17 Works

Ideal Free Distribution of Mobile Pastoralists in the Logone Floodplain, Cameroon

Mark Moritz
The purpose of the model is to examine whether and how mobile pastoralists are able to achieve an Ideal Free Distribution (IFD). Our hypothesis is that an ideal free distribution will emerge when camps with complete information, freedom and ability to move, and independent decision-making capabilities, have open access to depletable common-pool resources that are highly variable is space and time. In the model we compare three simple movement rules and examine how successful they...

Climate drives community-wide divergence within species over a limited spatial scale: evidence from an oceanic island

Antonia Salces-Castellano, Jairo Patiño, Nadir Alvarez, Carmelo Andújar, Paula Arribas, Juan J. Braojos-Ruiz, Marcelino Del Arco-Aguilar, Víctor García-Olivares, Dirk Karger, Heriberto López, Ioanna Manolopoulou, Pedro Oromí, Antonio J. Pérez-Delgado, William W. Peterman, Kenneth F. Rijsdijk & Brent C. Emerson
Geographic isolation substantially contributes to species endemism on oceanic islands when speciation involves the colonisation of a new island. However, less is understood about the drivers of speciation within islands. What is lacking is a general understanding of the geographic scale of gene flow limitation within islands, and thus the geographic scale and drivers of geographical speciation within insular contexts. Using a community of beetle species, we show that when dispersal ability and climate tolerance...

Data from: Process-based species delimitation leads to identification of more biologically relevant species

Megan Smith & Bryan Carstens
Most approaches to species delimitation to-date have considered divergence-only models. While these models are appropriate for allopatric speciation, their failure to incorporate many of the population-level processes that drive speciation, such as gene flow (e.g. in sympatric speciation), places an unnecessary limit on our collective understanding of the processes that produce biodiversity. To consider these processes while inferring species boundaries, we introduce the R-package delimitR and apply it to identify species boundaries in the reticulate...

Data from: Randomized phase 2 study of FcRn antagonist efgartigimod in generalized myasthenia gravis

James F. Howard, Vera Bril, Ted M. Burns, Renato Mantegazza, Malgorzata Bilinska, Andrzej Szczudlik, Said Beydoun, Francisco Javier Rodriguez De Rivera Garrido, Fredrik Piehl, Mariarosa Rottoli, Philip Van Damme, Tuan Vu, Amelia Evoli, Miriam Freimer, Tahseen Mozaffar, E. Sally Ward, Torsten Dreier, Peter Ulrichts, Katrien Verschueren, Antonio Guglietta, Hans De Haard, Nicolas Leupin & Jan J. G. M. Verschuuren
Objective: To investigate safety and explore efficacy of efgartigimod (ARGX-113), an anti-neonatal Fc receptor immunoglobulin G1 Fc fragment, in patients with generalized myasthenia gravis (gMG) with a history of anti-acetylcholine receptor (AChR) autoantibodies, who were on stable standard-of-care myasthenia gravis (MG) treatment. Methods: A phase 2, exploratory, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 15-center study is described. Eligible patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive 4 doses over a 3-week period of either 10 mg/kg IV efgartigimod or...

Data from: Diversification rates have no effect on the convergent evolution of foraging strategies in the most speciose genus of bats, Myotis

Ariadna E Morales, Manuel Ruedi, Kathryn Field & Bryan C Carstens
Adaptive radiations are defined as rapid diversification with phenotypic innovation led by colonization to new environments. Notably, adaptive radiations can occur in parallel when habitats with similar selective pressures are accessible promoting convergent adaptions. While convergent evolution appears to be a common process, it is unclear what are the main drivers leading the reappearance of morphologies or ecological roles. We explore this question in Myotis bats, the only Chiropteran genus with a worldwide distribution. Three...

