483 Works

Data from: Variation in mandible development and its relationship to dependence on parents across burying beetles

Kyle M. Benowitz, Madeline E. Sparks, Elizabeth C. McKinney, Patricia J. Moore & Allen J. Moore
Background: In species with parental care, there is striking variation in offspring dependence at birth, ranging from feeding independence to complete dependency on parents for nutrition. Frequently, highly dependent offspring further evolve reductions or alterations of morphological traits that would otherwise promote self-sufficiency. Here, we examine evidence for morphological evolution associated with dependence in burying beetles (Nicrophorus spp.), in which dependence upon parents appears to have several independent origins. In many species precocial first instar...

Data from: Assessing the in situ fertilization status of two marine copepod species, Temora longicornis and Eurytemora herdmani; how common are unfertilized eggs in nature?

Rachel S. Lasley-Rasher, Andrew M. Kramer, Victoria Burdett-Coutts & Jeannette Yen
We utilized an egg staining technique to measure the in situ fertilization success of two marine copepod species, Temora longicornis and Eurytemora herdmani from May to October 2008 in coastal Maine and correlated fertilization success with environmental conditions in their habitat. T. longicornis is a free spawning species that releases eggs into the ambient seawater after mating. In contrast, E. herdmani carries eggs in an egg sac until they hatch. The proportion of fertilized eggs...

Data from: Competitive response of savanna tree seedlings to C4 grasses is negatively related to photosynthesis rate

Tracy A. Campbell & Ricardo M. Holdo
Savanna tree species vary in the magnitude of their response to grass competition, but the functional traits that explain this variation remain largely unknown. To address this gap, we grew seedlings of 10 savanna tree species with and without grasses in a controlled greenhouse experiment. We found strong interspecific differences in tree competitive response, which was positively related to photosynthesis rates, suggesting a trade-off between the ability to grow well under conditions of low and...

Data from: Sex in an uncertain world: environmental stochasticity helps restore competitive balance between sexually and asexually reproducing populations

Andrew W. Park, Jochen Vandekerkhove & Yannis Michalakis
Like many organisms, individuals of the freshwater ostracod species Eucypris virens can have either obligate sexual or asexual reproductive modes. Both types of individual routinely co-occur, including in the same temporary freshwater pond (their natural habitat in which they undergo seasonal diapause). Given the well-known two-fold cost of sex, this begs the question of how sexually reproducing individuals are able to co-exist with their asexual counterparts in spite of such overwhelming costs. Environmental stochasticity in...

Data from: Phylogenetic patterns of trait and trait plasticity evolution: Insights from amphibian embryos

Rick Relyea, Patrick R. Stephens, Lisa N. Barrow, Andrew Blaustein, Paul Bradley, Julia Buck, Ann Chang, Brian I Crother, James Collins, Julia Earl, Stephanie S. Gervasi, Jason T. Hoverman, Olliver Hyman, Emily Claire Moriarty Lemmon, Thomas Luhring, Moses Michelsohn, Christopher M. Murray, Steven Price, Raymond Semlitsch, Andy Sih, Aaron Stoler, Nick VandenBroek, Alexa Warwick, Greta Wengert, John Hammond … & Aaron B. Stoler
Environmental variation favors the evolution of phenotypic plasticity. For many species, we understand the costs and benefits of different phenotypes, but we lack a broad understanding of how plastic traits evolve across large clades. Using identical experiments conducted across North America, we examined prey responses to predator cues. We quantified five life history traits and the magnitude of their plasticity for 23 amphibian species/populations (spanning three families and five genera) when exposed to no cues,...

Data from: Extensive genetic diversity is present within North American switchgrass germplasm

Joseph Evans, Millicent D. Sanciangco, Kin H. Lau, Emily Crisovan, Kerrie Barry, Chris Daum, Hope Hundley, Jerry Jenkins, Megan Kennedy, Govindarajan Kunde-Ramamoorthy, Brieanne Vaillancourt, Ananta Acharya, Jeremy Schmutz, Malay Saha, Shawn M. Kaeppler, E. Charles Brummer, Michael D. Casler & C. Robin Buell
Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a perennial native North American grass present in two ecotypes: upland, found primarily in the northern range of switchgrass habitats, and lowland, found largely in the southern reaches of switchgrass habitats. Previous studies focused on a diversity panel of primarily northern switchgrass, so to expand our knowledge of genetic diversity in a broader set of North American switchgrass, exome capture sequence data were generated for 632 additional, primarily lowland individuals....

