463 Works

Leadership Outcomes Based on Membership in Multicultural Greek Council (Mgc) Organizations

Eric Atkinson, Laura A. Dean & Michelle M. Espino

Both consumptive and non-consumptive effects of predators impact mosquito populations and have implications for disease transmission

Marie C Russell, Catherine M Herzog, Zachary Gajewski, Chloe Ramsay, Fadoua El Moustaid, Michelle V Evans, Trishna Desai, Nicole L Gottdenker, Sara L Hermann, Alison G Power & Andrew C McCall
Predator-prey interactions influence prey traits through both consumptive and non-consumptive effects, and variation in these traits can shape vector-borne disease dynamics. Meta-analysis methods were employed to generate predation effect sizes by different categories of predators and mosquito prey. This analysis showed that multiple families of aquatic predators are effective in consumptively reducing mosquito survival, and that the survival of Aedes, Anopheles, and Culex mosquitoes is negatively impacted by consumptive effects of predators. Mosquito larval size...

Data from: Pliant pathogens: estimating viral spread when confronted with new vector, host, and environmental conditions

Anita Krause, Eric Seabloom, Elizabeth Borer, Lauren Shoemaker, Andrew Sieben, Ryan Campbell, Alexander Strauss & Allison Shaw
1. Pathogen spread rates are determined, in part, by the performance of pathogens under altered environmental conditions and their ability to persist while switching among hosts and vectors. 2. To determine the effects of new conditions (host, vector, and nutrient) on pathogen spread rate, we introduced a vector-borne, viral plant pathogen, Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus PAV (BYDV-PAV) into hosts, vectors, and host nutrient supplies that it had not encountered for thousands of viral generations. We...

Complex landscapes stabilize farm bird communities and their expected ecosystem services

Olivia Smith, Christina M. Kennedy, Alejandra Echeverri, Daniel Karp, Christopher Latimer, Joseph Taylor, Erin Wilson-Rankin, Jeb Owen & William Snyder
1. Birds play many roles within agroecosystems including as consumers of crops and pests, carriers of pathogens, and beloved icons. Birds are also rapidly declining across North America, in part due to agricultural intensification. Thus, it is imperative to identify how to manage agroecosystems to best support birds for multi-functional outcomes (e.g., crop production and conservation). Both the average amounts of services/disservices provided and their temporal stability are important for effective farm planning. 2. Here,...

Natural variation further increases resilience of sorghum bred for chronically drought-prone environments

Hongxu Dong, Techale Birhan, Nezif Abajebel, Misganu Wakjira, Tesfaye Mitiku, Cornelia Lemke, Vincent Vadez, Andrew H Paterson & Kassahun Bantte
Moisture stress is one of the major constraints for crop production in African Sahel. Here, we explore the potential to use natural genetic variation to build on the inherent drought tolerance of an elite sorghum cultivar (Teshale) bred for Ethiopian conditions including chronic drought, evaluating a backcross nested-association mapping population using 12 diverse founder lines crossed with Teshale under three drought-prone environments in Ethiopia. All twelve populations averaged higher head exsertion and lower leaf senescence...

Data from: Population genetics and independently replicated evolution of predator-associated burst speed ecophenotypy in mosquitofish

Thomas J DeWitt, Nicholas J Troendle, Mariana Mateos & Rodney Mauricio
Many species show replicated ecophenotypy due to recurring patterns of natural selection. Based on the presence or absence of pursuit predators, at least 17 species of fish repeatedly differentiated in body shape in a manner that increases burst swimming speed and the likelihood of predator escape. The predator-associated burst speed (PABS) ecophenotype is characterized by a small head and trunk and enlarged caudal region. Mechanisms promoting replicated phenotype-environment association include selection (without evolution), a single...

Data from: Duplication and sub/neofunctionalization of Malvolio, an insect homolog of Nramp, in the subsocial beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides

Elijah C. Mehlferber, Kyle M. Benowitz, Eileen M. Roy-Zokan, Elizabeth C. McKinney, Christopher B. Cunningham & Allen J. Moore
With growing numbers of sequenced genomes, increasing numbers of duplicate genes are uncovered. Here we examine Malvolio, a gene in the natural resistance-associated macrophage protein (Nramp) family, that has been duplicated in the subsocial beetle, Nicrophorus vespilloides, which exhibits advanced parental behavior. There is only one copy of Mvl in honey bees and Drosophila, whereas in vertebrates there are two copies that are subfunctionalized. We first compared amino acid sequences for Drosophila, beetles, mouse and...