Data from: Propagule pressure and genetic diversity enhance colonization by a ruderal species: a multi-generation field experiment

Stephen M. Hovick & Kenneth D. Whitney
Colonization is a critical filter, setting the stage for short-term and long-term population success. Increased propagule pressure (e.g., more founding individuals) usually enhances colonization; however, this pattern may be driven by purely numeric effects, population genetic diversity effects, or both. To determine the independent and interactive effects of propagule pressure and genetic diversity, we conducted a seed addition experiment in the field using the ruderal annual Arabidopsis thaliana. Propagule pressure treatments spanned five levels, from...

Data from: Using a multi-isotope approach to inform waterfowl movement in southern Africa

Gregory Mutumi, Graeme Cumming, Alexandre Caron, Mažeika Sullivan & Carlos Caceres
Many far-ranging species depend heavily on relatively small or temporary resources within a heterogeneous landscape. For waterfowl, most species rely on deep, permanent waterbodies as refugia from predators during annual flightless molt periods when synchronous loss and regrowth of the flight feathers occurs. The movements of ducks to and from molt sites are, however, poorly documented for most Afrotropical species and the dependencies of Afrotropical ducks on key sites are unclear, yet this information is...

Data from: Step-to-step variations in human running reveal how humans run without falling

Manoj Srinivasan & Nidhi Seethapathi
Humans can run without falling down, usually despite uneven terrain or occasional pushes. Even without such external perturbations, intrinsic sources like sensorimotor noise perturb the running motion incessantly, making each step variable. Here, using simple and generalizable models, we show that even such small step-to-step variability contains considerable information about strategies used to run stably. Deviations in the center of mass motion predict the corrective strategies during the next stance, well in advance of foot...

Data from: New taxa and revised stratigraphic distribution of the crinoid fauna from Anticosti Island, Québec, Canada (Late Ordovician-Early Silurian)

William I. Ausich & Mario E. Cournoyer
End-Ordovician extinctions had a profound effect on shallow-water benthic communities, including the Crinoidea. Further, recovery after the extinctions resulted in a macroevolutinary turnover in crinoid faunas. Anticosti Island is the most complete Ordovician-Silurian boundary section recording shallow-water habitats. Both new taxa and changes in Anticosti Island stratigraphic nomenclature are addressed herein. New taxa include Becsciecrinus groulxi n. sp., Bucucrinus isotaloi n. sp., Jovacrinus clarki n. sp., Plicodendrocrinus petryki n. sp., Plicodendrocrinus martini n. sp., Thalamocrinus...

Data from: The impact of elevated temperature and drought on the ecology and evolution of plant-soil microbe interactions

Pil U. Rasmussen, Alison E. Bennett & Ayco J. M. Tack
1. Climate change is shifting the distribution of species, and may have a profound impact on the ecology and evolution of species interactions. However, we know little about the impact of increasing temperature and changing rainfall patterns on the interactions between plants and their beneficial and antagonistic root symbionts. 2. Here, we used a reciprocal multifactorial growth chamber experiment with seeds and soil microbial communities from three origins to investigate the impact of temperature and...

Data from: Population assignment reveals low migratory connectivity in a weakly structured songbird

Matthew G. DeSaix, Lesley P. Bulluck, Andrew J. Eckert, Catherine B. Viverette, Than J. Boves, Jessica A. Reese, Christopher M. Tonra & Rodney J. Dyer
Understanding migratory connectivity is essential for determining the drivers behind population dynamics and for implementing effective conservation strategies for migratory species. Genetic markers provide a means to describe migratory connectivity, however they can be uninformative for species with weak population genetic structure, which has limited their application. Here, we demonstrated a genomic approach to describing migratory connectivity in the prothonotary warbler, Protonotaria citrea, a Neotropical songbird of conservation concern. Using 26,189 SNPs, we revealed regional...