Data from: Kelp and dolphin gulls cause perineal wounds in South American fur seal pups (Arctocephalus australis) at Guafo Island, Chilean Patagonia

Mauricio Seguel, Francisco Muñoz, Felipe Montalva, Diego Perez-Venegas, Héctor Paves & Nicole Gottdenker
During five reproductive seasons, we documented the presence, extent and origin of perineal wounds in South American fur seal pups (Arctocephalus australis) on Guafo Island, Northern Chilean Patagonia. The seasonal prevalence of perineal wounds ranged from 5 to 9%, and new cases were more common at the end of the breeding season (February), when pups were on average two months old and were actively expelling hookworms (Uncinaria sp). Histologically, wounds corresponded to marked ulcerative lymphoplasmacytic...

Data from: Macroevolution of leaf defenses and secondary metabolites across the genus Helianthus

Chase M. Mason, Alan W. Bowsher, Breanna L. Crowell, Rhodesia M. Celoy, Chung-Jui Tsai & Lisa A. Donovan
Leaf defenses are widely recognized as key adaptations and drivers of plant evolution. Across environmentally diverse habitats, the macroevolution of leaf defenses can be predicted by the univariate trade-off model, which predicts that defenses are functionally redundant and thus trade off, and the resource availability hypothesis, which predicts that defense investment is determined by inherent growth rate and that higher defense will evolve in lower resource environments. Here, we examined the evolution of leaf physical...

Data from: Biotic and abiotic variables influencing plant litter breakdown in streams: a global study

Luz Boyero, Richard Pearson, Cang Hui, Mark Gessner, Javier Perez, Markos Alexandrou, Manuel Graça, Bradley Cardinale, Ricardo Albariño, M. Arunachalam, Leon Barmuta, Andrew Boulton, Andreas Bruder, Marcos Callisto, Eric Chauvet, Russell Death, David Dudgeon, Andrea Encalada, Veronica Ferreira, Ricardo Figueroa, Alex Flecker, , Julie Helson, Tomoya Iwata, Tajang Jinggut … & Catherine Yule
Plant litter breakdown is a key ecological process in terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems. Streams and rivers, in particular, have high rates of carbon dioxide evasion and they contribute substantially to global carbon fluxes. However, there is little information available on the relative roles of different drivers of plant litter breakdown in fresh waters, particularly at large scales. We present a global-scale study of litter breakdown in streams to compare the roles of biotic, climatic and...

Data from: Soil-mediated eco-evolutionary feedbacks in the invasive plant Alliaria petiolata

Jeffrey A. Evans, Richard A. Lankau, Adam S. Davis, S. Raghu & Douglas A. Landis
Ecological and evolutionary processes historically have been assumed to operate on significantly different time scales. We know now from theory and work in experimental and model systems that these processes can feed back on each other on mutually relevant time scales. Here, we present evidence of a soil-mediated eco-evolutionary feedback on the population dynamics of an invasive biennial plant, Alliaria petiolata. As populations age, natural selection drives down production of A. petiolata's important anti-mycorrhizal allelochemical,...

Data from: Influenza A virus: sampling of the unique shorebird habitat at Delaware Bay, USA

Rebecca L. Poulson, Page M. Luttrell, Morgan J. Slusher, Benjamin R. Wilcox, Lawrence J. Niles, Amanda D. Dey, Roy D. Berghaus, Scott Krauss, Robert G. Webster & David E. Stallknecht
Delaware (DE) Bay, in the northeastern United States, has long been recognized as a hotspot for avian influenza A virus (IAV); every spring, this coastal region serves as a brief stopover site for thousands of long-distance migrating shorebirds, en route to breeding grounds in the Arctic. During these stopovers, IAV have been consistently recovered from Ruddy Turnstones (Arenaria interpres) that are likely to become infected as they feed by probing sand and cobble in search...

