50 Works

Supplementary materials : The effect of climate parameters on sheep preferences for outdoors or indoors at low ambient temperatures

Peep Piirsalu, Tanel Kaart, Irje Nutt, Giovanni Marcone & David Arney
Supplementary Materials: Figure S1: Percentage of ewes outdoors dependent on ambient temperature. One point corresponds to one photograph, black lines denote the linear relationship (corresponding correlation coefficients with p-values are presented in the lower right corner of the figures) and the red lines indicate the potential non-linear relationship fitted with a LOWESS curve (locally weighted scatterplot smoothing); Figure S2: The wind chill values depending on the percentage of ewes outdoors. For each group of observations...

Factors Affecting Performance of Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants

Vallo Kõrgmaa

Data from: Genetic and life-history changes associated with fisheries-induced population collapse

Lilian Pukk, Anna Kuparinen, Leili Järv, Riho Gross & Anti Vasemägi
Over the recent years, growing number of studies suggests that intensive size-selective fishing can cause evolutionary changes in life-history traits in the harvested population, which can have drastic negative effects on populations, ecosystems and fisheries. However, most studies to date have overlooked the potential role of immigration of fish with different phenotypes as an alternative plausible mechanism behind observed phenotypic trends. Here, we investigated the evolutionary consequences of intensive fishing simultaneously at phenotypic and molecular...

Data from: Reproductive behaviour indicates specificity in resource use: phylogenetic examples from temperate and tropical insects

Sille Holm, Juhan Javoiš, Erki Õunap, Robert B. Davis, Ants Kaasik, Freerk Molleman, Tõnis Tasane & Toomas Tammaru
Specificity (= the degree of ecological specialisation) is one of the fundamental concepts of the science of ecology. Ambiguities on how to define and measure specificity have however complicated respective research efforts. Here we propose that, in insects, a behavioural trait –adult oviposition latency in captivity without a favourable host plant – correlates with a species’ specificity in larval host use. In the absence of a suitable host, monophagous insects are expected to wait for...

Data from: Different functional characteristics can explain different dimensions of plant invasion success

Huixuan Liao, Robert Pal, Ülo Niinemets, Michael Bahn, Bruno Cerabolini & Shao-Lin Peng
The success of invasive plant species can be evaluated using different dimensions, such as, range size, abundance, and impact. These different dimensions do not always covary but are rarely separated, suggesting an urgency to disentangle the functional mechanisms behind them. A dataset of leaf traits and four dimensions of invasion success (i.e., range size, local abundance, impact on native plant abundance, and impact on native plant diversity) were compiled for 395 non-native plant species in...

Data from: Are leaf functional traits “invariant” with plant size, and what is “invariance” anyway?

Charles A. Price, Ian J. Wright, David D. Ackerly, Ülo Niinemets, Peter B. Reich & Erik J. Veneklaas
Studies of size-related plant traits have established a suite of mathematical functions describing whole plant investment and allocation. In parallel, studies of plant “economic spectra” have measured the scaling and variance composition of traits related to the major dimensions of both structure and function. Here we explore the intersection of these two broad areas by exploring the notion that many leaf economic traits are invariant with species differences in adult plant size. Invariant traits are...

Data from: How much would it cost to monitor farmland biodiversity in Europe?

Ilse R. Geijzendorffer, Stefano Targetti, Manuel K. Schneider, Dick J. Brus, Philippe Jeanneret, Robert H. G. Jongman, Martin Knotters, Davide Viaggi, Siyka Angelova, Michaela Arndorfer, Debra Bailey, Katalin Balzacs, András Báldim, Marion M. B. Bogers, Robert G.H. Bunce, Jean-Philippe Choisis, Peter Dennis, Sebastian Eiter, Wendy Fjellstad, Jürgen F. Friedel, Tiziano Gomiero, Arjan Griffioen, Max Kainz, Anikó Kovács-Hostyánszki, Gisela Lüscher … & András Báldi
To evaluate progress on political biodiversity objectives, biodiversity monitoring provides information on whether intended results are being achieved. Despite scientific proof that monitoring and evaluation increase the (cost) efficiency of policy measures, cost estimates for monitoring schemes are seldom available, hampering their inclusion in policy programme budgets. Empirical data collected from 12 case studies across Europe were used in a power analysis to estimate the number of farms that would need to be sampled per...

