483 Works

Data from: Anticipating the emergence of infectious diseases

Tobias S. Brett, John M. Drake & Pejman Rohani
In spite of medical breakthroughs, the emergence of pathogens continues to pose threats to both human and animal populations. We present candidate approaches for anticipating disease emergence prior to large-scale outbreaks. Through use of ideas from the theories of dynamical systems and stochastic processes we develop approaches which are not specific to a particular disease system or model, but instead have general applicability. The indicators of disease emergence detailed in this paper can be classified...

Data from: Phage loss and the breakdown of a defensive symbiosis in aphids

Stephanie R. Weldon, Kerry M. Oliver & Michael R. Strand
Terrestrial arthropods are often infected with heritable bacterial symbionts which may themselves be infected by bacteriophages. However, what role, if any, bacteriophages play in the regulation and maintenance of insect-bacteria symbioses is largely unknown. Infection of the aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum by the bacterial symbiont Hamiltonella defensa confers protection against parasitoid wasps, but only when H. defensa is itself infected by the phage APSE. Here we use a controlled genetic background and correlation-based assays to show...

Data from: Aphid-encoded variability in susceptibility to a parasitoid

Adam J. Martinez, Shannon G. Ritter, Matthew R. Doremus, Jacob A. Russell & Kerry M. Oliver
Background: Many animals exhibit variation in resistance to specific natural enemies. Such variation may be encoded in their genomes or derived from infection with protective symbionts. The pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, for example, exhibits tremendous variation in susceptibility to a common natural enemy, the parasitic wasp Aphidius ervi. Pea aphids are often infected with the heritable bacterial symbiont, Hamiltonella defensa, which confers partial to complete resistance against this parasitoid depending on bacterial strain and associated...

Data from: Male burying beetles extend, not reduce, parental care duration when reproductive competition is high

Paul E. Hopwood, Allen J. Moore, Tom Tregenza & Nick J. Royle
Male parents spend less time caring than females in many species with biparental care. The traditional explanation for this pattern is that males have lower confidence of parentage, so they desert earlier in favor of pursuing other mating opportunities. However, one recent alternative hypothesis is that prolonged male parental care might also evolve if staying to care actively improves paternity. If this is the case, an increase in reproductive competition should be associated with increased...

Data from: Breakdown of a defensive symbiosis, but not endogenous defenses, at elevated temperatures

Matthew R. Doremus, Andrew H. Smith, Kyungsun L. Kim, Angela J. Holder, Jacob A. Russell & Kerry M. Oliver
Environmental factors, including temperature, can have large effects on species interactions, including mutualisms and antagonisms. Most insect species are infected with heritable bacterial symbionts with many protecting their hosts from natural enemies. However, many symbionts or their products are thermally sensitive hence their effectiveness may vary across a range of temperatures. In the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, the bacterial symbiont Hamiltonella defensa, and its associated APSE bacteriophages confer resistance to this aphid's dominant parasitoid, Aphidius...

Data from: Private land conservation has landscape-scale benefits for wildlife in agroecosystems

John M. Yeiser, John J. Morgan, Danna L. Baxley, Richard B. Chandler & James A. Martin
Private lands contain much of the world's biodiversity. Conservation of private land, especially agricultural land, is urgent yet challenging because of the diverse priorities of landowners. Local effects of farmland conservation programmes have been evaluated thoroughly, but population-level response to these programmes may depend on effects that extend beyond targeted land parcels. We investigated the landscape-scale effects of a grassland conservation initiative, the Conservation Reserve Enhancement Program (CREP), on a socially and economically important gamebird,...

Data from: Estimating environmental suitability

John M. Drake & Robert L. Richards
Methods for modeling species’ distributions in nature are typically evaluated empirically with respect to data from observations of species occurrence and, occasionally, absence at surveyed locations. Such models are relatively “theory‐free.” In contrast, theories for explaining species’ distributions draw on concepts like fitness, niche, and environmental suitability. This paper proposes that environmental suitability be defined as the conditional probability of occurrence of a species given the state of the environment at a location. Any quantity...

