482 Works

No net insect abundance and diversity declines across US Long Term Ecological Research sites

Michael Crossley, Amanda Meier, Emily Baldwin, Lauren Berry, Leah Crenshaw, Glen Hartman, Doris Lagos-Kutz, David Nichols, Krishna Patel, Sofia Varriano, Matthew Moran & William Snyder
Recent reports of dramatic declines in insect abundance suggest grave consequences for global ecosystems and human society. Most evidence comes from Europe, however, leaving uncertainty about insect population trends worldwide. We used > 5,300 time series for insects and other arthropods, collected over 4-36 years at monitoring sites representing 68 different natural and managed areas, to search for evidence of declines across the United States. Some taxa and sites showed decreases in abundance and diversity...

Data from: Ultraconserved elements reconstruct the evolution of the Chagas disease-vectoring kissing bugs (Reduviidae: Triatominae)

Troy J. Kieran, Eric R. L. Gordon, Alejandro Zaldivar-Riveron, Carlos N. Ibarra-Cerdena, Travis C. Glenn & Christiane Weirauch
With about 150 species, Triatominae, the kissing bugs, are the largest radiation of hematophagous species within the Hemiptera. Kissing bugs are the sole vectors of the causative agent of Chagas disease, a tropical neglected disease that affects millions, mostly in Central and South America. Surprisingly, given the medical importance of this group, the evolutionary origin of Triatominae from predatory assassin bug ancestors is still under debate and phylogenetic relationships among and within the five tribes...

Geographic patterns of genomic variation in the threatened Salado salamander, Eurycea chisholmensis

Chris Nice, James Fordyce, V. Alex Sotola, Justin Crow & Peter Diaz
Aquatic, karst and spring endemic organisms have become a focus of conservation efforts as human population densities and demand for groundwater increase. This is especially true of Texas salamanders in the genus Eurycea that have been the subject of investigations of patterns of genetic differentiation in order to understand their systematics and to inform conservation planning. Here we quantify patterns of population differentiation in the northern most species, Eurycea chisholmensis, the Salado salamander, which is...

Relative reproductive phenology and synchrony affect neonate survival in a nonprecocial ungulate

Eric Michel, Bronson Strickland, Stephen Demarais, Jerrold Belant, Todd Kautz, Jared Duquette, Dean Beyer, Michael Chamberlain, Karl Miller, Rebecca Shuman, John Kilgo, Duane Diefenbach, Bret Wallingford, Justin Vreeland, Steve Ditchkoff, Christopher DePerno, Christopher Moorman, Michael Chitwood & Marcus Lashley
1. Degree of reproductive synchronization in prey is hypothesized as a predator defense strategy reducing prey risk via predator satiation or predator avoidance. Species with precocial young, especially those exposed to specialist predators, should be highly synchronous to satiate predators (predator satiation hypothesis), while prey with nonprecocial (i.e., altricial) young, especially those exposed to generalist predators, should become relatively asynchronous to avoid predator detection (predator avoidance hypothesis). The white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in North America...

Temporal nitrogen dynamics in intensively managed loblolly pine early stand development

Gabriel Ferreira, Benjamin Rau & Doug Aubrey
Forest production is strongly dependent on nutrient uptake; however, sustainable management of intensively managed plantations requires an improved understanding of this relationship when fertilization occurs frequently across short rotations. Here, we studied temporal nitrogen (N) concentration ([N]) and content (Nc) dynamics under different silvicultural practices (herbicide, fertilization, and planting density) throughout early loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) stand development (5 years). We describe relationships of [N] and Nc of different stand components (foliage, branches, stem, roots,...

Models to assess ability to achieve localized areas of reduced white-tailed deer density

Amanda Van Buskirk, Christopher Rosenberry, Bret Wallingford, Emily Just Domoto, Marc McDill, Patrick Drohan & Duane Diefenbach
Localized management of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) involves the removal of matriarchal family units with the intent to create areas of reduced deer density. However, application of this approach has not always been successful, possibly because of female dispersal and high deer densities. We developed a spatially explicit, agent-based model to investigate the intensity of deer removal required to locally reduce deer density depending on the surrounding deer density, dispersal behavior, and size and shape...