Data from: Less is more: extreme genome complexity reduction with ddRAD using Ion Torrent semiconductor technology

Lilian Pukk, Freed Ahmad, Shihab Hasan, Veljo Kisand, Riho Gross & Anti Vasemägi
Massively parallel sequencing a small proportion of the whole genome at high coverage enables answering a wide range of questions from molecular evolution and evolutionary biology to animal and plant breeding and forensics. In this study, we describe the development of restriction-site associated DNA (RAD) sequencing approach for Ion Torrent PGM platform. Our protocol results in extreme genome complexity reduction using two rare-cutting restriction enzymes and strict size selection of the library allowing sequencing of...

Data from: Genes that affect Atlantic salmon growth in hatchery do not have the same effect in the wild

Anti Vasemägi, Siim Kahar & Mikhail Y. Ozerov
Dissecting the genetic mechanisms of phenotypic traits that influence fitness in diverse environments provides the important first step towards understanding the robustness of the observed genotype–phenotype associations, the role of genotype-by-environment interaction (GEI) shaping fitness trade-offs and maintaining genetic variation of quantitative traits. However, the molecular basis of complex traits in vertebrates has rarely, if ever, been studied simultaneously in natural and controlled laboratory environments. To evaluate whether the same genomic regions affect the growth...

Data from: Drivers of vegetative dormancy across herbaceous perennial plant species

Richard P. Shefferson, Tiiu Kull, Michael J. Hutchings, Marc-André Selosse, Hans Jacquemyn, Kimberly M. Kellett, Eric S. Menges, Richard B. Primack, Juha Tuomi, Kirsi Alahuhta, Sonja Hurskainen, Helen M. Alexander, Derek S. Anderson, Rein Brys, Emilia Brzosko, Slavomir Dostálik, Katharine Gregg, Zdeněk Ipser, Anne Jäkäläniemi, Jana Jersáková, W. Dean Kettle, Melissa K. McCormick, Ana Mendoza, Michael T. Miller, Asbjørn Moen … & Dennis F. Whigham
Vegetative dormancy, that is the temporary absence of aboveground growth for ≥ 1 year, is paradoxical, because plants cannot photosynthesise or flower during dormant periods. We test ecological and evolutionary hypotheses for its widespread persistence. We show that dormancy has evolved numerous times. Most species displaying dormancy exhibit life‐history costs of sprouting, and of dormancy. Short‐lived and mycoheterotrophic species have higher proportions of dormant plants than long‐lived species and species with other nutritional modes. Foliage...

Data from: High genotypic diversity and strong spatial structure in populations of Trifolium alpestre with low seed production

Karin Kaljund, Malle Leht & Vello Jaaska
The studies on clonal plant populations indicate that the proportion between clonal and sexual reproduction may be highly variable, depending on the biological characteristics of species and the ecological conditions of habitats. We focused on the genotypic diversity of Trifolium alpestre populations in Estonia. We assayed the genetic diversity, spatial genotypic structure and diversity with the use of allozyme markers. Populations revealed high levels of genotypic diversity and showed strong spatial structure of MLGs. The...

Data from: Canopy leaf area index at its higher end: dissection of structural controls from leaf to canopy scales in bryophytes

Ülo Niinemets & Mari Tobias
There is evidence that mosses with miniature foliage elements have extremely large leaf area indices (LAI), but it is unclear what canopy traits are responsible for these high LAI values in architecturally divergent mosses, and how the inherent tradeoffs limiting maximum LAI in vascular plants can be overcome in mosses. To determine the quantitative significance of different traits in determining LAI, we developed a method to dissect LAI into underlying functionally dependent constituent traits at...

