Dierk Michaelis, Claudia Oehmke, Karsten Parakenings, Elisabeth Pleyl, Arne Poyda, Stefanie Raabe, Markus Röhl, Kirsten Rücker, Anett Schneider, Joachim Schrautzer … & Gerald Jurasinski
Peatlands, in particular groundwater-fed fens of the temperate zone, have been drained for agriculture, forestry and peat extraction for a long time and on a large scale. Drainage turns peatlands from a carbon and nutrient sink into a respective source, diminishes water regulation capacity at the landscape scale, causes continuous surface height loss and destroys their typical biodiversity. Over the last decades, drained peatlands have been rewetted for biodiversity restoration and, as it strongly decreases...

Rewetting prolongs root growing season in minerotrophic peatlands and mitigates negative drought effects

Sarah Schwieger, Sarah Schwieger, Juergen Kreyling, Bo Peters, Alexander Gillert, Uwe Freiherr Von Lukas, Gerald Jurasinski, Daniel Köhn & Gesche Blume-Werry
Root phenology influences the timing of plant resource acquisition and carbon fluxes into the soil. This is particularly important in fen peatlands, in which peat is primarily formed by roots and rhizomes of vascular plants. However, most fens in Central Europe are drained for agriculture, leading to large carbon losses, and further threatened by increasing frequency and intensity of droughts. Rewetting fens aims to restore the original carbon sink, but how root phenology is affected...

Species-specific effects of thermal stress on the expression of genetic variation across a diverse group of plant and animal taxa under experimental conditions

Klaus Fischer, Jürgen Kreyling, Michaël Beaulieu, Ilka Beil, Manuela Bog, Dries Bonte, Stefanie Holm, Sabine Knoblauch, Dustin Koch, Lena Muffler, Pierick Mouginot, Maria Paulinich, J.F. Scheepens, Raijana Schiemann, Jonas Schmeddes, Martin Schnittler, Gabriele Uhl, Marieke Van Der Maaten-Theunissen, Julia M. Weier, Martin Wilmking, Robert Weigel & Phillip Gienapp
Assessing the genetic adaptive potential of populations and species is essential for better understanding evolutionary processes. However, the expression of genetic variation may depend on environmental conditions, which may speed up or slow down evolutionary responses. Thus, the same selection pressure may lead to different responses. Against this background, we here investigate the effects of thermal stress on genetic variation, mainly under controlled laboratory conditions. We estimated additive genetic variance (VA), narrow-sense heritability (h2), and...

Inter- and intraspecific differences in rotifer fatty acid composition during acclimation to low quality food

Svenja Schälicke, Silvia Heim, Dominik Martin-Creuzburg & Alexander Wacker
Biochemical food quality constraints affect the performance of consumers and mediate trait variation among and within consumer species. To assess inter- and intraspecific differences in fatty acid retention and conversion in freshwater rotifers, we provided four strains of two closely related rotifer species, Brachionus calyciflorus sensu stricto and Brachionus fernandoi, with food algae differing in their fatty acid composition. The rotifers grazed for five days on either Nannochloropsis limnetica or Monoraphidium minutum, two food algae...

2013 Simulated EnMAP Mosaics for the San Francisco Bay Area, USA - EnMAP Technical Report

Sam Cooper, Akpona Okujeni, Clemens Jänicke, Karl Segl, Sebastian van der Linden & Patrick Hostert
This dataset is composed of simulated EnMAP mosaics for the San Francisco Bay Area, USA. Hyperspectral imagery used for the EnMAP simulation was collected across three time periods (Spring, Summer, and Fall) in 2013 with the AVIRIS-Classic sensor flown as part of the HyspIRI Preparatory Campaign. Flight lines were simulated to EnMAP-like data using the EnMAP end-to end Simulation tool to produce 30 x 30 m imagery with 195 bands (after band removal) ranging from...

Data from: Glacial refugia, recolonisation patterns, and diversification forces in Alpine-endemic Megabunus harvestmen

Gregor A. Wachter, Anna Papadopoulou, Christoph Muster, Wolfgang Arthofer, L. Lacey Knowles, Florian M. Steiner & Birgit C. Schlick-Steiner
The Pleistocene climatic fluctuations had a huge impact on all life-forms, and various hypotheses regarding the survival of organisms during glacial periods have been postulated. In the European Alps, evidence has been found in support of refugia outside the ice shield (massifs de refuge) acting as sources for postglacial recolonisation of inner-Alpine areas. In contrast, evidence for survival on nunataks, ice-free areas above the glacier, remains scarce. Here, we combine multivariate genetic analyses with ecological...

Similarities of the Scotia and Caribbean Plates: Implications for a common plate tectonic history?!

Burmeister Christian , Paul Wintersteller & Martin Meschede
The active volcanic arcs of the Scotia- and Caribbean Plate are two prominent features along the otherwise passive margins of the Atlantic Ocean, where subduction of oceanic crust is verifiable. Both arcs have been important oceanic gateways during their formation. Trapped between the large continental plates of North- and South America, as well as Antarctica, the significantly smaller oceanic plates show striking similarities in size, shape, plate margins and morphology, although formed at different times...

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