69 Works

2013 Simulated EnMAP Mosaics for the Santa Barbara region, USA

Akpona Okujeni, Sam Cooper, Karl Segl, Sebastian van der Linden & Patrick Hostert
This dataset is composed of three-season simulated EnMAP mosaics for the Santa Barbara region, USA. HyspIRI Airborne Campaign AVIRIS imagery from spring, summer and fall formed the basis for simulating EnMAP data with 30 m spatial resolution and 195 spectral bands ranging from 420 to 2450 nm. The mosaics are provided as Analysis-Ready-Datasets (tiled surface reflectance products) to be used for regional-scale and multi-season hyperspectral image analysis of California’s diverse ecoregions. The dataset primarily intends...

Late to bed, late to rise—Warmer autumn temperatures delay spring phenology by delaying dormancy

Ilka Beil, Jürgen Kreyling, Claudia Meyer, Nele Lemcke, Andrey Malyshev & Andrey V. Malyshev
Spring phenology of temperate forest trees has advanced substantially over the last decades due to climate warming, but this advancement is slowing down despite continuous temperature rise. The decline in spring advancement is often attributed to winter warming, which could reduce chilling and thus delay dormancy release. However, mechanistic evidence of a phenological response to warmer winter temperatures is missing. We aimed to understand the contrasting effects of warming on plants leaf phenology and to...

A sterol-mediated gleaner-opportunist trade-off underlies the evolution of grazer resistance to cyanobacteria

Jana Isanta-Navarro, Toni Klauschies, Alexander Wacker & Dominik Martin-Creuzburg
The human-caused proliferation of cyanobacteria severely impacts consumers in freshwater ecosystems. Toxicity is often singled out as the sole trait to which consumers can adapt, even though cyanobacteria are not necessarily toxic and the lack of nutritionally critical sterols in cyanobacteria is known to impair consumers. We studied the relative significance of toxicity and dietary sterol deficiency in driving the evolution of grazer resistance to cyanobacteria in a large lake with a well-documented history of...

Beyond the landscape: resistance modelling infers physical and behavioural gene flow barriers to a mobile carnivore across a metropolitan area

Sophia Kimmig, Joscha Beninde, Myriam Brandt, Anna Schleimer, Stephanie Kramer-Schadt, Heribert Hofer, Konstantin Börner, Christoph Schulze, Ulrich Wittstatt, Mike Heddergott, Tania Halczok, Christoph Staubach & Alain Frantz
Urbanization affects key aspects of wildlife ecology. Dispersal in urban wildlife species may be impacted by geographical barriers but also by a species’ inherent behavioural variability. There are no functional connectivity analyses using continuous individual-based sampling across an urban-rural continuum that would allow a thorough assessment of the relative importance of physical and behavioural dispersal barriers. We used 16 microsatellite loci to genotype 374 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) from the city of Berlin and surrounding...

Contribution of genetic versus plastic responses to adaptive patterns in a widespread butterfly along a latitudinal cline

Franziska Günter, Michaël Beaulieu, Kasimir F. Freiberg, Ines Welzel, Nia Toshkova, Žagar, Tatjana Simčič & Klaus Fischer
Understanding how organisms adapt to complex environments is a central goal of evolutionary biology and ecology. This issue is of special interest in the current era of rapidly changing climatic conditions. Here, we investigate clinal variation and plastic responses in life history, morphology, and physiology in the butterfly Pieris napi along a pan-European gradient by exposing butterflies raised in captivity to different temperatures. We found clinal variation in body size, growth rates and concomitant development...

Individual differences in risk‐taking affect foraging across different landscapes of fear

Philip O. M. Steinhoff, Bennet Warfen, Sissy Voigt, Gabriele Uhl & Melanie Dammhahn
One of the strongest determinants of behavioural variation is the tradeoff between resource gain and safety. Although classical theory predicts optimal foraging under risk, empirical studies report large unexplained variation in behaviour. Intrinsic individual differences in risk-taking behaviour might contribute to this variation. By repeatedly exposing individuals of a small mesopredator to different experimental landscapes of risks and resources, we tested 1) whether individuals adjust their foraging behaviour according to predictions of the general tradeoff...

Data from: Variable molecular markers for the order Mantophasmatodea (Insecta)

Serena E. Dool, Sven Künzel, Martin Haase, Mike D. Picker, Monika J.B. Eberhard & Monika J B Eberhard
The recently discovered insect order Mantophasmatodea currently comprises 19 Southern African species. These mainly occur in allopatry, have high levels of colour polymorphism and communicate via species- and gender-specific vibratory signals. High levels of interspecific morphological conservatism mean that cryptic species are likely to be uncovered. These aspects of Mantophasmatodean biology make them an ideal group in which to investigate population divergence due to habitat-specific adaptation, sexual selection and potentially sensory speciation. Lack of appropriate...