Data from: A phylogeny for the Drosophila montium species group: a model clade for comparative analyses

William Conner, Emily Delaney, Michael Bronski, Paul Ginsberg, Timothy Wheeler, Kelly Richardson, Brooke Peckenpaugh, Kevin Kim, Masayoshi Watada, Ary Hoffmann, Michael Eisen, Artyom Kopp, Brandon Cooper & Michael Turelli
The Drosophila montium species group is a clade of 94 named species closely related to the model D. melanogaster species group. The montium species group is distributed over a broad geographic range throughout Asia, Africa, and Australasia. Species of this group possess a wide range of morphologies, mating behaviors, and endosymbiont associations, making this clade useful for comparative analyses. We use genomic data from 42 available species to estimate the phylogeny and relative divergence times...

Incidence of prey DNA in predators from a cotton system utilizing winter cover crops

Carson Bowers, Jason Schmidt & Michael Toews
There is increasing interest in the use of winter cover crops in annual cropping systems to promote beneficial insects and the ecosystem services they provide. One such, biological control, is a result of predation on economically important pests within an agricultural system. The presence of cover crop residue alongside growing cotton has the potential to bolster natural enemy communities and influence trophic relationships between predators and prey. Arthropod predators were sampled from a Georgia cotton...

Parasitoid communities in the variable agricultural environments of blueberry production in the Southeastern USA

Jason Schmidt
In blueberry crops, there are multiple pest species, and some of those can be suppressed by natural enemies including parasitoid wasps and predators. Parasitoid wasps occur within the environment often tracking pest species for food resources to complete their lifecycle. These small wasps are also sensitive to agricultural environments including agrichemicals, habitat availability, and climate. We investigated how the structure of parasitoid communities varied between organic and conventional blueberry systems, and how the communities of...

Impacts of beekeeping on wild bee diversity and pollination networks in the Aegean Archipelago

Amparo Lázaro, Andreas Mueller, Andreas Ebmer, Holger Dathe, Erwin Scheuchl, Maximilian Schwarz, Stephan Risch, Alain Pauly, Jelle Devalez, Thomas Tscheulin, Carmelo Gómez-Martínez, Evangelos Papas, John Pickering, Nickolas Waser & Theodora Petanidou
Maintaining the diversity of wild bees is a priority for preserving ecosystem function and promoting stability and productivity of agroecosystems. However, wild bee communities face many threats and beekeeping could be one of them, because honey bees may have a strong potential to outcompete wild pollinators when placed at high densities. Yet, we still know little about how beekeeping intensity affects wild bee diversity and their pollinator interactions. Here, we explore how honey bee density...

The perfect storm: Gene tree estimation error, incomplete lineage sorting, and ancient gene flow explain the most recalcitrant ancient angiosperm clade, Malpighiales

Liming Cai, Zhenxiang Xi, Emily Lemmon, Alan Lemmon, Austin Mast, Christopher Buddenhagen, Liang Liu & Charles Davis
The genomic revolution offers renewed hope of resolving rapid radiations in the Tree of Life. The development of the multispecies coalescent (MSC) model and improved gene tree estimation methods can better accommodate gene tree heterogeneity caused by incomplete lineage sorting (ILS) and gene tree estimation error stemming from the short internal branches. However, the relative influence of these factors in species tree inference is not well understood. Using anchored hybrid enrichment, we generated a data...

Colony fitness increases in the honey bee at queen mating frequencies higher than genetic diversity asymptote

Keith S. Delaplane, J. Krispn Given, John Menz & Deborah A. Delaney
Abstract Across the eusocial Hymenoptera, a queen’s mating frequency is positively associated with her workers’ genetic diversity and colony’s fitness. Over 90% of a colony’s diversity potential is achieved by its mother’s tenth effective mating (me); however, many females mate at levels of me > 10, a zone we here call hyperpolyandry. We compared honey bee colony fitness at mating levels near and above this genetic diversity asymptote. We were interested in how hyperpolyandry affects...

