1,027 Works

Data from: Characterising the ecological trade-offs throughout the early ontogeny of coral recruitment

Christopher Doropoulos, George Roff, Yves-Marie Bozec, Mirta Zupan, Johanna Werminghausen & Peter J. Mumby
Drivers of recruitment in sessile marine organisms are often poorly understood, due to the rapidly changing requirements experienced during early ontogeny. The complex suite of physical, biological, and ecological interactions beginning at larval settlement involves a series of trade-offs that influence recruitment success. For example, while cryptic settlement within complex microhabitats is a commonly observed phenomenon in sessile marine organisms, it is unclear whether trade-offs between competition in cryptic refuges and predation on exposed surfaces...

Data from: Curvilinear telomere length dynamics in a squamate reptile

Beata Ujvari, Peter A. Biro, Jordan E. Charters, Gregory Brown, Kim Heasman, Christa Beckman, Thomas Madsen & Christa Beckmann
The lack of consensus concerning the impact of telomere length (TL) dynamics on survival emphasizes the need for additional studies to evaluate the effect of TL on key life-history processes. Using both cross-sectional and longitudinal data, we therefore explored age-specific TL dynamics in a squamate reptile: the frillneck lizard (Chlamydosaurus kingii). Our cross-sectional analyses revealed that young lizards had short TL, TL increased in medium-aged lizards, but TL decreased in older age cohorts, revealing a...

Data from: Accounting for uncertainty in dormant life stages in stochastic demographic models

Maria Paniw, Pedro F. Quintana-Ascencio, Fernando Ojeda & Roberto Salguero-Gómez
Dormant life stages are often critical for population viability in stochastic environments, but accurate field data characterizing them are difficult to collect. Such limitations may translate into uncertainties in demographic parameters describing these stages, which then may propagate errors in the examination of population-level responses to environmental variation. Expanding on current methods, we 1) apply data-driven approaches to estimate parameter uncertainty in vital rates of dormant life stages and 2) test whether such estimates provide...

Data from: Repeatability of locomotor performance and of morphology - locomotor performance relationships

Cara Conradsen, Jeffrey A Walker, Catherine Perna & Katrina McGuigan
There is good evidence that natural selection drives the evolution of locomotor performance, but the processes that generate among individual variation in locomotion, the substrate upon which selection acts, are relatively poorly understood. We measured prolonged swimming performance, Ucrit, and morphology in a large cohort (n=461) of wildtype zebrafish, Danio rerio, at ∼6 months and again at ∼9 months. Using mixed model analyses to estimate repeatability as the intraclass correlation coefficient, we determined that Ucrit...

Data from: Filters of floristic exchange: how traits and climate shape the rainforest invasion of Sahul from Sunda

Jia-Yee S. Yap, Maurizio Rossetto, Craig Costion, Darren Crayn, Robert M. Kooyman, James Richardson & Robert Henry
Aim To evaluate how biogeographic and ecological processes influenced species distributions and community assembly in a continental rainforest flora with mixed biogeographic origins. Location Continental Australia. Methods We identified 795 species with Sahul ancestry (Australian rainforest flora of Gondwanan origin) and 604 species with Sunda ancestry (rainforest plant lineages of Indo-Malesian origin) from a total of 1872 free-standing Australian woody rainforest taxa. We then compared the distribution of Sunda to Sahul species in relation to...

Data from: Triggerfish uses chromaticity and lightness for object segregation

Karen L. Cheney, N. Justin Marshall, Fabio Cortesi, Laurie Mitchell & Misha Vorobyev
Humans group components of visual patterns according to their colour, and perceive colours separately from shape. This property of human visual perception is the basis behind the Ishihara test for colour deficiency, where an observer is asked to detect a pattern made up of dots of similar colour with variable lightness against a background of dots made from different colour(s) and lightness. To find out if fish use colour for object segregation in a similar...

