424 Works

Facebook: Regulating Hate Speech in the Asia Pacific

Aim Sinpeng, Fiona Martin, Katharine Gelber & Kirril Shields

Fire Safety Engineering: Professional Development Report 6 of 8

David Lange, Peter Johnson, Jose Torero, Juan P Hidalgo, Cristian Maluk & Felix Wiesner
The Professional Development Report addresses the resource and skill constraints hindering the full professionalisation of fire safety engineering, in order to one day achieve a sustainable provision of fire safety engineering professionals.

Effect of Physical Activity Intelligence (PAI) monitoring in the maintenance phase of cardiac rehabilitation: A mixed methods evaluation

Amanda Hannan, Wayne Hing, Jeff Coombes, Suzanne Gough, Mike Climstein, Geoff Adsett, Satyajit Rohan Jayasinghe & James Furness
Dataset of the results of PAI monitoring on the amount and/or intensity of physical activity for people with cardiac disease and participants’ perceptions of this approach.

Dataset for: The Effect of Haematocrit on Measurement of the Mid-Infrared Refractive Index of Plasma in Whole Blood

David Rowe, Daniel Owens, Suzanne Parker, Saul Faust, James Wilkinson & Goran Mashanovich
Dataset DOI: https://doi.org/10.5258/SOTON/D1621 Article DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/bios11110417 This data is used in the article 'The effect of haematocrit on the mid-infrared refractive index of blood plasma,' published by Biosensors. The data contained in data.xlsx are those used to plot the figures in the article. Measurement data were collected by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy at the University of Southampton during December 2019. Full methodological details can be found in the article. The XY data for each figure are contained...

Data from: New SNPs for population genetic analysis reveal possible cryptic speciation of eastern Australian sea mullet (Mugil cephalus)

Nils C. Krück, David I. Innes & Jennifer R. Ovenden
Sustainable management of sea mullet (Mugil cephalus) fisheries needs to account for recent observations of regional-scale differentiation. Population genetic analysis is sought to assess the situation of this ecologically and economically important fish species in eastern Australian waters. Here, we report (i) new population genetic markers [single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and potential microsatellites], (ii) first estimates of spatial genetic differentiation and (iii) prospective power tests for designing more comprehensive studies. Six DNA samples from three...

Data from: Viral tagging reveals discrete populations in Synechococcus viral genome sequence space

Li Deng, J. Cesar Ignacio-Espinoza, Ann C. Gregory, Bonnie T. Poulos, Joshua S. Weitz, Philip Hugenholtz & Matthew B. Sullivan
Microbes and their viruses drive myriad processes across ecosystems ranging from oceans and soils to bioreactors and humans. Despite this importance, microbial diversity is only now being mapped at scales relevant to nature, while the viral diversity associated with any particular host remains little researched. Here we quantify host-associated viral diversity using viral-tagged metagenomics, which links viruses to specific host cells for high-throughput screening and sequencing. In a single experiment, we screened 107 Pacific Ocean...

Data from: Introgression and the fate of domesticated genes in a wild mammal population

Philine G. D. Feulner, Jacob Gratten, James W. Kijas, Peter M. Visscher, Josephine M. Pemberton, Jon Slate & Jon. Slate
When domesticated species are not reproductively isolated from their wild relatives, the opportunity arises for artificially selected variants to be re-introduced into the wild. However, the evolutionary consequences of introgression of domesticated genes back into the wild are poorly understood. By combining high-throughput genotyping with 25 years of long-term ecological field data, we describe the occurrence and consequences of admixture between a primitive sheep breed, the free-living Soay sheep of St Kilda, and more modern...

Data from: Transcriptome dynamics over a lunar month in a broadcast spawning Acroporid coral

Matthew J. Oldach, Matthew Workentine, Mikhail V. Matz, Tung-Yung Fan & Peter D. Vize
On one night per year, at a specific point in the lunar cycle, one of the most extraordinary reproductive events on the planet unfolds as hundreds of millions of broadcast spawning corals release their trillions of gametes into the waters of the tropical seas. Each species spawns on a specific night within the lunar cycle, typically from full moon to third quarter moon, and in a specific time window after sunset. This accuracy is essential...

Data from: Genomic clustering of adaptive loci during parallel evolution of an Australian wildflower

Federico Roda, Greg M. Walter, Rick Nipper & Daniel Ortiz-Barrientos
The buildup of the phenotypic differences that distinguish species has long intrigued biologists. These differences are often inherited as stable polymorphisms that allow the co-segregation of adaptive variation within species, and facilitate the differentiation of complex phenotypes between species. It has been suggested that the clustering of adaptive loci could facilitate this process but evidence is still scarce. Here we used QTL analysis to study the genetic basis of phenotypic differentiation between coastal populations of...