Data from: Monarch butterfly population decline in North America: identifying the threatening processes

Wayne E. Thogmartin, Ruscena Wiederholt, Karen Oberhauser, Ryan G. Drum, Jay E. Diffendorfer, Sonia Altizer, Orley R. Taylor, John Pleasants, Darius Semmens, Brice Semmens, Richard Erickson, Kaitlin Libby & Laura Lopez-Hoffman
The monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) population in North America has sharply declined over the last two decades. Despite rising concern over the monarch butterfly's status, no comprehensive study of the factors driving this decline has been conducted. Using partial least-squares regressions and time-series analysis, we investigated climatic and habitat-related factors influencing monarch population size from 1993 to 2014. Potential threats included climatic factors, habitat loss (milkweed and overwinter forest), disease and agricultural insecticide use (neonicotinoids)....

Data from: Relationship between maternal environment and DNA methylation patterns of estrogen receptor alpha in wild Eastern Bluebird (Sialia sialis) nestlings: a pilot study

Alexandra B. Bentz, Aubrey E. Sirman, Haruka Wada, Kristen J. Navara & Wendy R. Hood
There is mounting evidence that, across taxa, females breeding in competitive environments tend to allocate more testosterone to their offspring prenatally and these offspring typically have more aggressive and faster-growing phenotypes. To date, no study has determined the mechanisms mediating this maternal effect's influence on offspring phenotype. However, levels of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) gene expression are linked to differences in early growth and aggression; thus, maternal hormones may alter gene regulation, perhaps via DNA...

Data from: Phylogenomic analyses of Sabal (Arecaceae) species relationships using targeted sequence capture

Karolina Heyduk, Dorset W. Trapnell, Craig F. Barrett & Jim Leebens-Mack
With the increasing availability of high-throughput sequencing, phylogenetic analyses are no longer constrained by the limited availability of a few loci. Here, we describe a sequence capture methodology, which we used to collect data for analyses of diversification within Sabal (Arecaceae), a palm genus native to the south-eastern USA, Caribbean, Bermuda and Central America. RNA probes were developed and used to enrich DNA samples for putatively low copy nuclear genes and the plastomes for all...

Data from: Genomic data detect corresponding signatures of population size change on an ecological time scale in two salamander species

Schyler O. Nunziata, Stacey L. Lance, David E. Scott, Emily Moriarty Lemmon & David W. Weisrock
Understanding the demography of species over recent history (e.g., < 100 years) is critical in studies of ecology and evolution, but records of population history are rarely available. Surveying genetic variation is a potential alternative to census-based estimates of population size, and can yield insight into the demography of a population. However, to assess the performance of genetic methods it is important to compare their estimates of population history to known demography. Here, we leveraged...

Data from: Parasitoid gene expression changes after adaptation to symbiont-protected hosts

Alice B. Dennis, Vilas Patel, Kerry M. Oliver & Christoph Vorburger
Reciprocal selection between aphids, their protective endosymbionts, and the parasitoid wasps that prey upon them offers an opportunity to study the basis of their coevolution. We investigated adaptation to symbiont-conferred defense by rearing the parasitoid wasp Lysiphlebus fabarum on aphids (Aphis fabae) possessing different defensive symbiont strains (Hamiltonella defensa). After ten generations of experimental evolution, wasps showed increased abilities to parasitize aphids possessing the H. defensa strain they evolved with, but not aphids possessing the...

Data from: Accuracy of climate-based forecasts of pathogen spread

Annakate M. Schatz, Andrew M. Kramer & John M. Drake
Species distribution models (SDMs) are a tool for predicting the eventual geographical range of an emerging pathogen. Most SDMs, however, rely on an assumption of equilibrium with the environment, which an emerging pathogen, by definition, has not reached. To determine if some SDM approaches work better than others for modelling the spread of emerging, non-equilibrium pathogens, we studied time-sensitive predictive performance of SDMs for Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, a devastating infectious fungus of amphibians, using multiple methods...

Data from: Long-term monitoring data provide evidence of declining species richness in a river valued for biodiversity conservation

Mary C. Freeman, Megan M. Hagler, Phillip M. Bumpers, Kit Wheeler, Seth J. Wenger, Bryan J. Freeman & Byron J. Freeman
Free-flowing river segments provide refuges for many imperiled aquatic biota that have been extirpated elsewhere in their native ranges. These biodiversity refuges are also foci of conservation concerns because species persisting within isolated habitat fragments may be particularly vulnerable to local environmental change. We have analyzed long-term (14- and 20-year) survey data to assess evidence of fish species declines in two southeastern U.S. rivers where managers and stakeholders have identified potentially detrimental impacts of current...

