420 Works

Data from: Interspecific variation in post-disturbance growth responses of a savanna tree community and its implications for escaping the fire trap

Julienne E. NeSmith, Wayne Twine & Ricardo M. Holdo
Vegetation states in savannas are highly sensitive to tree growth rates, which determine whether individual trees can ‘escape’ periodic disturbances. Resprouting trees have lopsided shoot:root ratios and are often multi-stemmed, and these variables can modify post-disturbance growth rates and therefore the probability of escape. To date, few studies have systematically examined the implications of interspecific variation in these factors for escape. We conducted a two-year field experiment in lowveld savanna in South Africa and quantified...

Data from: Pliant pathogens: Estimating viral spread when confronted with new vector, host, and environmental conditions

Anita Krause, Eric Seabloom, Elizabeth Borer, Lauren Shoemaker, Andrew Sieben, Ryan Campbell, Alexander Strauss & Allison Shaw
Pathogen spread rates are determined, in part, by the performance of pathogens under altered environmental conditions and their ability to persist while switching among hosts and vectors. To determine the effects of new conditions (host, vector, and nutrient) on pathogen spread rate, we introduced a vector-borne, viral plant pathogen, Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus PAV (BYDV-PAV) into hosts, vectors, and host nutrient supplies that it had not encountered for thousands of viral generations. We quantified pathogen...

Improved contiguity of the threespine stickleback genome using long-read sequencing

Shivangi Nath, Daniel Shaw & Michael White
While the cost and time for assembling a genome has drastically decreased, it still remains a challenge to assemble a highly contiguous genome. These challenges are rapidly being overcome by the integration of long-read sequencing technologies. Here, we use long-read sequencing to improve the contiguity of the threespine stickleback fish (Gasterosteus aculeatus) genome, a prominent genetic model species. Using Pacific Biosciences sequencing, we assembled a highly contiguous genome of a freshwater fish from Paxton Lake....

Leadership Outcomes Based on Membership in Multicultural Greek Council (Mgc) Organizations

Eric Atkinson, Laura A. Dean & Michelle M. Espino

Data from: Vitellogenin and vitellogenin receptor gene expression is associated with male and female parenting in a subsocial insect

Eileen M. Roy-Zokan, Christopher B. Cunningham, Lauren E. Hebb, Elizabeth C. McKinney & Allen J. Moore
Complex social behaviour in Hymenoptera has been hypothesized to evolve by co-opting reproductive pathways (the ovarian ground plan hypothesis, OGPH) and gene networks (the reproductive ground plan hypothesis, RGPH). In support of these hypotheses, in eusocial Hymenoptera where there is reproductive division of labour, the yolk precursor protein vitellogenin (Vg) influences the expression of worker social behaviour. We suggest that co-opting genes involved in reproduction may occur more generally than just in the evolution of...

Data from: Sex-biased gene expression in dioecious garden asparagus (Asparagus officinalis)

Alex Harkess, Francesco Mercati, Hong-Yan Shan, Francesco Sunseri, Agostino Falavigna & Jim Leebens-Mack
Sex chromosomes have evolved independently in phylogenetically diverse flowering plant lineages. The genes governing sex determination in dioecious species remain unknown, but theory predicts that the linkage of genes influencing male and female function will spur the origin and early evolution of sex chromosomes. For example, in an XY system, the origin of an active Y may be spurred by the linkage of female suppressing and male promoting genes. Garden asparagus (Asparagus officinalis) serves as...

Data from: Resolving phylogenetic relationships of the recently radiated carnivorous plant genus Sarracenia using target enrichment

Jessica D. Stephens, Willie L. Rogers, Karolina Heyduk, Jennifer M. Cruse-Sanders, Ron O. Determann, Travis C. Glenn & Russell L. Malmberg
The North American carnivorous pitcher plant genus Sarracenia (Sarraceniaceae) is a relatively young clade (<3 million years ago) displaying a wide range of morphological diversity in complex trapping structures. This recently radiated group is a promising system to examine the structural evolution and diversification of carnivorous plants; however, little is known regarding evolutionary relationships within the genus. Previous attempts at resolving the phylogeny have been unsuccessful, most likely due to few parsimony-informative sites compounded by...