Data from: Size-assortative choice and mate availability influences hybridization between red wolves (Canis rufus) and coyotes (Canis latrans)

Joseph W. Hinton, John L. Gittleman, Frank T. Van Manen & Michael J. Chamberlain
Anthropogenic hybridization of historically isolated taxa has become a primary conservation challenge for many imperiled species. Indeed, hybridization between red wolves (Canis rufus) and coyotes (Canis latrans) poses a significant challenge to red wolf recovery. We considered 7 hypotheses to assess factors influencing hybridization between red wolves and coyotes via pair-bonding between the two species. Because long-term monogamy and defense of all-purpose territories are core characteristics of both species, mate choice has long-term consequences. Therefore,...

Data from: Comparative analysis of ear-hole closure identifies epimorphic regeneration as a discrete trait in mammals

Thomas R. Gawriluk, Jennifer Simkin, Katherine L. Thompson, Shishir K. Biswas, Zak Clare-Salzler, John M. Kimani, Stephen G. Kiama, Jeramiah J. Smith, Vanessa O. Ezenwa & Ashley W. Seifert
Why mammals have poor regenerative ability has remained a long-standing question in biology. In regenerating vertebrates, injury can induce a process known as epimorphic regeneration to replace damaged structures. Using a 4-mm ear punch assay across multiple mammalian species, here we show that several Acomys spp. (spiny mice) and Oryctolagus cuniculus completely regenerate tissue, whereas other rodents including MRL/MpJ ‘healer’ mice heal similar injuries by scarring. We demonstrate ear-hole closure is independent of ear size,...

Data from: A combined parasitological-molecular approach for non-invasive characterization of parasitic nematode communities in wild hosts

Sarah A. Budischak, Eric P. Hoberg, Art Abrams, Anna E. Jolles & Vanessa O. Ezenwa
Most hosts are concurrently or sequentially infected with multiple parasites; thus, fully understanding interactions between individual parasite species and their hosts depends on accurate characterization of the parasite community. For parasitic nematodes, noninvasive methods for obtaining quantitative, species-specific infection data in wildlife are often unreliable. Consequently, characterization of gastrointestinal nematode communities of wild hosts has largely relied on lethal sampling to isolate and enumerate adult worms directly from the tissues of dead hosts. The necessity...

Data from: Sea level change and the area of shallow-marine habitat: implications for marine biodiversity

Steven M. Holland
Analysis of a global elevation database to measure changes in shallow-marine habitat area as a function of sea-level reveals an unexpectedly complicated relationship. In contrast to prevailing views, sea-level rise does not consistently generate an increase in shelf area, nor does sea-level fall consistently reduce shelf area. Different depth-defined habitats on the same margin will experience different changes in area for the same sea-level change, and different margins will likewise experience different changes in area...

Data from: Large wildlife removal drives immune defense increases in rodents

Hillary S. Young, Rodolfo Dirzo, Kristofer M. Helgen, Douglas J. McCauley, Charles L. Nunn, Paul Snyder, Kari E. Veblen, Serena Zhao & Vanessa O. Ezenwa
Anthropogenic disturbances involving land use change, climate disruption, pollution, and invasive species have been shown to impact immune function of wild animals. These immune changes have direct impacts on the fitness of impacted animals and, also, potentially indirect effects on other species and on ecological processes, notably involving the spread of infectious disease. Here, we investigate whether the selective loss of large wildlife can also drive changes in immune function of other consumer species. Using...

Data from: Reproductive isolation and introgression between sympatric Mimulus species

Amanda M. Kenney & Andrea L. Sweigart
Incompletely isolated species provide an opportunity to investigate the genetic mechanisms and evolutionary forces that maintain distinct species in the face of ongoing gene flow. Here, we use field surveys and reduced representation sequencing to characterize the patterns of reproductive isolation, admixture and genomic divergence between populations of the outcrossing wildflower Mimulus guttatus and selfing M. nasutus. Focusing on a single site where these two species have come into secondary contact, we find that phenological...

