1,059 Works

Data from: Prediction error and repetition suppression have distinct effects on neural representations of visual information

Matthew F. Tang, Cooper A. Smout, Ehsan Arabzadeh & Jason B. Mattingley
Predictive coding theories argue that recent experience establishes expectations in the brain that generate prediction errors when violated. Prediction errors provide a possible explanation for repetition suppression, where evoked neural activity is attenuated across repeated presentations of the same stimulus. The predictive coding account argues repetition suppression arises because repeated stimuli are expected, whereas non-repeated stimuli are unexpected and thus elicit larger neural responses. Here we employed electroencephalography in humans to test the predictive coding...

Data from: The influence of distance to perennial surface water on ant communities in Mopane woodlands, northern Botswana

Fredrik Dalerum, Tarryn Anne Retief, Carl Peter Havemann, Christian T. Chimimba, Benrdt Janse Van Rensburg & Berndt Janse Van Rensburg
Studies of biodiversity along environmental gradients provide information on how ecological communities change in response to biotic and abiotic factors. For instance, distance to water is associated with several factors that shape the structure and the functioning of ecosystems at a range of spatial scales. We investigated the influence of distance to a perennial water source on ant communities in a semi-arid savanna in northern Botswana. Ant abundance, taxonomic richness and both alpha and beta...

Data from: Multispecies invasion reduces the negative impact of single alien plant species on native flora

Magdalena Lenda, Piotr Skórka, Johannes Knops, Michał Żmihorski, Renata Gaj, Dawid Moroń, Michal Woyciechowski & Piotr Tryjanowski
Aim: In the current Anthropocene, many ecosystems are being simultaneously invaded by multiple alien species. Some of these invasive species become more dominant and have greater environmental impacts than others. If two potentially dominant species invade the same area, the combined impact has been reported to be either (1) domination by one species, i.e., the competitive dominance of one invader, or (2) invasion meltdown, where the combined impact is much greater, i.e., a synergistic effect....

Data from: Motivations, success and cost of coral reef restoration

Elisa Bayraktarov, Phoebe J. Stewart-Sinclair, Shantala Brisbane, Audrey Van Herwaarden, Lisa Boström-Einarsson, Megan I. Saunders, Catherine E. Lovelock, Hugh P. Possingham, Peter J. Mumby & Kerrie A. Wilson
Coral reef restoration is an increasingly important part of tropical marine conservation. Information about what motivates coral reef restoration as well as its success and cost is not well understood but needed to inform restoration decisions. We systematically review and synthesise data from mostly scientific studies published in peer‐reviewed and grey literature on the motivations for coral reef restoration, the variables measured, outcomes reported, the cost per hectare of the restoration project, the survival of...

Data from: Self-deception in nonhuman animals: weak crayfish escalated aggression as if they were strong

Michael Angilletta, Gregory Kubitz & Robbie Wilson
Humans routinely deceive themselves when communicating to others, but no one knows whether other animals do the same. We ask whether dishonest signaling between crayfish meets a condition required for self-deception: dishonest individuals and honest individuals escalate aggression according to their signals of strength rather than actual strength. Using game theory, we predicted how an animal’s knowledge of its strength should affect its decision to escalate aggression. At the evolutionary equilibrium, an animal that knows...

Data from: Avoided emissions and conservation of scrub mangroves: a potential Blue Carbon project in the Gulf of California, Mexico

M. Fernanda Adame, Eduardo Najera, Catherine E. Lovelock & Chris J. Brown
Mangroves are considered ideal ecosystems for Blue Carbon projects. However, because of their short stature, some mangroves (“scrub” mangroves, < 2m) do not fulfil the current definition of “forests” which makes them ineligible for emission reduction programs such as REDD+. Short stature mangroves can be the dominant form of mangroves in arid and poor nutrient landscapes, and emissions from their deforestation and degradation could be substantial. Here, we describe a potential Blue Carbon project in...

Data from: Do slower movers have lower reproductive success and higher mutation load?