Data from: Transcriptome dynamics over a lunar month in a broadcast spawning Acroporid coral

Matthew J. Oldach, Matthew Workentine, Mikhail V. Matz, Tung-Yung Fan & Peter D. Vize
On one night per year, at a specific point in the lunar cycle, one of the most extraordinary reproductive events on the planet unfolds as hundreds of millions of broadcast spawning corals release their trillions of gametes into the waters of the tropical seas. Each species spawns on a specific night within the lunar cycle, typically from full moon to third quarter moon, and in a specific time window after sunset. This accuracy is essential...

Data from: Progression of phosphine resistance in susceptible Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) populations under different immigration regimes and selection pressures

Michelle A. Rafter, Graham A. McCulloch, Greg J. Daglish, Gimme H. Walter & Gregory J. Daglish
Insecticide resistance is an escalating global issue for a wide variety of agriculturally important pests. The genetic basis and biochemical mechanisms of resistance are well characterised in some systems, but little is known about the ecological aspects of insecticide resistance. We therefore designed a laboratory experiment to quantify the progression of phosphine resistance in Tribolium castaneum populations subject to different immigration regimes and selection pressures. Mated resistant females were added to originally susceptible populations under...

Data from: Integrating phylogenetic and ecological distances reveals new insights into parasite host specificity

Nicholas J. Clark & Sonya M. Clegg
The range of hosts a pathogen infects (host specificity) is a key element of disease risk that may be influenced by both shared phylogenetic history and shared ecological attributes of prospective hosts. Phylospecificity indices quantify host specificity in terms of host relatedness, but can fail to capture ecological attributes that increase susceptibility. For instance, similarity in habitat niche may expose phylogenetically unrelated host species to similar pathogen assemblages. Using a recently proposed method that integrates...

Data from: Performance trade-offs and ageing in the ‘world's greatest athletes’

Vincent Careau & Robbie S. Wilson
The mechanistic foundations of performance trade-offs are clear: because body size and shape constrains movement, and muscles vary in strength and fibre type, certain physical traits should act in opposition with others (e.g. sprint versus endurance). Yet performance trade-offs are rarely detected, and traits are often positively correlated. A potential resolution to this conundrum is that within-individual performance trade-offs can be masked by among-individual variation in ‘quality’. Although there is a current debate on how...

Data from: Temporally inter-comparable maps of terrestrial wilderness and the Last of the Wild

James Allan, Oscar Venter & James E. M. Watson
Wilderness areas, defined as areas free of industrial scale activities and other human pressures which result in significant biophysical disturbance, are important for biodiversity conservation and sustaining the key ecological processes underpinning planetary life-support systems. Despite their importance, wilderness areas are being rapidly eroded in extent and fragmented. Here we present the most up-to-date temporally inter-comparable maps of global terrestrial wilderness areas, which are essential for monitoring changes in their extent, and for proactively planning...

Data from: Genomic clustering of adaptive loci during parallel evolution of an Australian wildflower

Federico Roda, Greg M. Walter, Rick Nipper & Daniel Ortiz-Barrientos
The buildup of the phenotypic differences that distinguish species has long intrigued biologists. These differences are often inherited as stable polymorphisms that allow the co-segregation of adaptive variation within species, and facilitate the differentiation of complex phenotypes between species. It has been suggested that the clustering of adaptive loci could facilitate this process but evidence is still scarce. Here we used QTL analysis to study the genetic basis of phenotypic differentiation between coastal populations of...

Data from: Tree mortality across biomes is promoted by drought intensity, lower wood density and higher specific leaf area

Sarah Greenwood, Paloma Ruiz-Benito, Jordi Martínez-Vilalta, Francisco Lloret, Thomas Kitzberger, Craig D. Allen, Rod Fensham, Daniel C. Laughlin, Jens Kattge, Gerhard Bonisch, Nathan J. B. Kraft & Alistair S. Jump
Drought events are increasing globally, and reports of consequent forest mortality are widespread. However, due to a lack of a quantitative global synthesis, it is still not clear whether drought-induced mortality rates differ among global biomes and whether functional traits influence the risk of drought-induced mortality. To address these uncertainties, we performed a global meta-analysis of 58 studies of drought-induced forest mortality. Mortality rates were modelled as a function of drought, temperature, biomes, phylogenetic and...