Data from: Necrobiome framework for bridging decomposition ecology of autotrophically and heterotrophically derived organic matter

Mark Eric Benbow, Philip S. Barton, Michael D. Ulyshen, James C. Beasley, Travis L. DeVault, Michael S. Strickland, Jeffery K. Tomberlin, Heather R. Jordan & Jennifer L. Pechal
Decomposition contributes to global ecosystem function by contributing to nutrient recycling, energy flow and limiting biomass accumulation. The decomposer organisms influencing this process form diverse, complex, and highly dynamic communities that often specialize on different plant or animal resources. Despite performing the same net role, there is a need to conceptually synthesize information on the structure and function of decomposer communities across the spectrum of dead plant and animal resources. A lack of synthesis has...

Data from: The unexpected mating system of the androdioecious barnacle Chelonibia testudinaria (Linnaeus, 1758)

Christine Ewers-Saucedo, Neva B. Hope, John P. Wares & Christine Ewers
Androdioecy was first described by Darwin in his seminal work on barnacle diversity; he identified males and hermaphrodites in the same reproductive population. Today, we realize that many androdioecious plants and animals share astonishing similarities, particularly with regard to their evolutionary history and mating system. Notably, these species were ancestrally dioecious, and their mating system has the following characteristics: hermaphrodites self-fertilize frequently, males are more successful in large mating groups, and males have a mating...

Data from: Duplication and population dynamics shape historic patterns of selection and genetic variation at the major histocompatibility complex in rodents

Jamie C. Winternitz & John P. Wares
Genetic variation at the MHC is vitally important for wildlife populations to respond to pathogen threats. Because natural populations can fluctuate greatly in size, a key issue concerns how population cycles and bottlenecks that could reduce genetic diversity will influence MHC genes. Using 454 sequencing, we characterized genetic diversity at the DRB Class II locus in montane voles (Microtus montanus), a North American rodent that regularly undergoes high amplitude fluctuations in population size. We tested...

Data from: Individual variation in the transmission of ultraviolet radiation in the young adult eye.

Billy Hammond, Lisa Hammond-Renzi, Billy R. Hammond & Lisa Renzi-Hammond
Objectives: Data obtained mostly from animal models and ex vivo samples show that a small portion of ultraviolet light (UV, 300-400 nm) penetrates the cornea and crystalline lens and impinges on the human retina. UV transmission to the retina appears to be unique to the young and some older pseudophakes. In this study, we determine the variation in UV transmission in a relatively homogenous sample of young adults. Methods: 42 subjects were tested (M =...

Data from: Development of microsatellite markers for buffalograss (Buchloë dactyloides; Poaceae), a drought-tolerant turfgrass alternative

Jacob J. Hadle, Lauren A. Konrade, Rochelle R. Beasley, Stacey L. Lance, Kenneth L. Jones & James B. Beck
Premise of the study: Buchloë dactyloides is an important component of Great Plains prairies and a popular drought-tolerant turfgrass alternative in North America. This species comprises an autopolyploid series, and microsatellite primers were developed in order to understand the distribution of genetic variation among cytotypes and across its large geographic range. Methods and Results: Fifteen microsatellite loci were designed and successfully amplified in six B. dactyloides populations. Within-population genetic diversity was comparatively high, consistent with...

Data from: Local adaptation of fish consumers alters primary production through changes in algal community composition and diversity

Ron D. Bassar, Brynne L. Bryan, Michael C. Marshall, Catherine M. Pringle, David N. Reznick, Joseph Travis & Ronald D. Bassar
Ecological research has focused on understanding how changes in consumer abundance affect community structure and ecosystem processes. However, there is increasing evidence that evolutionary changes in consumers can also alter community structure and ecosystem processes. Typically, the effects of consumer phenotype on communities and ecosystem processes are measured as net effects that integrate numerous ecological pathways. Here, we analyze new data from experimental manipulations of Trinidadian guppy Poecilia reticulata presence, density and phenotype to examine...