Carly B. Walsh & Katrina McGuigan
Deleterious mutations occur frequently in eukaryotes, resulting in individuals carrying multiple alleles that decrease their fitness. At a population level, if unchecked, accumulation of this mutation load can ultimately lead to extinction. How selection counters the accumulation of mutation load, limiting declines in population fitness, is not well understood. Here, we use manipulative experiments in zebrafish (Danio rerio) to investigate the opportunities for selection on mutation load. Inducing high mutation load through mutagenesis, we applied...

Support for the habitat amount hypothesis from a global synthesis of species density studies

James Watling, Víctor Arroyo-Rodríguez, Marion Pfeifer, Lander Baeten, Cristina Banks-Leite, Laura Cisneros, Rebecca Fang, Caroli Hamel-Leigue, Thibault Lachat, Inara Leal, Luc Lens, Hugh Possingham, Dinarzarde Raheem, Danilo Ribeiro, Eleanor Slade, Nicolas Urbina-Cardona, Eric Wood & Lenore Fahrig
Decades of research suggest that species richness depends on spatial characteristics of habitat patches, especially their size and isolation. In contrast, the habitat amount hypothesis predicts that: 1) species richness in plots of fixed size (species density) is more strongly and positively related to the amount of habitat around the plot than to patch size or isolation; 2) habitat amount better predicts species density than patch size and isolation combined, 3) there is no effect...

Data from: Experimental evidence for accelerated adaptation to desiccation through sexual selection on males

Aline Gibson Vega, Jason Kennington, Joseph Tomkins & Robert Dugand
The impact of sexual selection on the adaptive process remains unclear. On the one hand, sexual selection might hinder adaptation by favouring costly traits and preferences that reduce nonsexual fitness. On the other hand, condition dependence of success in sexual selection may accelerate adaptation. Here, we used replicate populations of Drosophila melanogaster to artificially select on male desiccation resistance while manipulating the opportunity for precopulatory sexual selection in a factorial design. Following five generations of...

Network analysis reveals underlying syntactic features in a vocally learnt mammalian display, humpback whale song

Jennifer Allen, Ellen Garland, Rebecca Dunlop & Michael Noad
Vocal communication systems have a set of rules that govern the arrangement of acoustic signals, broadly defined as ‘syntax’. However, there is a limited understanding of potentially shared or analogous rules across vocal displays in different taxa. Recent work on songbirds has investigated syntax using network-based modelling. This technique quantifies features such as connectivity (adjacent signals in a sequence) and recurring patterns. Here, we apply network-based modelling to the complex, hierarchically structured songs of humpback...

Better left alone: Trying to control pasture grasses in untended rainforest plantings incurs multiple costs and delivers few benefits

Julian Radford-Smith & John Dwyer
1. Rainforest revegetation projects often deliver suboptimal outcomes due to the recolonisation of invasive pasture grasses, but little is known about the effects of grass reinvasion on the survival and growth of established saplings. Even less is known about the costs and benefits of controlling pasture grasses once they have reinvaded. 2. To address these knowledge gaps, we implemented a split-plot grass control experiment in a two-year old subtropical rainforest restoration planting in South East...

Data from: Fossil dermal denticles reveal the pre-exploitation baseline of a Caribbean coral reef shark community

Erin Dillon, Douglas McCauley, Jorge Manuel Morales-Saldaña, Nicole Leonard, Jian-Xin Zhao & Aaron O'Dea
Pre-exploitation shark baselines and the history of human impact on coral reef-associated shark communities in the Caribbean are poorly understood. We recovered shark dermal denticles from mid-Holocene (~7 ka) and modern reef sediments in Bocas del Toro, Caribbean Panama to reconstruct an empirical shark baseline before major human impact and quantify how much the modern shark community in the region had shifted from this historical reference point. We found that denticle accumulation rates, a proxy...