Data from: Effects of parasitism on aphid nutritional and protective symbioses

Adam J. Martinez, Stephanie R. Weldon & Kerry M. Oliver
Insects often carry heritable symbionts that negotiate interactions with food plants or natural enemies. All pea aphids, Acyrthosiphon pisum, require infection with the nutritional symbiont Buchnera, and many are also infected with Hamiltonella, which protects against the parasitoid Aphidius ervi. Hamiltonella-based protection requires bacteriophages called APSEs with protection levels varying by strain and associated APSE. Endoparasitoids, including A. ervi, may benefit from protecting the nutritional symbiosis and suppressing the protective one, while the aphid and...

Data from: Genetic by environmental variation but no local adaptation in oysters (Crassostrea virginica)

A. Randall Hughes, Torrance C. Hanley, James E. Byers, Jonathan H. Grabowski, Jennafer C. Malek, Micahel F. Piehler, David L. Kimbro & Michael F. Piehler
Functional trait variation within and across populations can strongly influence population, community, and ecosystem processes, but the relative contributions of genetic vs. environmental factors to this variation are often not clear, potentially complicating conservation and restoration efforts. For example, local adaptation, a particular type of genetic by environmental (G*E) interaction in which the fitness of a population in its own habitat is greater than in other habitats, is often invoked in management practices, even in...

Data from: Ecological causes and consequences of flower color polymorphism in a self-pollinating plant (Boechera stricta)

Priya Vaidya, Ansley McDurmon, Emily Mattoon, Michaela Keefe, Lauren Carley, Cheng-Ruei Lee, Robin Bingham & Jill T. Anderson
Intraspecific variation in flower color is often attributed to pollinator-mediated selection, yet this mechanism cannot explain flower color polymorphisms in self-pollinating species. Indirect selection mediated via biotic and abiotic stresses could maintain flower color variation in these systems. The selfing forb, Boechera stricta, typically displays white flowers, but some individuals produce purple flowers. We quantified environmental correlates of flower color in natural populations. To disentangle plasticity from genotypic variation, we performed a multiyear field experiment...

Data from: Evolution of the leaf economics spectrum in herbs: evidence from environmental divergences in leaf physiology across Helianthus (Asteraceae)

Chase M. Mason & Lisa Alayne Donovan
The leaf economics spectrum (LES) describes a major axis of plant functional trait variation worldwide, defining suites of leaf traits aligned with resource-acquisitive to resource-conservative ecological strategies. The LES has been interpreted to arise from leaf-level trade-offs among ecophysiological traits common to all plants. However, it has been suggested that the defining leaf-level trade-offs of the LES may not hold within specific functional groups (e.g., herbs) nor within many groups of closely-related species, which challenges...

Data from: Sexual selection is influenced by both developmental and adult environments

Stephanie R. Gillespie, M. Scarlett Tudor, Allen J. Moore & Christine W. Miller
Sexual selection is often assumed to be strong and consistent, yet increasing research shows it can fluctuate over space and time. Few experimental studies have examined changes in sexual selection in response to natural environmental variation. Here, we use a difference in resource quality to test for the influence of past environmental conditions and current environmental conditions on male and female mate choice and resulting selection gradients for leaf-footed cactus bugs, Narnia femorata. We raised...

Data from: An examination of fitness costs of glyphosate resistance in the common morning glory, Ipomoea purpurea

Catherine L. Debban, Sara Okum, Kathleen E. Pieper, Ariana Wilson & Regina S. Baucom
Fitness costs are frequently invoked to explain the presence of genetic variation underlying plant defense across many types of damaging agents. Despite the expectation that costs of resistance are prevalent, however, they have been difficult to detect in nature. To examine the potential that resistance confers a fitness cost, we examined the survival and fitness of genetic lines of the common morning glory, Ipomoea purpurea, that diverged in the level of resistance to the herbicide...

Data from: Loss of migratory behavior increases infection risk for a butterfly host

Dara A. Satterfield, John C. Maerz & Sonia Altizer
Long-distance animal migrations have important consequences for infectious disease dynamics. In some cases, migration lowers pathogen transmission by removing infected individuals during strenuous journeys and allowing animals to periodically escape contaminated habitats. Human activities are now causing some migratory animals to travel shorter distances or form sedentary (non-migratory) populations. We focused on North American monarch butterflies and a specialist protozoan parasite to investigate how the loss of migratory behaviours affects pathogen spread and evolution. Each...