Data from: Adaptation to reef habitats through selection on the coral animal and its associated microbiome

Madeleine J.H. Van Oppen, Pim Bongaerts, Pedro Frade, Lesa M. Peplow, Sarah E. Boyd, Hieu T. Nim, Line K. Bay & Madeleine J. H. Van Oppen
Spatially adjacent habitats on coral reefs can represent highly distinct environments, often harbouring different coral communities. Yet, certain coral species thrive across divergent environments. It is unknown whether the forces of selection are sufficiently strong to overcome the counteracting effects of the typically high gene flow over short distances, and for local adaptation to occur. We screened the coral genome (using restriction-site-associated sequencing [RAD-seq]), and characterized both the dinoflagellate photosymbiont and tissue-associated prokaryote microbiomes (using...

Data from: New small-bodied ornithopods (Dinosauria, Neornithischia) from the Early Cretaceous Wonthaggi Formation (Strzelecki Group) of the Australian-Antarctic rift system, with revision of Qantassaurus intrepidus Rich and Vickers-Rich, 1999

Matthew C. Herne, Jay P. Nair, Alistair R. Evans & Alan M. Tait
The Flat Rocks locality in the Wonthaggi Formation (Strzelecki Group) of the Gippsland Basin, southeastern Australia, hosts fossils of a late Barremian vertebrate fauna that inhabited the ancient rift between Australia and Antarctica. Known from its dentary, Qantassaurus intrepidus Rich and Vickers-Rich, 1999 has been the only dinosaur named from this locality. However, the plethora of vertebrate fossils collected from Flat Rocks suggests that further dinosaurs await discovery. From this locality, we name a new...

Data from: High species richness and lineage diversity of reef corals in the mesophotic zone

Paul R. Muir, Carden C. Wallace, Michel Pichon & Pim Bongaerts
Coral reefs are increasingly threatened by thermal bleaching and tropical storm events associated with rising sea surface temperatures. Deeper habitats offer some protection from these impacts and may safeguard reef-coral biodiversity, but their faunas are largely undescribed for the Indo-Pacific. Here, we show high species richness of scleractinian corals in mesophotic habitats (30-125 m) for the northern Great Barrier Reef region that greatly exceeds previous records for mesophotic habitats globally. Overall, 45% of shallow reef...

Data from: An Ishihara-style test of animal colour vision

Karen L. Cheney, Naomi.F. Green, Alexander P. Vibert, Misha Vorobyev, Justin Marshall, Daniel C. Osorio & John A. Endler
Colour vision mediates ecologically relevant tasks for many animals, such as mate choice, foraging and predator avoidance. However, our understanding of animal colour perception is largely derived from human psychophysics, even though animal visual systems differ from our own. Behavioural tests of non-human animals are required to understand how colour signals are perceived by them. Here we introduce a novel test of colour vision in animals inspired by the Ishihara colour charts, which are widely...

Data from: Warming impacts on early life stages increase the vulnerability and delay the population recovery of a long-lived habitat-forming macroalga

Pol Capdevila, Bernat Hereu, Roberto Salguero-Gómez, Graciel·La Rovira, Alba Medrano, Emma Cebrian, Joaquim Garrabou, Diego K. Kersting & Cristina Linares
1. Understanding the combined effects of global and local stressors is crucial for conservation and management, yet challenging due to the different scales at which these stressors operate. Here we examine the effects of one of the most pervasive threats to marine biodiversity, ocean warming, on the early life stages of the habitat-forming macroalga Cystoseira zosteroides, its long-term consequences for population resilience and its combined effect with physical stressors. 2. First, we performed a controlled...

Data from: Regional climate and local-scale biotic acceptance explain native-exotic diversity relationships in Australian annual plant communities

Isaac R. Towers, John M. Dwyer, John. M. Dwyer & Isaac. R. Towers
Native and exotic species richness is expected to be negatively related at small spatial scales where individuals interact, and positive at larger spatial scales as a greater variety of habitats are sampled. However, a range of native-exotic richness relationships (NERRs) have been reported, including positive at small scales and negative at larger scales. We present a hierarchical metacommunity framework to explain how contrasting NERRs may emerge across scales and study systems, and then apply this...