Habitat specialization by wildlife reduces pathogen spread in urbanizing landscapes

Claire Teitelbaum, Sonia Altizer & Richard Hall
Urban areas are expanding globally, with far-reaching ecological consequences, including for wildlife-pathogen interactions. Wildlife show tremendous variation in their responses to urbanization; even within a single population, some individuals can specialize on urban or natural habitat types. This specialization could alter pathogen impacts on host populations via changes to wildlife movement and aggregation. Here, we build a mechanistic model to explore how habitat specialization in urban landscapes affects interactions between a mobile host population and...

Phenotypic, fitness and environmental data in support of the publication: selection favors adaptive plasticity in a long-term reciprocal transplant experiment

Jill Anderson, M. Inam Jameel & Monica Geber
Spatial and temporal environmental variation can favor the evolution of adaptive phenotypic plasticity, such that genotypes alter their phenotypes in response to local conditions to maintain fitness across heterogeneous landscapes. When individuals show greater fitness in one habitat than another, asymmetric migration can restrict adaptation in the lower quality environment. In these cases, selection is predicted to favor traits that enhance fitness in the higher-quality habitat at the expense of fitness in the marginal habitat....

Alfalfa genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) data

Laxman Adhikari & Ali Missaoui
Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping population (184 F1) derived from cultivars 3010 (cold-tolerant) as female parent and CW 100 (cold-sensitive) as male parent were genotyped using genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS). Polymorphic SNPs unique to either 3010 (AB x AA) or CW 1010 (AA x AB) were identified as single dose allele (SDA) markers and used to generate the genetic linkage maps. Two sets of linkage maps, a set for each parent, were used...

Genetic control of arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization by Rhizophagus intraradices in Helianthus annuus (L.)

Chase Mason, Katherine Stahlhut, Jordan Dowell, Andries Temme, John Burke & Eric Goolsby
Plant symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi provides many benefits, including increased nutrient uptake, drought tolerance, and belowground pathogen resistance. To develop a better understanding of the genetic architecture of mycorrhizal symbiosis, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of this plant-fungal interaction in cultivated sunflower. A diversity panel of cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) was phenotyped for root colonization under inoculation with the AM fungus Rhizophagus intraradices. Using a mixed linear model approach with...

Data from: Higher-level phylogeny and reclassification of Lampyridae (Coleoptera: Elateroidea)

Gavin Martin, Kathrin Stanger-Hall, Marc Branham, Luiz Da Silveira, Sarah Lower, David Hall, Xue-Yan Li, Alan Lemmon, Emily Lemmon & Seth Bybee
Fireflies (Lampyridae) are a diverse family of beetles which exhibit an array of morphologies including varying antennal and photic organ morphologies. Due in part to their morphological diversity, the classification within the Lampyridae has long been in flux. Here we use an anchored hybrid enrichment approach to reconstruct the most extensive molecular phylogeny of Lampyridae to date (436 loci and 98 taxa) and to evaluate firefly higher-level classification. We propose several classification changes supported by...

Influence of Climate and Human Preferences on Patterns of Taxonomic and Functional Biodiversity of Recreational Parks

Peter Ibsen, Dorothy Borowy, Mia Rochford, Christopher Swan & G Darrel Jenerette
Recreational urban parks support diverse assemblages of plants that contribute ecosystem services to billions of individuals in cities throughout the world. Drivers of ecosystem services in parks are complex, as climate and human preferences interact with multiple species of vegetation types. Yet, informal observations suggest that recreational parks are built consistently to a specific typology. Here we ask: what are the patterns of ecosystem services and vegetation biodiversity in cities of varying climate in the...

