65 Works

Skull shape of a widely-distributed, endangered marsupial reveals little evidence of local adaptation between fragmented populations

Pietro Viacava, Vera Weisbecker, Simone P. Blomberg, Gabriele Sansalone, Thomas Guillerme, Skye F. Cameron, Robbie S. Wilson & Matthew J. Phillips
The biogeographical distribution of diversity among populations of threatened mammalian species is generally investigated using population genetics. However, intraspecific phenotypic diversity is rarely assessed beyond taxonomy-focused linear measurements or qualitative descriptions. Here, we use a technique widely used in the evolutionary sciences – geometric morphometrics – to characterize shape diversity in the skull of an endangered marsupial, the northern quoll, across its 5,000 km distribution range along Northern Australia. Skull shape is a proxy for...

Global human influence maps reveal clear opportunities in conserving Earth’s remaining intact terrestrial ecosystems

Jason Riggio, Jonathan E. M. Baillie, Steven Brumby, Erle Ellis, Christina M. Kennedy, James R. Oakleaf, Alex Tait, Therese Tepe, David M. Theobald, Oscar Venter, James E.M. Watson & Andrew P. Jacobson
Leading up to the 2020 Convention on Biological Diversity there is momentum around setting bold conservation targets. Yet it remains unclear how much of Earth’s land area remains without significant human influence and where this land is located. We compare four recent global maps of human influences across Earth’s land, Anthromes, Global Human Modification, Human Footprint, and Low Impact Areas, to answer these questions. Despite using various methodologies and data, these different spatial assessments independently...

Fire Safety Engineering: Professional Development Report 6 of 8

David Lange, Peter Johnson, Jose Torero, Juan P Hidalgo, Cristian Maluk & Felix Wiesner
The Professional Development Report addresses the resource and skill constraints hindering the full professionalisation of fire safety engineering, in order to one day achieve a sustainable provision of fire safety engineering professionals.

Pre-introduction introgression contributes to parallel differentiation and contrasting hybridisation outcomes between invasive and native marine mussels

Iva Popovic, Nicolas Bierne, Federico Gaiti, Miloš Tanurdžić & Cynthia Riginos
Non-native species experience novel selection pressures in introduced environments and may interbreed with native lineages. Species introductions therefore provide opportunities to investigate repeated patterns of adaptation and introgression across replicated contact zones. Here, we investigate genetic parallelism between multiple introduced populations of the invasive marine mussel, Mytilus galloprovincialis, in the absence (South Africa and California) and presence of hybridisation with a native congener (Mytilus planulatus in Batemans Bay and Sydney Harbour, Australia). Repeatability in post-introduction...

Cardioespiratory physiological perturbations after acute smoke-induced lung injury and during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support in sheep

Saul Chemonges
Background: Numerous successful therapies developed for human medicine involve animal experimentation. Animal studies that are focused solely on translational potential, may not sufficiently document unexpected outcomes. Considerable amounts of data from such studies could be used to advance veterinary science. For example, sheep are increasingly being used as models of intensive care and therefore, data arising from such models must be published. In this study, the hypothesis is that there is little information describing physiological...

Data from: Priorities and motivations of marine coastal restoration research

Elisa Bayraktarov, Shantala Brisbane, Phoebe J Stewart-Sinclair, Audrey Van Herwaarden, Keila Stark, Valerie Hagger, Carter S Smith, Kerrie A Wilson, Catherine E Lovelock, Chris Gillies, Andrew D L Steven & Megan I Saunders
Active restoration is becoming an increasingly important conservation intervention to counteract the degradation of marine coastal ecosystems. Understanding what has motivated the scientific community to research the restoration of marine coastal ecosystems and how restoration research projects are funded is essential if we want to scale-up restoration interventions to meaningful extents.Here, we systematically review and synthesize data to understand the motivations for research on the restoration of coral reefs, seagrass, mangroves, saltmarsh, and oyster reefs....