Data from: Phylogenomics and historical biogeography of the monocot order Liliales: out of Australia and through Antarctica

Thomas J. Givnish, Alejandro Zuluaga, Isabel Marques, Vivienne K. Y. Lam, Marybel Soto Gomez, William J. D. Iles, Mercedes Ames, Daniel Spalink, Jackson R. Moeller, Barbara G. Briggs, Stephanie P. Lyon, Dennis W. Stevenson, Wendy Zomlefer & Sean W. Graham
We present the first phylogenomic analysis of relationships among all ten families of Liliales, based on 75 plastid genes from 35 species in 29 genera, and 97 additional plastomes stratified across angiosperm lineages. We used a supermatrix approach to extend our analysis to 58 of 64 genera of Liliales, and calibrated the resulting phylogeny against 17 fossil dates to produce a new timeline for monocot evolution. Liliales diverged from other monocots 124 Mya and began...

Data from: Mitochondrial gene diversity associated with the atp9 stop codon in natural populations of wild carrot (Daucus carota ssp. carota)

Jennifer R. Mandel, Edward V. McAssey, Katherine M. Roland & David E. McCauley
Mitochondrial genomes extracted from wild populations of Daucus carota have been used as a genetic resource by breeders of cultivated carrot, yet little is known concerning the extent of their diversity in nature. Of special interest is a SNP in the putative stop codon of the mitochondrial gene atp9 that has been associated previously with male-sterile and male-fertile phenotypic variants. In this study either sequence or PCR/RFLP genotypes were obtained from the mitochondrial genes atp1,...

Data from: Context-dependent costs and benefits of tuberculosis resistance traits in a wild mammalian host

Hannah F. Tavalire, Brianna R. Beechler, Peter E. Buss, Erin E. Gorsich, Eileen G. Hoal, Nikki Le Roex, Johannie M. Spaan, Robert S. Spaan, Paul D. Van Helden, Vanessa O. Ezenwa & Anna E. Jolles
Disease acts as a powerful driver of evolution in natural host populations, yet individuals in a population often vary in their susceptibility to infection. Energetic trade-offs between immune and reproductive investment lead to the evolution of distinct life-history strategies, driven by the relative fitness costs and benefits of resisting infection. However, examples quantifying the cost of resistance outside of the laboratory are rare. Here, we observe two distinct forms of resistance to bovine tuberculosis (bTB),...

Data from: The contrasting hidden consequences of parasitism: effects of a hematophagous nematode (Uncinaria sp.) in the development of a marine mammal swimming behavior.

Felipe Montalva, Diego Perez-Venegas, Josefina Gutierrez & Mauricio Seguel
1. Parasites are an important part of ecosystems, playing a critical role in their equilibrium. However, the consequences of parasitism beyond the direct effects associated with disease and mortality are not completely understood. This gap in knowledge is in part due to the difficulties to isolate the effect of single parasite species on physiological and behavioral traits in natural systems. 2. The South American fur seal (Arctocephalus australis)-hookworm (Uncinaria sp.) interaction offers an ideal system...

Data from: Meta-analysis of yield response of foliar fungicide-treated hybrid corn in the United States and Ontario, Canada

Kiersten A. Wise, Damon L. Smith, Anna Freije, Daren S. Mueller, Yuba Kandel, Tom Allen, Carl A. Bradley, Emmanuel Byamukama, Martin Chilvers, Travis Faske, Andrew Friskop, Clayton Hollier, Tamra A. Jackson-Ziems, Heather Kelly, Bob Kemerait, Paul Price, Alison Robertson & Albert Tenuta
Background: Foliar fungicide applications to corn (Zea mays) occur at one or more application timings ranging from early vegetative growth stages to mid-reproductive stages. Previous studies indicated that fungicide applications are profitable under high disease pressure when applied during the tasseling to silking growth stages. Few comprehensive studies in corn have examined the impact of fungicide applications at an early vegetative growth stage (V6) compared to late application timings (VT) for yield response and return...