Data from: A combined parasitological-molecular approach for non-invasive characterization of parasitic nematode communities in wild hosts

Sarah A. Budischak, Eric P. Hoberg, Art Abrams, Anna E. Jolles & Vanessa O. Ezenwa
Most hosts are concurrently or sequentially infected with multiple parasites; thus, fully understanding interactions between individual parasite species and their hosts depends on accurate characterization of the parasite community. For parasitic nematodes, noninvasive methods for obtaining quantitative, species-specific infection data in wildlife are often unreliable. Consequently, characterization of gastrointestinal nematode communities of wild hosts has largely relied on lethal sampling to isolate and enumerate adult worms directly from the tissues of dead hosts. The necessity...

Data from: Impacts of degraded DNA on restriction enzyme associated DNA sequencing (RADSeq)

Carly F. Graham, Travis C. Glenn, Andrew G. McArthur, Douglas R. Boreham, Troy Kieran, Stacey Lance, Richard G. Manzon, Jessica A. Martino, Todd Pierson, Sean M. Rogers, Joanna Y. Wilson & Christopher M. Somers
Degraded DNA from suboptimal field sampling is common in molecular ecology. However, its impact on techniques that use restriction site associated next-generation DNA sequencing (RADSeq, GBS) is unknown. We experimentally examined the effects of in situDNA degradation on data generation for a modified double-digest RADSeq approach (3RAD). We generated libraries using genomic DNA serially extracted from the muscle tissue of 8 individual lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) following 0-, 12-, 48- and 96-h incubation at room...

Data from: Genetic sampling for estimating density of common species

Ellen Cheng, Karen E. Hodges, Rahel Sollmann & L. Scott Mills
Understanding population dynamics requires reliable estimates of population density, yet this basic information is often surprisingly difficult to obtain. With rare or difficult-to-capture species, genetic surveys from noninvasive collection of hair or scat has proved cost-efficient for estimating densities. Here, we explored whether noninvasive genetic sampling (NGS) also offers promise for sampling a relatively common species, the snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus Erxleben, 1777), in comparison with traditional live trapping. We optimized a protocol for single-session...

Data from: Spatial and temporal components of induced plant responses in the context of herbivore life history and impact on host

Charles J. Mason, Caterina Villari, Ken Keefover-Ring, Stephanie Jagemann, Jun Zhu, Pierluigi Bonello & Kenneth F. Raffa
Plants defend against herbivores and pathogens through integrated constitutive and induced defenses. Induced responses may be expressed locally or tissue/plant-wide, i.e. systemically, and may also be primed for subsequent attack. Although the elicitation and efficacy of induced responses are increasingly well-characterized, we have little understanding of how timing and within-plant spatial patterns of induced defenses relate to different herbivore behaviors and selective pressures. We used interactions between pines and their major mortality agents, native bark...

Data from: Individual variation in the transmission of ultraviolet radiation in the young adult eye.

Billy Hammond, Lisa Hammond-Renzi, Billy R. Hammond & Lisa Renzi-Hammond
Objectives: Data obtained mostly from animal models and ex vivo samples show that a small portion of ultraviolet light (UV, 300-400 nm) penetrates the cornea and crystalline lens and impinges on the human retina. UV transmission to the retina appears to be unique to the young and some older pseudophakes. In this study, we determine the variation in UV transmission in a relatively homogenous sample of young adults. Methods: 42 subjects were tested (M =...

Data from: Fine‐scale geographic patterns of gene flow and reproductive character displacement in drosophila subquinaria and d. recens

Kelly A. Dyer, Emily R. Bewick, Brooke E. White, Michael J. Bray & Devon P. Humphreys
When two species are incompletely isolated, strengthening premating isolation barriers in response to the production of low fitness hybrids may complete the speciation process. Here we use the sister species Drosophila subquinaria and D. recens to study the conditions under which this reinforcement of species boundaries occurs in natural populations. We first extend the region of known sympatry between these species, and then we conduct a fine-scale geographic survey of mate discrimination coupled with estimates...