Data from: Genetic variation and structure of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera:Liviidae) in populations from México

Laura Izascum Pérez-Valencia, Andrew P. Michel, Gustavo Moya-Raygoza & Aarón Rodríguez
The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, is native to Asia but has recently invaded North America. Asian citrus psyllid is a significant pest of citrus crops by its direct feeding but, more importantly, as the vector of the bacterium ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’, which causes Huanglongbing disease. Asian citrus psyllid was first found in México in 2001 and 2002 and, since then, has spread quickly across the country, suggesting rapid adaptation to new environments. Yet,...

Data from: Integrating life history traits into predictive phylogeography

Jack Sullivan, Megan L. Smith, Anahi Espindola, Megan Ruffley, Andrew Rankin, David Tank & Bryan Carstens
Predictive phylogeography seeks to aggregate genetic, environmental and taxonomic data from multiple species in order to make predictions about unsampled taxa using machine-learning techniques such as Random Forests. To date, organismal trait data have infrequently been incorporated into predictive frameworks due to difficulties inherent to the scoring of trait data across a taxonomically broad set of taxa. We refine predictive frameworks from two North American systems, the inland temperate rainforests of the Pacific Northwest (PNW)...

Data from: Fusion or hypertrophy?: The unusual arms of the Petalocrinidae (Ordovician-Devonian; Crinoidea)

William Ausich, Yingyan Mao & Yue Li
The large, triangular or cylindrical second brachial plate of the Petalocrinidae was formed through fusion of brachial plates along the distal margin of the growing arms. Based on the number of ambulacral bifurcations, brachials from the primibrachitaxis through at least the quintibrachitaxis may have been fused to form this large plate. In Petalocrinus, all calcite of fused second brachials assume the same crystallographic orientation, but in Spirocrinus more than one crystal comprises the second brachial...

Data from: Genomic signatures of sympatric speciation with historical and contemporary gene flow in a tropical anthozoan (Hexacorallia: Actiniaria)

Benjamin M. Titus, Paul D. Blischak & Marymega Daly
Sympatric diversification is increasingly thought to have played an important role in the evolution of biodiversity around the globe. However, an in situ sympatric origin for co-distributed taxa is difficult to demonstrate empirically because different evolutionary processes can lead to similar biogeographic outcomes- especially in ecosystems that can readily facilitate secondary contact due to a lack of hard barriers to dispersal. Here we use a genomic (ddRADseq), model-based approach to delimit a species complex of...

No evidence for early fitness penalty in glyphosate-resistant biotypes of Conyza canadensis: common garden experiments in the absence of glyphosate

Zachery Beres, Micheal Owen & Allison Snow
Strong selection from herbicides has led to the rapid evolution of herbicide-resistant weeds, greatly complicating weed management efforts worldwide. In particular, overreliance on glyphosate, the active ingredient in RoundUp®, has spurred the evolution of resistance to this herbicide in ≥40 species. Previously, we reported that Conyza canadensis (horseweed) has evolved extreme resistance to glyphosate, surviving at 40x the original 1x effective dosage. Here, we tested for underlying fitness effects of glyphosate resistance to better understand...

Data from: Bryophyte community composition and diversity are indicators of hydrochemical and ecological gradients in temperate kettle hole mires in Ohio, USA

Roger Grau-Andrés, G. Matt Davies, Camilo Rey-Sanchez & Julie Slater
Peatlands are subject to increased pressure from environmental and land-use change, particularly in temperate regions such as the US Midwest. Bryophytes dominate the ground cover of peatlands and play a key role in their functioning. Effective management and restoration of degraded peatlands requires good understanding of their bryophyte communities, and how these are shaped by environmental conditions. Furthermore, bryophytes are sensitive indicators of environmental conditions. We monitored microhabitat characteristics (hydrology, hydrochemistry, abundance of vascular vegetation,...

Registration Year

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Affiliations

  • The Ohio State University
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  • Natural History Museum of Geneva
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  • Autonomous University of Madrid
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    1
  • University of La Laguna
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  • Leiden University
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