Data from: Ecological pest control fortifies agricultural growth in Asia-Pacific economies

Kris Wyckhuys
The Green Revolution is credited with alleviating famine, mitigating poverty and driving aggregate economic growth since the 1960s. In Asia, high-input technology packages secured a tripling of rice output, with germplasm improvements providing benefits beyond US$ 4.3 billion/year. Here, we unveil the magnitude and macro-economic relevance of parallel nature-based contributions to productivity growth in non-rice crops over 1918-2018 (covering 23 different Asia-Pacific geopolitical entities). We empirically demonstrate how biological control resolved invasive pest threats in...

Data from: A cross-cultural investigation of young children’s spontaneous invention of tool use behaviors

Karri Neldner, Eva Reindl, Claudio Tennie, Julie Grant, Keyan Tomaselli & Mark Nielsen
Through the mechanisms of observation, imitation and teaching, young children readily pick up the tool using behaviors of their culture. However, little is known about the baseline abilities of children’s tool use: what they might be capable of inventing on their own in the absence of socially provided information. It has been shown that children can spontaneously invent 11 of 12 candidate tool using behaviors observed within the foraging behaviors of wild non-human apes (Reindl,...

Misinformation, internet honey trading, and beekeepers drive a plant invasion

Magdalena Lenda, Piotr Skórka, Karolina Kuszewska, Dawid Moroń, Michał Bełcik, Renata Baczek Kwinta, Franciszek Janowiak, David H. Duncan, Peter A. Vesk, Hugh P. Possingham & Johannes M. H. Knops
Biological invasions are a major human induced global change that is threatening global biodiversity by homogenizing the world’s fauna and flora. Species spread because humans have moved species across geographic boundaries and have changed ecological factors that structure ecosystems, such as nitrogen deposition, disturbance, etc. Many biological invasions are caused accidentally, as a byproduct of human travel and commerce driven product shipping. However, humans also have spread many species intentionally because of perceived benefits. Of...

Data for the effect of optic flow cues on honeybee flight control in wind

Emily Baird, Norbert Boeddeker & Mandyam Srinivasan
To minimise the risk of colliding with the ground or other obstacles, flying animals need to control both their ground speed and ground height. This task is particularly challenging in wind, where head winds require an animal to increase its airspeed to maintain a constant ground speed and tail winds may generate negative airspeeds, rendering flight more difficult to control. In this study, we investigate how head and tail winds affect flight control in the...

Rubble Biodiversity Samplers (RUBS): 3D-printed coral models to standardise biodiversity censuses

Kennedy Wolfe & Peter Mumby
1. To ensure standardised, quantitative and repeatable methodologies, marine ecologists have engineered a range of artificial units to survey benthic communities with varying designs depending on target taxa, life history stage and habitat. In tropical ecosystems, autonomous units have typically lacked microhabitat complexity (e.g. planar tiles), short-term efficacy (> 1 y deployment) and/or a truly standardised design to sample cryptobenthic diversity. 2. Coral rubble is characterised by high microhabitat complexity, which is unresolved in sampling...

Data from: Nutrient availability controls the impact of mammalian herbivores on soil carbon and nitrogen pools in grasslands

Judith Sitters, E.R. Jasper Wubs, Elisabeth S. Bakker, Thomas W. Crowther, Peter B. Adler, Sumanta Bagchi, Jonathan D. Bakker, Lori Biederman, Elizabeth T. Borer, Elsa E. Cleland, Nico Eisenhauer, Jennifer Firn, Laureano Gherardi, Nicole Hagenah, Yann Hautier, Sarah E. Hobbie, Johannes M.H. Knops, Andrew S. MacDougall, Rebecca L. McCulley, Joslin L. Moore, Brent Mortensen, Pablo L. Peri, Suzanne M. Prober, Charlotte Riggs, Anita C. Risch … &
Grasslands have been subject to considerable alteration due to human activities globally, including widespread changes in populations and composition of large mammalian herbivores and elevated supply of nutrients. Grassland soils remain important reservoirs of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N). Herbivores may affect both C and N pools and these changes likely interact with increases in soil nutrient availability. Given the scale of grassland soil fluxes, such changes can have striking consequences for atmospheric C concentrations...