Data from: Migratory monarchs that encounter resident monarchs show life-history differences and higher rates of parasite infection

Dara A. Satterfield, John C. Maerz, Mark D. Hunter, D. T. Tyler Flockhart, Keith A. Hobson, D. Ryan Norris, Hillary Streit, Jacobus C. De Roode & Sonia Altizer
Environmental change induces some wildlife populations to shift from migratory to resident behaviours. Newly formed resident populations could influence the health and behaviour of remaining migrants. We investigated migrant-resident interactions among monarch butterflies and consequences for life history and parasitism. Eastern North American monarchs migrate annually to Mexico, but some now breed year-round on exotic milkweed in the southern U.S. and experience high infection prevalence of protozoan parasites. Using stable isotopes (2H, 13C) and cardenolide...

Data from: Assessing the contributions of intraspecific and environmental sources of infection in urban wildlife: Salmonella enterica and white ibis as a case study

Daniel J. Becker, Claire S. Teitelbaum, Maureen H. Murray, Shannon E. Curry, Catharine N. Welch, Taylor Ellison, Henry C. Adams, R. Scott Rozier, Erin K. Lipp, Sonia M. Hernandez, Sonia Altizer & Richard J. Hall
Conversion of natural habitats into urban landscapes can expose wildlife to novel pathogens and alter pathogen transmission pathways. Because transmission is difficult to quantify for many wildlife pathogens, mathematical models paired with field observations can help select among competing transmission pathways that might operate in urban landscapes. Here we develop a mathematical model for the enteric bacteria Salmonella enterica in urban-foraging white ibis (Eudocimus albus) in south Florida as a case study to determine (i)...

Data from: Pest tradeoffs in technology: reduced damage by caterpillars in Bt cotton benefits aphids

Steffen Hagenbucher, Felix L. Wäckers, Felix E. Wettstein, Dawn M. Olson, John R. Ruberson, Jörg Romeis & F. L. Wackers
The rapid adoption of genetically engineered (GE) plants that express insecticidal Cry proteins derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) has raised concerns about their potential impact on non-target organisms. This includes the possibility that non-target herbivores develop into pests. Although studies have now reported increased populations of non-target herbivores in Bt cotton, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. We propose that lack of herbivore-induced secondary metabolites in Bt cotton represents a mechanism that benefits non-target...

Data from: Patterns of genetic diversity reveal multiple introductions and recurrent founder effects during range expansion in invasive populations of Geranium carolinianum (Geraniaceae)

Rebecca Y. Shirk, James L. Hamrick, Chaobin Zhang & Sheng Qiang
Genetic diversity, and thus the adaptive potential of invasive populations, is largely based on three factors: patterns of genetic diversity in the species' native range, the number and location of introductions, and the number of founding individuals per introduction. Specifically, reductions in genetic diversity ("founder effects") should be stronger for species with low within-population diversity in their native range and few introductions of few individuals to the invasive range. We test these predictions with Geranium...

Data from: No evidence for behavioural adaptations to nematode parasitism by the fly Drosophila putrida

Catherine L. Debban & Kelly A. Dyer
Behavioural adaptations of hosts to their parasites form an important component of the evolutionary dynamics of host–parasite interactions. As mushroom-feeding Drosophila can tolerate deadly mycotoxins, but their Howardula nematode parasites cannot, we asked how consuming the potent mycotoxin α-amanitin has affected this host–parasite interaction. We used the fly D. putrida and its parasite H. aoronymphium, which is both highly virulent and at high prevalence in some populations, and investigated whether adult flies utilize food with...