Data from: Gene transfer from bacteria and archaea facilitated evolution of an extremophilic eukaryote

Gerald Schönknecht, Wei-Hua Chen, Chad M. Ternes, Guillaume G. Barbier, Roshan P. Shrestha, Mario Stanke, Andrea Bräutigam, Brett J. Baker, Jillian F. Banfield, R. Michael Garavito, Kevin Carr, Curtis Wilkerson, Stefan A. Rensing, David Gagneul, Nicholas E. Dickenson, Christine Oesterhelt, Martin J. Lercher & Andreas P. M. Weber
Some microbial eukaryotes, such as the extremophilic red alga Galdieria sulphuraria, can live in hot, toxic metal-rich, acidic environments. To elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms of adaptation, we sequenced the 13.7 Mb genome of G. sulphuraria. This alga shows an enormous metabolic flexibility, growing either photoautotrophically or heterotrophically on more than 50 carbon sources. Environmental adaptation seems to have been facilitated by horizontal gene transfer from various bacteria and archaea, often followed by gene family...

Data from: Comparative landscape genetic analyses show a Belgian motorway to be a gene flow barrier for red deer (Cervus elaphus), but not wild boars (Sus scrofa)

Alain C. Frantz, Sabine Bertouille, Marie-Christine Eloy, Alain Licoppe, Francois Chaumont & Marie-Christine Flamand
While motorways are often assumed to influence the movement behaviour of large mammals, there are surprisingly few studies that show an influence of these linear structures on the genetic make-up of wild ungulate populations. Here, we analyse the spatial genetic structure of red deer (Cervus elaphus) and wild boars (Sus scrofa) along a stretch of motorway in the Walloon part of Belgium. Altogether 876 red deer were genotyped at 13 microsatellite loci, and 325 wild...

Data from: Response to selection on cold tolerance is constrained by inbreeding

Anneke Dierks, Klaus Fischer & Birgit Baumann
The evolutionary potential of any given population is of fundamental importance for its longer-term prospects. Modern land-use practices often result in small and isolated populations, increasing extinction risk through reduced genetic diversity caused by inbreeding or drift. Concomitant genetic erosion may further interfere with a population’s evolutionary potential. In this study we investigate the consequences of inbreeding on evolutionary potential (the ability to increase cold resistance) in the tropical butterfly Bicyclus anynana. We applied artificial...

Data from: White matter lesions: spatial heterogeneity, links to risk factors, cognition, genetics, atrophy

Mohamad Habes, Sotiras Aristeidis, Erus Guray, Jon B. Toledo, Janowitz Deborah, Wolk David A., Shou Haochang, Bryan Nick R, Doshi Jimit, Völzke Henry, Schminke Ulf, Hoffmann Wolfgang, Resnick Susan M., Grabe Hans J. & Davatzikos Christos
Objectives: To investigate spatial heterogeneity of white matter lesions or hyperintensities (WMH). Methods: MRI scans of 1836 participants (median age 52.2±13.16) encompassing a wide age range (22–84 years) from the cross-sectional Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP, Germany) were included as discovery set identifying spatially distinct components of WMH using a structural covariance approach. Scans of 307 participants (median age 73.8±10.2, with 747 observations) from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA, USA) were included...

Data from: Ecological outsourcing: a pitcher plant benefits from transferring pre-digestion of prey to a bat mutualist

Caroline R. Schöner, Michael G. Schöner, T. Ulmar Grafe, Charles M. Clarke, Linda Dombrowski, Moi Chan Tan & Gerald Kerth
Mutualisms are interspecific interactions where each of the species involved gains net benefits from the other(s). The exchange of resources and/or services between mutualistic partners often involves tasks that species originally accomplished themselves but which have been taken over by or transferred to the more efficient partner during the evolution of the mutualism. Such ‘ecological outsourcing’ can be seen, for example, in several carnivorous plants that have transferred prey capture and digestion to animal partners....

Data from: Effects of temperature and drought on early life stages in three species of butterflies: mortality of early life stages as a key determinant of vulnerability to climate change?