Genome-wide SNPs detect no evidence of genetic population structure for reef manta rays (Mobula alfredi) in southern Mozambique

Stephanie Venables, Andrea Marshall, Amelia Armstrong, Joseph Tomkins & Jason Kennington
Little is known about the extent of genetic connectivity along continuous coastlines in manta rays or whether site visitation is influenced by relatedness. Such information is pertinent to defining population boundaries and understanding localised dispersal patterns and behaviour. Here, we use 3057 genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to evaluate population genetic structure and assess levels of relatedness at aggregation sites of reef manta rays (Mobula alfredi) in southern Mozambique (n = 114). Contrary to indications...

Evolutionary biogeography of the reef-building coral genus Galaxea across the Indo-Pacific ocean

Patricia Wepfer, Patricia H. Wepfer, Yuichi Nakajima, Makamas Sutthacheep, Veronica Z. Radice, Zoe Richards, Put Ang, Tullia Terraneo, Mareike Sudek, Atsushi Fujimura, Robert J. Toonen, Alexander S. Mikheyev, Evan P. Economo & Satoshi Mitarai
Stony corals (Scleractinia) form the basis for some of the most diverse ecosytems on Earth, but we have much to learn about their evolutionary history and systematic relationships. In order to improve our understanding of species in corals we here investigated phylogenetic relationships between morphologically defined species and genetic lineages in the genus Galaxea (Euphyllidae) using a combined phylogenomic and phylogeographic ap- proach. Previous studies revealed the nominal species G. fascicularis included three genetically well-differ-...

Data from: Identifying 'useful' fitness models: balancing the benefits of added complexity with realistic data requirements in models of individual plant fitness

Trace Martyn, Daniel Stouffer, Oscar Godoy, Ignasi Bartomeus, Abigail Pastore & Margaret Mayfield
Direct species interactions are commonly included in individual fitness models used for coexistence and local-diversity modeling. Though widely considered important for such models, direct interactions alone are often insufficient for accurately predicting fitness, coexistence or diversity outcomes. Incorporating higher-order interactions (HOIs) can lead to more accurate individual fitness models, but also adds many model terms, which can quickly result in model over-fitting. We explore approaches for balancing the trade-off between tractability and model accuracy that...

Data from: Australia's prehistoric 'swamp king': revision of the Plio-Pleistocene crocodylian genus Pallimnarchus de Vis, 1886

Jorgo Ristevski, Adam M. Yates, Gilbert J. Price, Ralph E. Molnar, Vera Weisbecker & Steven W. Salisbury
The crocodylian fossil record from the Cenozoic of Australasia is notable for its rich taxonomic diversity, and is primarily represented by members of the clade Mekosuchinae. Reports of crocodylian fossils from Australia date back to the late nineteenth century. In 1886, Charles Walter de Vis proposed the name Pallimnarchus pollens for crocodylian fossils from southeast Queensland – the first binomen given to an extinct crocodylian taxon from Australia. Pallimnarchus has come to be regarded as...

GPR120 in control of pancreatic polypeptide secretion from male mouse islets via phospholipase C-mediated calcium mobilization

Yufeng Zhao, Xiao-Cheng Li, Xiang-Yan Liang, Yan-Yan Zhao, Rong Xie, Li-Jun Zhang, Xiao-Chun Zhang & Chen Chen
GPR120-IRES-EGFP mice were generated on C57BL/6J background. The sequence of IRES-EGFP was inserted into the genome behind the gene termination codon TAA of GPR120 gene by targeted integration with CRISPR/Cas9 technology to generate the knockin (KI) mice that express EGFP under the control of GPR120 expression. In brief, the recombinant donor vector containing IRES-EGFP element was constructed and identified by double enzyme digestion. The Cas9 mRNA, guide RNA and the donor vector were transferred into...

Restoration thinning permits stems to capitalise on high-rainfall years in a regenerating endangered forest ecosystem

Isaac Towers & John Dwyer
1. Passively regenerating native vegetation presents a cost-effective opportunity to sequester carbon and reinstate habitat in heavily cleared agricultural landscapes. 2. However, in some cases a few woody species recolonise in dense, low-diversity stands that are slow to self-thin. 3. Restoration thinning of over-dominant species has been proposed to accelerate ecosystem recovery, but its longer-term efficacy remains uncertain, and is likely to depend strongly on rainfall. 4. This study focuses on a restoration thinning experiment...