Data from: Molecular identification of cryptic bumblebee species from degraded samples using PCR-RFLP approach

Salla-Riikka Vesterlund, Jouni Sorvari & Anti Vasemägi
The worldwide decline and local extinctions of bumblebees has raised a need for fast and accurate tools for species identification. Morphological characters are often not sufficient and molecular methods have been increasingly used for reliable identification of bumblebee species. Molecular methods often require high quality DNA which makes them less suitable for analysis of low quality or older samples. We developed an efficient PCR-RFLP identification method for four bumblebee species of the subgenus Bombus s....

Consumption and wind production time series data

Andres Annuk, Mart Hovi, Janar Kalder & Maido Märss
Consumption data are measured in the real household for two weeks and then multiplied to the whole year. This is an average family with 4 members. Consumption behavior is quite similar whole the year. Production graph is measured in real wind generator as described in the paper and when scaled to certain annual production.

A probable oligochaete from an Early Triassic Lagerstätte of the southern Cis-Urals and its evolutionary implications

Andrey Zhuravlev, Dmitry Shcherbakov, Tarmo Timm, Alexander Tzetlin & Olev Vinn
Oligochaetes, despite their important role in terrestrial ecosystems and a tremendous biomass, are extremely rare fossils. The palaeontological record of these worms is restricted to some cocoons, presumable trace fossils and a few body fossils the most convincing of which are discovered in Mesozoic and Cenozoic strata. The Olenekian (Lower Triassic) siliciclastic lacustrine Petropavlovka Lagerstätte of the southern Cis-Urals yields a number of extraordinary freshwater fossils including an annelid. The segmented body with a secondary...

Data from: Patterns of modern pollen and plant richness across northern Europe

Triin Reitalu, Anne E. Bjune, Ansis Blaus, Thomas Giesecke, Aveliina Helm, Isabelle Matthias, Sylvia H. Peglar, J. Sakari Salonen, Heikki Seppa, Vivika Väli & H. John B. Birks
1. Sedimentary pollen offers excellent opportunities to reconstruct vegetation changes over past millennia. Number of different pollen taxa or pollen richness is used to characterise past plant richness. To improve the interpretation of sedimentary pollen richness, it is essential to understand the relationship between pollen and plant richness in contemporary landscapes. This study presents a regional-scale comparison of pollen and plant richness from northern Europe and evaluates the importance of environmental variables on pollen and...

Data from: Weak and inconsistent associations between melanic darkness and fitness related traits in an insect

Siiri-Lii Sandre, Tanel Kaart, Nathan Morehouse & Toomas Tammaru
The idea that the fitness value of body colouration may be affected by biochemically mediated trade-offs has received much research attention. For example, melanisation is believed to interact with other fitness-related traits via competition for substrates, costs associated with the synthesis of melanin, or pleiotropic effects of the involved genes. However, genetic correlations between colouration and fitness-related traits remain poorly understood. Here we present a quantitative genetic study of a colouration trait correlated to melanin-based...

Data from: A small badge of longevity: opposing survival selection on the size of white and black wing markings

Tuul Sepp, Kalev Rattiste, Lauri Saks, Richard Meitern, Janek Urvik, Ants Kaasik & Peeter Hõrak
According to handicap principle, exaggerated ornamental traits are supposed to exert costs on their bearers. However, there is much less theoretical and practical consensus about whether and under which conditions ornament expression should positively correlate with survival. We measured age-related variation and survival selection on the size of white wing patches and black wing tips in a long-lived monogamous seabird, the common gull Larus canus. Males had larger white patches than females but patch size...