Subcellular view of host–microbiome nutrient exchange in sponges: insights into the ecological success of an early metazoan–microbe symbiosis

Meggie Hudspith, Laura Rix, Michelle Achlatis, Jeremy Bougoure, Paul Guagliardo, Peta L. Clode, Nicole S. Webster, Gerard Muyzer, Mathieu Pernice & Jasper M. De Goeij
Background: Sponges are increasingly recognised as key ecosystem engineers in many aquatic habitats. They play an important role in nutrient cycling due to their unrivalled capacity for processing both dissolved and particulate organic matter (DOM and POM) and the exceptional metabolic repertoire of their diverse and abundant microbial communities. Functional studies determining the role of host and microbiome in organic nutrient uptake and exchange, however, are limited. Therefore, we coupled pulse-chase isotopic tracer techniques with...

Reef cover classification (v1): internal coral reef class descriptors for global coral reef habitat mapping

Emma Kennedy, Stuart Phinn & Chris Roelfsema
Reef Cover Classification (version 1) document contains seventeen intra-reef geomorphic Reef Cover descriptors, developed for shallow-water tropical coral reef habitat mapping. Reef Cover describes spatially explicit zonal reef features that can be applied in different academic disciplines (e.g. geography, ecology, oceanography, marine sciences, marine policy and planning) as a geographical reference (e.g. to support political decision making or scientific research). The categorization is designed to be simple and inclusive in order to support broad-scale comparisons...

Caterpillar polarisation vision: Histological methods and Rcodes for behavioural analyses

Mizuki Uemura, Andrej Meglič, Myron Zalucki, Andrea Battisti & Gregor Belušič
Processionary caterpillars of Thaumetopoea pityocampa (in Europe) and Ochrogaster lunifer (in Australia) (Lepidoptera: Notodontidae) form single files of larvae crawling head-to-tail when moving to feeding and pupation sites. We investigated if the processions are guided by polarisation vision. The heading orientation of processions could be manipulated with linear polarising filters held above the leading caterpillar. Exposure to changes in the angle of polarisation around the caterpillar resulted in orthogonal changes in heading angles. Anatomical analysis...

Change and persistence of hunting & dietary practices among Kadazandusun-Murut (KDM) bearded pig hunters in Sabah, Malaysia

David Kurz, Fiffy Saikim, Vanielie Justine, Jordan Bloem, Matthew Libassi, Matthew Luskin, Lauren Withey, Benoit Goossens, Justin Brashares & Matthew Potts
This dataset consists of 38 semi-structured interviews that we conducted with Kadazandusun-Murut (KDM) hunters in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. The dataset is based on information shared during over 50 hours of time with the hunters. The data cover a variety of topics about the relationships between KDM hunters and bearded pigs, the favored game animal for this hunting group. We asked the hunters about their hunting and dietary practices, changes in hunting practices, and perceived changes...

Quantitative assessment of agricultural sustainability reveals divergent priorities among nations

Guolin Yao, Xin Zhang, Srishti Vishwakarma, Carole Dalin, Adam Komarek, David Kanter, Kyle Davis, Kimberly Pfeifer, Jing Zhao, Tan Zou, Paolo D'Odorico, Christian Folberth, Fernando Galeana Rodriguez, Jessica Fanzo, Lorenzo Rosa, William Dennison, Mark Musumba, Amy Heyman & Eric Davidson
Agriculture is fundamental to all three pillars of sustainability, environment, society, and economy. However, the definition of sustainable agriculture and capacities to measure it remain elusive. Independent and transparent measurements of national sustainability are needed to gauge progress, encourage accountability, and inform policy. Here, we developed a Sustainable Agriculture Matrix (SAM) to quantify national performance indicators in agriculture and to investigate the tradeoffs and synergies based on historical data for most countries of the world....

Taxonomic revision reveals potential impacts of Black Summer megafires on a cryptic species

Chris Jolly, Harry Moore, Mitchell Cowan, Teigan Cremona, Judy Dunlop, Sarah Legge, Grant Linley, Vivianna Miritis, John Woinarski & Dale Nimmo
Context: Sound taxonomy is the cornerstone of biodiversity conservation. Without a fundamental understanding of species delimitations, as well as their distributions and ecological requirements, our ability to conserve them is drastically impeded. Cryptic species – two or more distinct species currently classified as a single species – present a significant challenge to biodiversity conservation. How do we assess the conservation status and address potential drivers of extinction if we are unaware of a species’ existence?...