Data from: An initial comparative genomic autopsy of wasting disease in sea stars

Dannise V. Ruiz‐Ramos, Lauren M. Schiebelhut, Katharina J. Hoff, John P. Wares & Michael N. Dawson
Beginning in 2013, sea stars throughout the Eastern North Pacific were decimated by wasting disease, also known as ‘asteroid idiopathic wasting syndrome’ (AIWS) due to its elusive etiology. The geographic extent and taxonomic scale of AIWS meant events leading up to the outbreak were heterogeneous, multifaceted, and oftentimes unobserved; progression from morbidity to death was rapid, leaving few tell-tale symptoms. Here we take a forensic genomic approach to discover candidate genes that may help explain...

Data from: Preservation-induced morphological change in salamanders and failed DNA extraction from a decades-old museum specimen: implications for Plethodon ainsworthi

Todd Pierson, Troy Kieran, Adam Clause & Nikole Castleberry
Natural history collections are important data repositories, but different chemical treatments of specimens can influence morphological measurements and DNA extraction, complicating taxonomic and conservation decisions dependent upon these data. One such example is the Bay Springs Salamander (Plethodon ainsworthi), the only United States amphibian categorized as Extinct by the IUCN. Recent research has proposed that P. ainsworthi is an invalid taxon, arguing that the 55-year-old type specimens’ morphological distinctiveness from syntopic P. mississippi is a...

Microbiome diversity and reproductive incompatibility induced by the prevalent endosymbiont Arsenophonus in two species of African cassava Bemisia tabaci whiteflies

Hajar El Hamss, Maruthi Gowda, Helene Delatte, Saptarshi Ghosh, M. N. Maruthi, Hélène Delatte & John Colvin
This dataset contains data from two-part experiments described in the paper: “El Hamss, H., Ghosh, S., M. N., M., Delatte, H., & Colvin, J. (2021). Microbiome diversity and reproductive incompatibility induced by the prevalent endosymbiont Arsenophonus in two species of African cassava Bemisia tabaci whiteflies. Ecology and Evolution, 00, 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1002/ece3.840”. The experiment investigates the effects of Arsenophonus on whitefly reproduction and microbiome diversity. In the first experiment (“crossing experiment”), the effect of Arsenophonus is...

Habitat use as an indicator of adaptive capacity to climate change

Claire Teitelbaum, Alexej Siren, Ethan Coffel, Jane Foster, Jacqueline Frair, Joseph Hinton, Radley Horton, David Kramer, Corey Lesk, Colin Raymond, David Wattles, Katherine Zeller & Toni Lyn Morelli
Aim: Populations of cold-adapted species at the trailing edges of geographic ranges are particularly vulnerable to the negative effects of climate change from the combination of exposure to warm temperatures and high sensitivity to heat. Many of these species are predicted to decline under future climate scenarios, but they could persist if they can adapt to warming climates either physiologically or behaviorally. We aim to understand local variation in contemporary habitat use and use this...

Modeling Conventionalization and Predictability within MWEs at the Brain Level

Shohini Bhattasali, Murielle Popa-Fabre, Christophe Pallier & John Hale

Bird predation and landscape context shape arthropod communities on broccoli

Joseph Taylor, Olivia Smith, William Snyder, Jeb Owen, Erin Wilson-Rankin, Max Edworthy, Christina Kennedy, Chris Latimer & William Snyder
Birds increase crop yields via consumption of pests in some contexts but disrupt pest control via intraguild predation in others. Landscape complexity acts as an inconsistent mediator, sometimes increasing, decreasing, or not impacting pest control. Here, we examined how landscape context and seasonal variation mediate the impact of birds on arthropod pests and natural enemies, leaf damage, and yields of broccoli (Brassica oleracea) on highly diversified farms that spanned the USA West Coast. Our study...

Data from: Sea level change and the area of shallow-marine habitat: implications for marine biodiversity

Steven M. Holland
Analysis of a global elevation database to measure changes in shallow-marine habitat area as a function of sea-level reveals an unexpectedly complicated relationship. In contrast to prevailing views, sea-level rise does not consistently generate an increase in shelf area, nor does sea-level fall consistently reduce shelf area. Different depth-defined habitats on the same margin will experience different changes in area for the same sea-level change, and different margins will likewise experience different changes in area...

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