Data from: Formation of a recent hybrid zone offers insight to the geographic puzzle and maintenance of species boundaries in musk turtles

Peter A. Scott, Travis C. Glenn & Leslie J. Rissler
Speciation is the result of an accumulation of reproductive barriers between populations, pinpointing these factors is often difficult. However, hybrid zones can form when these barriers are not complete, especially when lineages come into contact in intermediate or modified habitats. We examine a hybrid zone between two closely related riverine turtle species, Sternotherus depressus and S. peltifer, and use ddRAD sequencing to to understand how this hybrid zone formed and elucidate genomic patterns of reproductive...

Data from: Genomic islands of divergence are not affected by geography of speciation in sunflowers.

Sebastien Renaut, Christopher J. Grassa, Sam Yeaman, Zhao Lai, Nolan K. Kane, Brook T. Moyers, John E. Bowers, John M. Burke & Loren H. Rieseberg
Genomic studies of speciation often report the presence of highly differentiated genomic regions interspersed within a milieu of weakly diverged loci. The formation of these speciation islands is generally attributed to reduced inter-population gene flow near loci under divergent selection, but few studies have critically evaluated this hypothesis. Here, we report on transcriptome scans among four recently diverged pairs of sunflower (Helianthus) species that vary in the geographical context of speciation. We find that genetic...

Data from: A phylogeny of birds based on over 1,500 loci collected by target enrichment and high-throughput sequencing

John E. McCormack, Michael G. Harvey, Brant C. Faircloth, Nicholas G. Crawford, Travis C. Glenn & Robb T. Brumfield
Evolutionary relationships among birds in Neoaves, the clade comprising the vast majority of avian diversity, have vexed systematists due to the ancient, rapid radiation of numerous lineages. We applied a new phylogenomic approach to resolve relationships in Neoaves using target enrichment (sequence capture) and high-throughput sequencing of ultraconserved elements (UCEs) in avian genomes. We collected sequence data from UCE loci for 32 members of Neoaves and one outgroup (chicken) and analyzed data sets that differed...

Data from: Retrotransposon proliferation coincident with the evolution of dioecy in asparagus

Alex Harkess, Francesco Mercati, Loredana Abbate, Michael McKain, J. Chris Pires, Tea Sala, Francesco Sunseri, Agostino Falavigna & Jim Leebens-Mack
Current phylogenetic sampling reveals that dioecy and an XY sex chromosome pair evolved once or possibly twice in the genus Asparagus. Although there appear to be some lineage-specific polyploidization events, the base chromosome number of 2n=2x=20 is relatively conserved across the Asparagus genus. Regardless, dioecious species tend to have larger genomes than hermaphroditic species. Here we test whether this genome size expansion in dioecious species is related to a polyploidization and subsequent chromosome fusion or...

Data from: Mosquitoes rely on their gut microbiota for development

Kerri L. Coon, Kevin J. Vogel, Mark R. Brown & Michael R. Strand
Field studies indicate adult mosquitoes (Culicidae) host low diversity communities of bacteria that vary greatly among individuals and species. In contrast, it remains unclear how adult mosquitoes acquire their microbiome, what influences community structure, and whether the microbiome is important for survival. Here we used pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA to characterize the bacterial communities of three mosquito species reared under identical conditions. Two of these species, Aedes aegypti and Anopheles gambiae, are anautogenous and must...

Data from: Kinship, inbreeding, and fine-scale spatial structure influence gut microbiota in a hindgut-fermenting tortoise

Michael L. Yuan, Samantha H. Dean, Ana V. Longo Berrios, Betsie B. Rothermel, Tracey D. Tuberville, Kelly R. Zamudio & Ana V. Longo
Herbivorous vertebrates rely on complex communities of mutualistic gut bacteria to facilitate the digestion of celluloses and hemicelluloses. Gut microbes are often convergent based on diet and gut morphology across a phylogenetically diverse group of mammals. However, little is known about microbial communities of herbivorous hindgut-fermenting reptiles. Here, we investigate how factors at the individual level might constrain the composition of gut microbes in an obligate herbivorous reptile. Using multiplexed 16S rRNA gene sequencing, we...

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