Data from: Regional climate and local-scale biotic acceptance explain native-exotic diversity relationships in Australian annual plant communities

Isaac R. Towers, John M. Dwyer, John. M. Dwyer & Isaac. R. Towers
Native and exotic species richness is expected to be negatively related at small spatial scales where individuals interact, and positive at larger spatial scales as a greater variety of habitats are sampled. However, a range of native-exotic richness relationships (NERRs) have been reported, including positive at small scales and negative at larger scales. We present a hierarchical metacommunity framework to explain how contrasting NERRs may emerge across scales and study systems, and then apply this...

Data from: An Ishihara-style test of animal colour vision

Karen L. Cheney, Naomi.F. Green, Alexander P. Vibert, Misha Vorobyev, Justin Marshall, Daniel C. Osorio & John A. Endler
Colour vision mediates ecologically relevant tasks for many animals, such as mate choice, foraging and predator avoidance. However, our understanding of animal colour perception is largely derived from human psychophysics, even though animal visual systems differ from our own. Behavioural tests of non-human animals are required to understand how colour signals are perceived by them. Here we introduce a novel test of colour vision in animals inspired by the Ishihara colour charts, which are widely...

Data from: Performance trade-offs and ageing in the ‘world's greatest athletes’

Vincent Careau & Robbie S. Wilson
The mechanistic foundations of performance trade-offs are clear: because body size and shape constrains movement, and muscles vary in strength and fibre type, certain physical traits should act in opposition with others (e.g. sprint versus endurance). Yet performance trade-offs are rarely detected, and traits are often positively correlated. A potential resolution to this conundrum is that within-individual performance trade-offs can be masked by among-individual variation in ‘quality’. Although there is a current debate on how...

Data from: Hybridization and adaptation to introduced balloon vines in an Australian soapberry bug

Jose A. Andrés, Prasobh R. Thampy, Michael T. Mathieson, Jenella Loye, Myron P. Zalucki, Hugh Dingle & Scott P. Carroll
Contemporary adaptation of plant feeding insects to introduced hosts provides clear cases of ecologically based population divergence. In most cases the mechanisms permitting rapid differentiation are not well known. Here we study morphological and genetic variation associated with recent shifts by the Australian soapberry bug Leptocoris tagalicus onto two naturalized Neotropical balloon vines, Cardiospermum halicacabum and C. grandiflorum that differ in time since introduction. Our results show that these vines have much larger fruits than...

Data from: Coalescent and biophysical models of stepping-stone gene flow in Neritid snails

Eric D. Crandall, Eric A. Treml & Paul H. Barber
Marine species in the Indo-Pacific have ranges that can span thousands of kilometers, yet studies increasingly suggest that mean larval dispersal distances are less than historically assumed. Gene flow across these ranges must therefore rely to some extent on larval dispersal among intermediate “stepping-stone” populations in combination with long-distance dispersal far beyond the mean of the dispersal kernel. We evaluate the strength of stepping-stone dynamics by employing a spatially explicit biophysical model of larval dispersal...

Data from: Characterising the ecological trade-offs throughout the early ontogeny of coral recruitment

Christopher Doropoulos, George Roff, Yves-Marie Bozec, Mirta Zupan, Johanna Werminghausen & Peter J. Mumby
Drivers of recruitment in sessile marine organisms are often poorly understood, due to the rapidly changing requirements experienced during early ontogeny. The complex suite of physical, biological, and ecological interactions beginning at larval settlement involves a series of trade-offs that influence recruitment success. For example, while cryptic settlement within complex microhabitats is a commonly observed phenomenon in sessile marine organisms, it is unclear whether trade-offs between competition in cryptic refuges and predation on exposed surfaces...

Data from: Integrating phylogenetic and ecological distances reveals new insights into parasite host specificity

Nicholas J. Clark & Sonya M. Clegg
The range of hosts a pathogen infects (host specificity) is a key element of disease risk that may be influenced by both shared phylogenetic history and shared ecological attributes of prospective hosts. Phylospecificity indices quantify host specificity in terms of host relatedness, but can fail to capture ecological attributes that increase susceptibility. For instance, similarity in habitat niche may expose phylogenetically unrelated host species to similar pathogen assemblages. Using a recently proposed method that integrates...

Data from: Tree mortality across biomes is promoted by drought intensity, lower wood density and higher specific leaf area

Sarah Greenwood, Paloma Ruiz-Benito, Jordi Martínez-Vilalta, Francisco Lloret, Thomas Kitzberger, Craig D. Allen, Rod Fensham, Daniel C. Laughlin, Jens Kattge, Gerhard Bonisch, Nathan J. B. Kraft & Alistair S. Jump
Drought events are increasing globally, and reports of consequent forest mortality are widespread. However, due to a lack of a quantitative global synthesis, it is still not clear whether drought-induced mortality rates differ among global biomes and whether functional traits influence the risk of drought-induced mortality. To address these uncertainties, we performed a global meta-analysis of 58 studies of drought-induced forest mortality. Mortality rates were modelled as a function of drought, temperature, biomes, phylogenetic and...