Data from: Duplication and population dynamics shape historic patterns of selection and genetic variation at the major histocompatibility complex in rodents

Jamie C. Winternitz & John P. Wares
Genetic variation at the MHC is vitally important for wildlife populations to respond to pathogen threats. Because natural populations can fluctuate greatly in size, a key issue concerns how population cycles and bottlenecks that could reduce genetic diversity will influence MHC genes. Using 454 sequencing, we characterized genetic diversity at the DRB Class II locus in montane voles (Microtus montanus), a North American rodent that regularly undergoes high amplitude fluctuations in population size. We tested...

Data from: Targeting global conservation funding to limit immediate biodiversity declines

Anthony Waldron, Arne O. Mooers, Daniel C. Miller, Nate Nibbelink, David Redding, Tyler S. Kuhn, J. Timmons Roberts & John L. Gittleman
Inadequate funding levels are a major impediment to effective global biodiversity conservation and are likely associated with recent failures to meet United Nations biodiversity targets. Some countries are more severely underfunded than others and therefore represent urgent financial priorities. However, attempts to identify these highly underfunded countries have been hampered for decades by poor and incomplete data on actual spending, coupled with uncertainty and lack of consensus over the relative size of spending gaps. Here,...

Data from: Differential effects of landscape-level environmental features on genetic structure in three co-distributed tree species in Central America

Monica F. Poelchau & Jim L. Hamrick
Landscape genetic studies use spatially explicit population genetic information to determine the physical and environmental causes of population genetic structure on regional scales. Comparative studies that identify common barriers to gene flow across multiple species within a community are important to both understand the evolutionary trajectories of populations and to prioritize habitat conservation. Here, we use a comparative landscape genetic approach to ask whether gradients in temperature or precipitation seasonality structure genetic variation across three...

Data from: Sea level change and the area of shallow-marine habitat: implications for marine biodiversity

Steven M. Holland
Analysis of a global elevation database to measure changes in shallow-marine habitat area as a function of sea-level reveals an unexpectedly complicated relationship. In contrast to prevailing views, sea-level rise does not consistently generate an increase in shelf area, nor does sea-level fall consistently reduce shelf area. Different depth-defined habitats on the same margin will experience different changes in area for the same sea-level change, and different margins will likewise experience different changes in area...

Data from: Disruption of gene expression in hybrids of the fire ants Solenopsis invicta and Solenopsis richteri

Lino Ometto, Kenneth G. Ross, D. DeWayne Shoemaker & Laurent Keller
Transcriptome analysis is a powerful tool for unveiling the distribution and magnitude of genetic incompatibilities between hybridizing taxa. The nature of such incompatibilities is closely associated with the evolutionary histories of the parental species and may differ across tissues and between the sexes. In eusocial insects, the presence of castes that experience divergent selection regimes may result in additional distinct patterns of caste-specific hybrid incompatibilities. We analyzed levels of expression of >14,000 genes in two...

Data from: Experimental studies of adaptation in Clarkia xantiana. III. Phenotypic selection across a subspecies border

Jill Theresa Anderson, Vincent M. Eckhart & Monica Ann Geber
Sister taxa with distinct phenotypes often occupy contrasting environments in parapatric ranges, yet we generally do not know whether trait divergence reflects spatially-varying selection. We conducted a reciprocal transplant experiment to test whether selection favors “native phenotypes” in two subspecies of Clarkia xantiana (Onagraceae), an annual plant in California. For four quantitative traits that differ between subspecies, we estimated phenotypic selection in subspecies’ exclusive ranges and their contact zone in two consecutive years. We predicted...

Data from: The unexpected mating system of the androdioecious barnacle Chelonibia testudinaria (Linnaeus, 1758)

Christine Ewers-Saucedo, Neva B. Hope, John P. Wares & Christine Ewers
Androdioecy was first described by Darwin in his seminal work on barnacle diversity; he identified males and hermaphrodites in the same reproductive population. Today, we realize that many androdioecious plants and animals share astonishing similarities, particularly with regard to their evolutionary history and mating system. Notably, these species were ancestrally dioecious, and their mating system has the following characteristics: hermaphrodites self-fertilize frequently, males are more successful in large mating groups, and males have a mating...

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