Humpback whale adult females and calves balance acoustic contact with vocal crypsis during periods of increased separation

Katherine Indeck, Michael Noad & Rebecca Dunlop
Acoustic communication is important for animals with dependent young, particularly when they are spatially separated. Maternal humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) use acoustic calling to help minimise the risk of separation from their young calves during migration. These pairs also use acoustic crypsis to minimise detection by males. How they balance a restricted active space with the need to maintain acoustic contact during periods of separation is not yet understood. Here, we analysed movement metrics of...

The consequences of coastal offsets for fisheries

Deqiang Ma, Jonathan Rhodes & Martine Maron
Biodiversity offsetting is increasingly used to mitigate biodiversity impacts from development, but the practice of offsetting rarely considers how to also mitigate losses of ecosystem services. Offset rules, such as how near an offset must be to an impact site, may help ensure biodiversity offsets also counterbalance losses of ecosystem services but this has not yet well understood. We explored how different rules for siting coastal offsets could change net impacts to a provisioning ecosystem...

Sex differences in behavioural and anatomical estimates of visual acuity in the green swordtail Xiphophorus helleri

Eleanor M Caves, Fanny De Busserolles & Laura A Kelley
Among fishes in the family Poeciliidae, signals such as colour patterns, ornaments, and courtship displays play important roles in mate choice and male-male competition. Despite this, visual capabilities in Poeciliids are understudied, in particular visual acuity, the ability to resolve detail. We used three methods to quantify visual acuity in male and female green swordtails (Xiphophorus helleri), a species in which body size and the length of the male's extended caudal fin ('sword') serve as...

A Turning Points analysis of Cross-Border Merger and Acquisition Negotiations

Yadvinder S. Rana, Daniel Druckman & Jesus Canduela
Despite the recent increase in Cross-Border Merger and Acquisition (CBMA) activity, research has repeatedly determined that over 70 percent of CBMAs fail to deliver the promised results, with evidence pointing to ineffective negotiation process management as one of the crucial factors explaining CBMA failure. We perform a turning points analysis of nine negotiations between automobile manufacturers. The findings indicate that negotiation outcomes are significantly influenced by substantive and strategic elements internal to the negotiation process....

Different genes are recruited during convergent evolution of pregnancy and the placenta

Charles Foster, James Van Dyke, Michael Thompson, Nicholas Smith, Colin Simpfendorfer, Christopher Murphy & Camilla Whittington
The repeated evolution of the same traits in distantly related groups (convergent evolution) raises a key question in evolutionary biology: do the same genes underpin convergent phenotypes? Here, we explore one such trait, viviparity (live birth), which, qualitative studies suggest, may indeed have evolved via genetic convergence. There are 150 independent origins of live birth in vertebrates, providing a uniquely powerful system to test the mechanisms underpinning convergence in morphology, physiology, and/or gene recruitment during...

Data from: A data-driven geospatial workflow to map species distributions for conservation assessments

Ruben Dario Palacio, Pablo Jose Negret, Jorge Veláquez-Tibatá & Andrew P Jacobson
We developed a geospatial workflow that refines the distribution of a species from its extent of occurrence (EOO) to area of habitat (AOH) within the species range map. The range maps are produced with an inverse distance weighted (IDW) interpolation procedure using presence and absence points derived from primary biodiversity data (GBIF and eBird hotspots respectively). Here we provide sample data to run the geospatial workflow for nine forest species across Mexico and Central America.

Data from: Testing hypotheses of marsupial brain size variation using phylogenetic multiple imputations and a Bayesian comparative framework

Orlin S. Todorov
Considerable controversy exists about which hypotheses and variables best explain mammalian brain size variation. We use a new, high-coverage dataset of marsupial brain and body sizes, and the first phylogenetically imputed full datasets of 16 predictor variables, to model the prevalent hypotheses explaining brain size evolution using phylogenetically corrected Bayesian generalised linear mixed-effects modelling. Despite this comprehensive analysis, litter size emerges as the only significant predictor. Marsupials differ from the more frequently studied placentals in...

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