Data from: Intertidal gobies acclimate rate of luminance change for background matching with shifts in seasonal temperature

Carmen Da Silva, Cedric Van Den Berg, Nicholas Condon, Cynthia Riginos, Robbie Wilson & Karen Cheney
1. Rate of colour change and background matching capacity are important functional traits for avoiding predation and hiding from prey. Acute changes in environmental temperature are known to impact the rate at which animals change colour, and therefore may affect their survival. 2. Many ectotherms have the ability to acclimate performance traits such as locomotion, metabolic rate and growth rate with changes in seasonal temperature. However, it is unclear how other functional traits that are...

A comparison of growth, structure and diversity of mixed species and monoculture reforestation systems in the Philippines

Dinh Hai Le, John Herbohn, Carl Smith & Huong Nguyen
Forests in the Philippines, and many other developing countries in the tropics, have been extensively cleared over recent decades. There have been increasing efforts to reforest these cleared lands to achieve both socio-economic and environmental objectives. To date, planted forests have been dominated by monocultures. There has however been increasing calls to use mixtures of species, although there is limited evidence to support mixed species plantations being a better or win – win approach to...

Characterising biogeochemical fluctuations in a world of extremes

Kennedy Wolfe & Maria Byrne
Coastal and intertidal habitats are at the forefront of anthropogenic influence and environmental change. The species occupying these habitats are adapted to a world of extremes, which may render them robust to the changing climate or more vulnerable if they are at their physiological limits. We characterised the diurnal, seasonal and interannual patterns of flux in biogeochemistry across an intertidal gradient on a temperate sandstone platform in eastern Australia over six years (2009–2015) and present...

Education for a Vocation or Society ? The Dialectic of Modern and Customary Epistemologies in Solomon Islands

Peter Walters, Adrian Benavides & Kristen Lyons
Pacific Dynamics: Journal of Interdisciplinary Research (ISSN: 2463-641X), Volume 4, Number 1, March 2020.

Fire Safety Engineering: Roles Report 4 of 8

David Lange, Jose Torero & Peter Johnson
The Roles Report explores the future role, competencies, education, accreditation, audit and enforcement and regulatory controls for fire safety engineering in Australia

Raw data accompanying: Ground reaction forces in monitor lizards (Varanidae) and the scaling of locomotion in sprawling tetrapods

Robert Cieri, Dick Taylor, Robert Irwin, Daniel Rumsey & Christofer Clemente
Geometric scaling predicts a major challenge for legged, terrestrial locomotion. Locomotor support requirements scale identically with body mass (α M1), while force generation capacity should scale α M2/3 as it depends on muscle cross-sectional area. Mammals compensate with more upright limb postures at larger sizes, but it remains unknown how sprawling tetrapods deal with this challenge. Varanid lizards are an ideal group to address this question because they cover an enormous body size range while...

Fatal and non-fatal events within 14 days after early, intensive mobilization post stroke

Julie Bernhardt, Karen Borschmann, Janice Collier, Amanda Thrift, Peter Langhorne, Sandy Middleton, Richard Lindley, Helen Dewey, Philip Bath, Catherine Said, Leonid Churilov, Fiona Ellery, Christopher Bladin, Christopher Reid, Judith Frayne, Velandai Srikanth, Stephen Read & Geoffrey Donnan
Objective: We examined fatal and non-fatal Serious Adverse Events (SAEs) at 14 days within AVERT. Method: A prospective, parallel group, assessor blinded, randomized international clinical trial comparing very early intensive mobilization training (VEM) with usual care (UC); with follow up to 3 months. Included: Patients with ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke within 24 hours of onset and physiological parameters within set limits. Treatment with thrombolytics allowed. Excluded: Patients with severe premorbid disability and/or comorbidities. Interventions continued...

Registration Year

  • 2020
    65

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    56
  • Text
    9

Affiliations

  • University of Queensland
    65
  • University College London
    8
  • University of Sydney
    5
  • Arup Group (United Kingdom)
    4
  • University of Washington
    3
  • The Nature Conservancy
    3
  • University of Tasmania
    3
  • Monash University
    3
  • Curtin University
    3
  • Queensland University of Technology
    3