Data from: Social genetic and social environment effects on parental and helper care in a cooperatively breeding bird

Mark James Adams, Matthew R. Robinson, Maria-Elena Mannarelli, Ben Hatchwell & Ben J. Hatchwell
Phenotypes expressed in a social context are not only a function of the individual, but can also be shaped by the phenotypes of social partners. These social effects may play a major role in the evolution of cooperative breeding if social partners differ in the quality of care they provide and if individual carers adjust their effort in relation to that of other carers. When applying social effects models to wild study systems, it is...

Data from: Repeatability of locomotor performance and of morphology - locomotor performance relationships

Cara Conradsen, Jeffrey A Walker, Catherine Perna & Katrina McGuigan
There is good evidence that natural selection drives the evolution of locomotor performance, but the processes that generate among individual variation in locomotion, the substrate upon which selection acts, are relatively poorly understood. We measured prolonged swimming performance, Ucrit, and morphology in a large cohort (n=461) of wildtype zebrafish, Danio rerio, at ∼6 months and again at ∼9 months. Using mixed model analyses to estimate repeatability as the intraclass correlation coefficient, we determined that Ucrit...

Data from: Ecological pest control fortifies agricultural growth in Asia-Pacific economies

Kris Wyckhuys
The Green Revolution is credited with alleviating famine, mitigating poverty and driving aggregate economic growth since the 1960s. In Asia, high-input technology packages secured a tripling of rice output, with germplasm improvements providing benefits beyond US$ 4.3 billion/year. Here, we unveil the magnitude and macro-economic relevance of parallel nature-based contributions to productivity growth in non-rice crops over 1918-2018 (covering 23 different Asia-Pacific geopolitical entities). We empirically demonstrate how biological control resolved invasive pest threats in...

Skull shape of a widely-distributed, endangered marsupial reveals little evidence of local adaptation between fragmented populations

Pietro Viacava, Vera Weisbecker, Simone P. Blomberg, Gabriele Sansalone, Thomas Guillerme, Skye F. Cameron, Robbie S. Wilson & Matthew J. Phillips
The biogeographical distribution of diversity among populations of threatened mammalian species is generally investigated using population genetics. However, intraspecific phenotypic diversity is rarely assessed beyond taxonomy-focused linear measurements or qualitative descriptions. Here, we use a technique widely used in the evolutionary sciences – geometric morphometrics – to characterize shape diversity in the skull of an endangered marsupial, the northern quoll, across its 5,000 km distribution range along Northern Australia. Skull shape is a proxy for...

Data from: A cross-cultural investigation of young children’s spontaneous invention of tool use behaviors

Karri Neldner, Eva Reindl, Claudio Tennie, Julie Grant, Keyan Tomaselli & Mark Nielsen
Through the mechanisms of observation, imitation and teaching, young children readily pick up the tool using behaviors of their culture. However, little is known about the baseline abilities of children’s tool use: what they might be capable of inventing on their own in the absence of socially provided information. It has been shown that children can spontaneously invent 11 of 12 candidate tool using behaviors observed within the foraging behaviors of wild non-human apes (Reindl,...

Data from: Primate hippocampus size and organization are predicted by sociality but not diet

Orlin Todorov, Vera Weisbecker, Emmanuel Gilissen, Karl Zilles & Alexandra Allison De Sousa
The hippocampus is well known for its roles in spatial navigation and memory, but it is organized into regions that have different connections and functional specializations. Notably, the region CA2 has a role in social cognition, and not spatial cognition as is the case for the regions CA1 and CA3 that surround it. Here we investigated the evolution of the hippocampus in terms of its size and its organization into regions in relation to the...

Global human influence maps reveal clear opportunities in conserving Earth’s remaining intact terrestrial ecosystems

Jason Riggio, Jonathan E. M. Baillie, Steven Brumby, Erle Ellis, Christina M. Kennedy, James R. Oakleaf, Alex Tait, Therese Tepe, David M. Theobald, Oscar Venter, James E.M. Watson & Andrew P. Jacobson
Leading up to the 2020 Convention on Biological Diversity there is momentum around setting bold conservation targets. Yet it remains unclear how much of Earth’s land area remains without significant human influence and where this land is located. We compare four recent global maps of human influences across Earth’s land, Anthromes, Global Human Modification, Human Footprint, and Low Impact Areas, to answer these questions. Despite using various methodologies and data, these different spatial assessments independently...

Cardioespiratory physiological perturbations after acute smoke-induced lung injury and during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support in sheep

Saul Chemonges
Background: Numerous successful therapies developed for human medicine involve animal experimentation. Animal studies that are focused solely on translational potential, may not sufficiently document unexpected outcomes. Considerable amounts of data from such studies could be used to advance veterinary science. For example, sheep are increasingly being used as models of intensive care and therefore, data arising from such models must be published. In this study, the hypothesis is that there is little information describing physiological...

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