Data from: Predator-prey trophic relationships in response to organic management practices

Jason M. Schmidt, Sarah K. Barney, Mark A. Williams, Ricardo T. Bessin, Timothy W. Coolong & James D. Harwood
A broad range of environmental conditions likely regulate predator-prey population dynamics and impact the structure of these communities. Central to understanding the interplay between predator and prey populations and their importance is characterizing the corresponding trophic interactions. Here we use a well-documented molecular approach to examine the structure of the community of natural enemies preying upon the squash bug, Anasa tristis, a herbivorous cucurbit pest that severely hinders organic squash and pumpkin production in the...

Data from: On the relationship between body condition and parasite infection in wildlife: a review and meta‐analysis

Cecilia A. Sánchez, Daniel J. Becker, Claire S. Teitelbaum, Paola Barriga, Leone M. Brown, Ania Aleksandra Majewska, Richard J. Hall & Sonia Altizer
Body condition metrics are widely used to infer animal health and to assess costs of parasite infection. Since parasites harm their hosts, ecologists might expect negative relationships between infection and condition in wildlife, but this assumption is challenged by studies showing positive or null condition–infection relationships. Here, we outline common condition metrics used by ecologists in studies of parasitism, and consider mechanisms that cause negative, positive, and null condition–infection relationships in wildlife systems. We then...

Data from: Pest tradeoffs in technology: reduced damage by caterpillars in Bt cotton benefits aphids

Steffen Hagenbucher, Felix L. Wäckers, Felix E. Wettstein, Dawn M. Olson, John R. Ruberson, Jörg Romeis & F. L. Wackers
The rapid adoption of genetically engineered (GE) plants that express insecticidal Cry proteins derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) has raised concerns about their potential impact on non-target organisms. This includes the possibility that non-target herbivores develop into pests. Although studies have now reported increased populations of non-target herbivores in Bt cotton, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. We propose that lack of herbivore-induced secondary metabolites in Bt cotton represents a mechanism that benefits non-target...

Data from: Patterns of genetic diversity reveal multiple introductions and recurrent founder effects during range expansion in invasive populations of Geranium carolinianum (Geraniaceae)

Rebecca Y. Shirk, James L. Hamrick, Chaobin Zhang & Sheng Qiang
Genetic diversity, and thus the adaptive potential of invasive populations, is largely based on three factors: patterns of genetic diversity in the species' native range, the number and location of introductions, and the number of founding individuals per introduction. Specifically, reductions in genetic diversity ("founder effects") should be stronger for species with low within-population diversity in their native range and few introductions of few individuals to the invasive range. We test these predictions with Geranium...

Data from: Vitellogenin and vitellogenin receptor gene expression is associated with male and female parenting in a subsocial insect

Eileen M. Roy-Zokan, Christopher B. Cunningham, Lauren E. Hebb, Elizabeth C. McKinney & Allen J. Moore
Complex social behaviour in Hymenoptera has been hypothesized to evolve by co-opting reproductive pathways (the ovarian ground plan hypothesis, OGPH) and gene networks (the reproductive ground plan hypothesis, RGPH). In support of these hypotheses, in eusocial Hymenoptera where there is reproductive division of labour, the yolk precursor protein vitellogenin (Vg) influences the expression of worker social behaviour. We suggest that co-opting genes involved in reproduction may occur more generally than just in the evolution of...

Data from: Experimental studies of adaptation in Clarkia xantiana. III. Phenotypic selection across a subspecies border

Jill Theresa Anderson, Vincent M. Eckhart & Monica Ann Geber
Sister taxa with distinct phenotypes often occupy contrasting environments in parapatric ranges, yet we generally do not know whether trait divergence reflects spatially-varying selection. We conducted a reciprocal transplant experiment to test whether selection favors “native phenotypes” in two subspecies of Clarkia xantiana (Onagraceae), an annual plant in California. For four quantitative traits that differ between subspecies, we estimated phenotypic selection in subspecies’ exclusive ranges and their contact zone in two consecutive years. We predicted...

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  • University of Georgia
  • Cornell University
  • University of Florida
  • University of California, Davis
  • United States Department of Agriculture
  • University of Wisconsin-Madison
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  • University of British Columbia
  • Oregon State University