Data from: Waiting time to infectious disease emergence

Christopher J. Dibble, Eamon B. O'Dea, Andrew W. Park & John M. Drake
Emerging diseases must make a transition from stuttering chains of transmission to sustained chains of transmission, but this critical transition need not coincide with the system becoming supercritical. That is, the introduction of infection to a supercritical system results in a significant fraction of the population becoming infected only with a certain probability. Understanding the waiting time to the first major outbreak of an emerging disease is then more complicated than determining when the system...

Mass ratio effects underlie ecosystem responses to environmental change

Melinda Smith, Sally Koerner, Alan Knapp, Meghan Avolio, Francis Chaves, Elsie Denton, John Dietrich, David Gibson, Jesse Gray, Ava Hoffman, David Hoover, Kimberly Komatsu, Andrea Silletti, Kevin Wilcox, Qiang Yu & John Blair
1. Random species loss has been shown experimentally to reduce ecosystem function, sometimes more than other anthropogenic environmental changes. Yet, controversy surrounds the importance of this finding for natural systems where species loss is non-random. 2. We compiled data from 16 multi-year experiments located at a single site in native tallgrass prairie. These experiments included responses to 11 anthropogenic environmental changes, as well as non-random biodiversity loss - either the removal of uncommon/rare plant species...

Data from: Mass ratio effects underlie ecosystem responses to environmental change

Melinda Smith & Andrea Silletti
1. Random species loss has been shown experimentally to reduce ecosystem function, sometimes more than other anthropogenic environmental changes. Yet, controversy surrounds the importance of this finding for natural systems where species loss is non-random. 2. We compiled data from 16 multi-year experiments located at a single site in native tallgrass prairie. These experiments included responses to 11 anthropogenic environmental changes, as well as non-random biodiversity loss - either the removal of uncommon/rare plant species...

Data from: Anatomical and hydraulic responses to desiccation in emergent conifer seedlings

Daniel Johnson, Megan Miller, Adam Roddy, Craig Brodersen & Andrew McElrone
Premise of the study: The young seedling life stage is critical for reforestation after disturbance and for species migration under climate change, yet little is known regarding their basic hydraulic function or vulnerability to drought. Here, we sought to characterize responses to desiccation including hydraulic vulnerability, xylem anatomical traits, and impacts on other stem tissues that contribute to hydraulic functioning. Methods: Larix occidentalis , Pseudotsuga menziesii , and Pinus ponderosa (all < 6 weeks-old) were...

Data from: Large-scale patterns of seed removal by small mammals differ between areas of low vs. high wolf occupancy

Jennifer L. Chandler, Timothy R. Van Deelen, Nathan P. Nibbelink & John L. Orrock
Because most tree species recruit from seeds, seed predation by small-mammal granivores may be important for determining plant distribution and regeneration in forests. Despite the importance of seed predation, large-scale patterns of small-mammal granivory are often highly variable and thus, difficult to predict. We hypothesize distributions of apex predators can create large-scale variation in the distribution and abundance of mesopredators that consume small-mammals, creating predictable areas of high and low granivory. For example, because gray...

Data from: Recognizing pulses of extinction from clusters of last occurrences

Joshua Zimmt, Steven Holland, Seth Finnegan & Charles Marshall
The distribution of last occurrences of fossil taxa in a stratigraphic column are used to infer the pattern, timing, and tempo of extinction from the fossil record. Clusters of last occurrences are commonly interpreted as an abrupt pulse of extinction. However, stratigraphic architecture alone can produce clusters of last occurrences that can be misinterpreted as an extinction pulse. These clusters will typically occur in strata that immediately underlie facies changes and sequence-stratigraphic surfaces. It has...

Data from: A comparison of diversity estimators applied to a database of host-parasite associations

Claire Teitelbaum, Caroline Amoroso, Shan Huang, T. Jonathan Davies, Julie Rushmore, John Drake, Patrick Stephens, James Byers, Ania Majewska & Charles Nunn
Understanding the drivers of biodiversity is important for forecasting changes in the distribution of life on earth. However, most studies of biodiversity are limited by uneven sampling effort, with some regions or taxa better sampled than others. Numerous methods have been developed to account for differences in sampling effort, but most methods were developed for systematic surveys in which all study units are sampled using the same design and assemblages are sampled randomly. Databases compiled...

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