Michael Klockmann & Klaus Fischer
Anthropogenic climate change poses substantial challenges to biodiversity conservation. Well-documented responses include phenological and range shifts, and declines in cold but increases in warm-adapted species. Thus, some species will suffer while others will benefit from ongoing change, although the biological features determining the prospects of a given species under climate change are largely unknown. By comparing three related butterfly species of different vulnerability to climate change, we show that stress tolerance during early development may...

Data from: Cityscape genetics: structural vs. functional connectivity of an urban lizard population

Joscha Beninde, Stephan Feldmeier, Maike Werner, Daniel Peroverde, Ulrich Schulte, Axel Hochkirch & Michael Veith
Functional connectivity is essential for the long-term persistence of populations. However, many studies assess connectivity with a focus on structural connectivity only. Cityscapes, namely urban landscapes, are particularly dynamic and include numerous potential anthropogenic barriers to animal movements, such as roads, traffic or buildings. To assess and compare structural connectivity of habitats and functional connectivity of gene flow of an urban lizard, we here combined species distribution models (SDMs) with an individual-based landscape genetic optimization...

Data from: Host and parasite life history interplay to yield divergent population genetic structures in two ectoparasites living on the same bat species

Jaap Van Schaik, Daan Dekeukeleire & Gerald Kerth
Host–parasite interactions are ubiquitous in nature. However, how parasite population genetic structure is shaped by the interaction between host and parasite life history remains understudied. Studies comparing multiple parasites infecting a single host can be used to investigate how different parasite life history traits interplay with host behaviour and life history. In this study, we used 10 newly developed microsatellite loci to investigate the genetic structure of a parasitic bat fly (Basilia nana). Its host,...

Data from: The genomes of two key bumblebee species with primitive eusocial organisation

Ben M. Sadd, Seth M. Barribeau, Guy Bloch, Dirk C. De Graaf, Peter Dearden, Christine Elsik, Jurgen Gadau, Cornelius Grimmelikhuijzen, Martin Hasselmann, Jeffrey Lozier, Hugh Robertson, Guy Smagghe, Eckart Stolle, Matthias Van Vaerenbergh, Robert Waterhouse, Erich Bornberg-Bauer, Steffan Klasberg, Anna Bennett, Francisco Camara, Roderic Guigo, Katharina Hoff, Marco Mariotti, Monica Munos-Torres, Terence Murphy, Didac Santesmasses … & Kim C. Worley
Background: The shift from solitary to social behavior is one of the major evolutionary transitions. Primitively eusocial bumblebees are uniquely placed to illuminate the evolution of highly eusocial insect societies. Bumblebees are also invaluable natural and agricultural pollinators, and there is widespread concern over recent population declines in some species. High-quality genomic data will inform key aspects of bumblebee biology, including susceptibility to implicated population viability threats. Results: We report the high quality draft genome...

How nitrogen and phosphorus supply to nutrient-limited autotroph communities affects herbivore growth: testing stoichiometric and co-limitation theory across trophic levels

Andrea Redoglio, Kassandra Radtke & Sperfeld Erik
Primary producer communities are often growth-limited by essential nutrients such as nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P). The magnitude of limitation and whether N, P, or both elements are limiting autotroph growth depends on the supply and ratios of these essential nutrients. Previous studies identified single, serial or co-limitation as predominant limitation outcomes in autotroph communities by factorial nutrient additions. Little is known about potential consequences of such scenarios for herbivores and whether their growth is...

Data from: Characterization of microsatellite loci and reliable genotyping in a polyploid plant, Mercurialis perennis (Euphorbiaceae)

Tanja Pfeiffer, Anna M. Roschanski, John R. Pannell, Grażyna Korbecka & Martin Schnittler
For many applications in population genetics, codominant simple sequence repeats (SSRs) may have substantial advantages over dominant anonymous markers such as AFLPs. In high polyploids, however, allele dosage of SSRs cannot easily be determined and alleles are not easily attributable to potentially diploidized loci. Here, we argue that SSRs may nonetheless be better than AFLPs for polyploid taxa if they are analyzed as effectively dominant markers, because they are more reliable and more precise. We...

Data from: Causes and consequences of living in closed societies: lessons from a long-term socio-genetic study on Bechstein's bats

Gerald Kerth & Jaap Van Schaik
Understanding the ecological, behavioural and genetic factors influencing animal social systems is crucial to investigating the evolution of sociality. Despite the recent advances in population genetic methods and the analysis of social interactions, long-term studies exploring the causes and consequences of social systems in wild mammals are rare. Here, we provide a synthesis of 15 years of data on the Bechstein’s bat (Myotis bechsteinii), a species that raises its young in closed societies of 10-45...

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