Data from: Pluripotency and the origin of animal multicellularity

Shunsuke Sogabe, William L. Hatleberg, Kevin M. Kocot, Tasha E. Say, Daniel Stoupin, Kathrein E. Roper, Selene L. Fernandez-Valverde, Sandie M. Degnan & Bernard M. Degnan
\A widely held—but rarely tested—hypothesis for the origin of animals is that they evolved from a unicellular ancestor, with an apical cilium surrounded by a microvillar collar, that structurally resembled modern sponge choanocytes and choanoflagellates. Here we test this view of animal origins by comparing the transcriptomes, fates and behaviours of the three primary sponge cell types—choanocytes, pluripotent mesenchymal archaeocytes and epithelial pinacocytes—with choanoflagellates and other unicellular holozoans. Unexpectedly, we find that the transcriptome of...

Data from: Primate hippocampus size and organization are predicted by sociality but not diet

Orlin Todorov, Vera Weisbecker, Emmanuel Gilissen, Karl Zilles & Alexandra Allison De Sousa
The hippocampus is well known for its roles in spatial navigation and memory, but it is organized into regions that have different connections and functional specializations. Notably, the region CA2 has a role in social cognition, and not spatial cognition as is the case for the regions CA1 and CA3 that surround it. Here we investigated the evolution of the hippocampus in terms of its size and its organization into regions in relation to the...

Data from: A cross-cultural investigation of young children’s spontaneous invention of tool use behaviors

Karri Neldner, Eva Reindl, Claudio Tennie, Julie Grant, Keyan Tomaselli & Mark Nielsen
Through the mechanisms of observation, imitation and teaching, young children readily pick up the tool using behaviors of their culture. However, little is known about the baseline abilities of children’s tool use: what they might be capable of inventing on their own in the absence of socially provided information. It has been shown that children can spontaneously invent 11 of 12 candidate tool using behaviors observed within the foraging behaviors of wild non-human apes (Reindl,...

Rubble Biodiversity Samplers (RUBS): 3D-printed coral models to standardise biodiversity censuses

Kennedy Wolfe & Peter Mumby
1. To ensure standardised, quantitative and repeatable methodologies, marine ecologists have engineered a range of artificial units to survey benthic communities with varying designs depending on target taxa, life history stage and habitat. In tropical ecosystems, autonomous units have typically lacked microhabitat complexity (e.g. planar tiles), short-term efficacy (> 1 y deployment) and/or a truly standardised design to sample cryptobenthic diversity. 2. Coral rubble is characterised by high microhabitat complexity, which is unresolved in sampling...

Skull shape of a widely-distributed, endangered marsupial reveals little evidence of local adaptation between fragmented populations

Pietro Viacava, Vera Weisbecker, Simone P. Blomberg, Gabriele Sansalone, Thomas Guillerme, Skye F. Cameron, Robbie S. Wilson & Matthew J. Phillips
The biogeographical distribution of diversity among populations of threatened mammalian species is generally investigated using population genetics. However, intraspecific phenotypic diversity is rarely assessed beyond taxonomy-focused linear measurements or qualitative descriptions. Here, we use a technique widely used in the evolutionary sciences – geometric morphometrics – to characterize shape diversity in the skull of an endangered marsupial, the northern quoll, across its 5,000 km distribution range along Northern Australia. Skull shape is a proxy for...

Global human influence maps reveal clear opportunities in conserving Earth’s remaining intact terrestrial ecosystems

Jason Riggio, Jonathan E. M. Baillie, Steven Brumby, Erle Ellis, Christina M. Kennedy, James R. Oakleaf, Alex Tait, Therese Tepe, David M. Theobald, Oscar Venter, James E.M. Watson & Andrew P. Jacobson
Leading up to the 2020 Convention on Biological Diversity there is momentum around setting bold conservation targets. Yet it remains unclear how much of Earth’s land area remains without significant human influence and where this land is located. We compare four recent global maps of human influences across Earth’s land, Anthromes, Global Human Modification, Human Footprint, and Low Impact Areas, to answer these questions. Despite using various methodologies and data, these different spatial assessments independently...

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