The strength and form of natural selection on transcript abundance in the wild

Freed Ahmad, Paul Debes, Ilkka Nousiainen, Siim Kahar, Lilian Pukk, Riho Gross, Mikhail Ozerov & Anti Vasemägi
Gene transcription variation is known to contribute to disease susceptibility and adaptation, but we currently know very little about how contemporary natural selection shapes transcript abundance. Here, we propose a novel analytical framework to quantify the strength and form of ongoing natural selection at the transcriptome level in a wild vertebrate. We estimated selection on transcript abundance in a cohort of a wild salmonid fish (Salmo trutta) affected by an extracellular myxozoan parasite (Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae)...

Parental age does not influence offspring telomeres during early life in common gulls (Larus canus)

Tuul Sepp, Richard Meitern, Britt Heidinger, Kristina Noreikiene, Kalev Rattiste, Peeter Hõrak, Lauri Saks, Jeffrey Kittilson, Janek Urvik & Mathieu Giraudeau
Parental age can affect offspring telomere length through heritable and epigenetic-like effects, but at what stage during development these effects are established is not well known. To address this, we conducted a cross-fostering experiment in common gulls (Larus canus) that enabled us distinguish between pre- and post-natal parental age effects on offspring telomere length. Whole clutches were exchanged after clutch completion within and between parental age classes (young and old) and blood samples were collected...

Potato yield forecast by using guttation test method in household laboratory conditions

Edvin Nugis, Jaan Kuht & Аleksei Komarov
This paper aims to present the use of the guttation test method to establish the relationship between guttation and potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) yield. The laboratory tests (in vitro L.) under household conditions were carried out. To assess the state of the potato (variety 'Ando') yield the field (0.07 ha) of the family farm "Miili" were used. Assessment of the state of guttation plant barley (Hordeum vulgaris L.) variety 'Anni' by using of hydro-thermostat in...

Lühiartikkel : Muldkatte talitlemise pedoökoloogilised seaduspärasused

Raimo Kõlli
The contradictory statements and opinions, which need by the mind of author additional explanation or disentangle are in the work followings: stages in the forming soil covers' humus status; additional carbon sequestration into the soil; discord between consumption and accumulation of soil organic matter; the influence of land use, land-use change and soil tillage on soil humus status; permanent and dynamic properties of soil; the role of agriculture in carbon turnover; degradation of soil fertility;...

Factors Influencing the Quality of Frozen/Thawed Semen from Estonian Holstein AI Bulls, and Relationships between Semen Quality Parameters and in vivo Fertility

Peeter Padrik
At present, dairy farming is definitely the most profitable sector of Estonia’s cattle industry. The effectiveness of milk production is dependent not only on the availability of high-quality genetic material but also on several other factors, including the quality of frozen bull semen. The purpose of this research was to assess the effect of different factors such as age, the proportion of Holstein genes, and season of the year on the quality of semen collected...

Data from: Structural controls on photosynthetic capacity through juvenile-to-adult transition and needle aging in Mediterranean pines

Vivian Kuusk, Ülo Niinemets & Fernando Valladares
1. Needle photosynthetic potentials strongly vary among primary (juvenile) and secondary (adult) needles (heteroblasty) in Pinus species, but there is limited understanding of the underlying structural, diffusional and chemical controls. 2. We studied differences in needle photosynthetic characteristics among current-year juvenile and adult needles and among different-aged adult needles in Mediterranean pines Pinus halepensis Mill., P. pinea L. and P. nigra J. F. Arnold subsp. salzmannii (Dunal) Franco, hypothesizing that needle anatomical modifications upon juvenile-to-adult...

Data from: Is telomere length a molecular marker of past thermal stress in wild fish?

Paul V. Debes, Marko Visse, Bineet Panda, Petteri Ilmonen & Anti Vasemägi
Telomeres protect eukaryotic chromosomes; variation in telomere length has been linked (primarily in homoeothermic animals) to variation in stress, cellular ageing and disease risk. Moreover, telomeres have been suggested to function as biomarker for quantifying past environmental stress, but studies in wild animals remain rare. Environmental stress, such as extreme environmental temperatures in poikilothermic animals, may result in oxidative stress that accelerates telomere attrition. However, growth, which may depend on temperature, can also contribute to...

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