483 Works

Data from: A phylogenomic analysis of turtles

Nicholas G. Crawford, James F. Parham, Anna B. Sellas, Brant C. Faircloth, Travis C. Glenn, Theodore J. Papefuss, James B. Henderson, Madison H. Hansen, W. Brian Simison & Theodore J. Papenfuss
Molecular analyses of turtle relationships have overturned prevailing morphological hypotheses and prompted the development of a new taxonomy. Here we provide the first genome-scale analysis of turtle phylogeny. We sequenced 2,381 ultraconserved element (UCE) loci representing a total of 1,718,154 bp of aligned sequence. Our sampling includes 32 turtle taxa representing all 14 recognized turtle families and an additional six outgroups. Maximum likelihood, Bayesian, and species tree methods produce a single resolved phylogeny. This robust...

Data from: Experimental demonstration of accelerated extinction in source-sink metapopulations

John M. Drake & Blaine D. Griffen
Population extinction is a fundamental ecological process which may be aggravated by the exchange of organisms between productive (source) and unproductive (sink) habitat patches. The extent to which such source-sink exchange affects extinction rates is unknown. We conducted an experiment in which metapopulation effects could be distinguished from source-sink effects in laboratory populations of Daphnia magna. Time-to-extinction in this experiment was maximized at intermediate levels of habitat fragmentation, which is consistent with a minority of...

Data from: Integrated and independent evolution of heteromorphic sperm types

Allen J. Moore, Leonardo D. Bacigalupe & Rhonda R. Snook
Sperm are a simple cell type with few components, yet they exhibit tremendous between-species morphological variation in those components thought to reflect selection in different fertilization environments. However, within a species, sperm components are expected to be selected to be functionally integrated for optimal fertilization of eggs. Here, we take advantage of within-species variation in sperm form and function to test whether sperm components are functionally and genetically integrated both within and between sperm morphologies...

Data from: Reconstructing changes in the genotype, phenotype, and climatic niche of an introduced species

Daniel Z. Atwater, U. Uzay Sezen, Valorie Goff, Wenqian Kong, Andrew H. Paterson & Jacob N. Barney
An introduced species must contend with enormous environmental variation in its introduced range. In this study, we use niche models and ordination analyses to reconstruct changes in genotype, phenotype, and climatic niche of Johnsongrass (Sorghum halepense), which is regarded as one of the world's most threatening invasive plants. In the United States, Johnsongrass has rapidly evolved within- and among-population genetic diversity; our results show that genetic differentiation in expanding Johnsongrass populations has resulted in phenotypic...

Data from: Using host species traits to understand the consequences of resource provisioning for host–parasite interactions

Daniel J. Becker, Daniel G. Streicker & Sonia Altizer
1.Supplemental food provided to wildlife by human activities can be more abundant and predictable than natural resources, and subsequent changes to wildlife ecology can have profound impacts on host–parasite interactions. Identifying traits of species associated with increases or decreases in infection outcomes with resource provisioning could improve assessments of wildlife most prone to disease risks in changing environments. 2.We conducted a phylogenetic meta-analysis of 342 host–parasite interactions across 56 wildlife species and three broad taxonomic...

Data from: Demographic history influences spatial patterns of genetic diversity in recently expanded coyote (Canis latrans) populations

Elizabeth Heppenheimer, Daniela S. Cosio, Kristin E. Brzeski, Danny Caudill, Kyle Van Why, Michael J. Chamberlain, Joseph W. Hinton & Bridgett VonHoldt
Human-mediated range expansions have increased in recent decades and represent unique opportunities to evaluate genetic outcomes of establishing peripheral populations across broad expansion fronts. Over the past century, coyotes (Canis latrans) have undergone a pervasive range expansion and now inhabit every state in the continental United States. Coyote expansion into eastern North America was facilitated by anthropogenic landscape changes and followed two broad expansion fronts. The northern expansion extended through the Great Lakes region and...

Data from: Male body size predicts reproductive success but not within-clutch paternity patterns in gopher tortoises (Gopherus polyphemus)

K. Nicole White, Betsie B. Rothermel, Kelly R. Zamudio & Tracey D. Tuberville
In many vertebrates, body size is an important driver of variation in male reproductive success. Larger, more fit individuals are more likely to dominate mating opportunities, skewing siring success and resulting in lower effective population sizes and genetic diversity. The mating system of the gopher tortoise (Gopherus polyphemus) has been characterized as both female-defense and scramble-competition polygyny. Mating systems are typically not fixed and can be influenced by factors such as population density, demographic structure,...

Data from: The rate and effects of spontaneous mutation on fitness traits in the social amoeba, Dictyostelium discoideum

David W. Hall, Sara Fox, Joan E. Strassman, David C. Queller, Joan E. Strassmann & Jennie J. Kuzdzal-Fick
We performed a mutation accumulation (MA) experiment using the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum to estimate the rate and distribution of effects of spontaneous mutations affecting eight putative fitness traits. We found that the per generation mutation rate for most fitness components is 0.0019 mutations per haploid genome per generation, or larger. This rate is an order of magnitude higher than estimates for fitness components in the unicellular eukaryote Saccharomyces cerevisiae, even though the base-pair substitution...

Data from: Contrasting the ecological and taxonomic consequences of extinction

Max Christie, Steven M. Holland & Andrew M. Bush
Extinction in the fossil record is most often measured by the percentage of taxa (species, genera, families, etc.) that go extinct in a certain time interval. This is a measure of taxonomic loss, but previous work has indicated that taxonomic loss may be decoupled from the ecological effects of an extinction. To understand the role extinction plays in ecological change, extinction should also be measured in terms of loss of functional diversity. This study tests...

Data from: Animal-mediated organic matter transformation: aquatic insects as a source of microbially bioavailable organic nutrients and energy

Thomas B. Parr, Krista A. Capps, Shreeram P. Inamdar & Kari A. Metcalf
1. Animal communities are essential drivers of energy and elemental flow in ecosystems. However, few studies have investigated the functional role of animals as sources of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and the subsequent utilization of that DOM by the microbial community. 2. In a small forested headwater stream, we tested the effects of taxonomy, feeding traits, and body size on the quality and quantity of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) excreted...

Data from: Predictable gene expression related to behavioral variation in parenting

Kyle M. Benowitz, Elizabeth C. McKinney, Christopher B. Cunningham & Allen J. Moore
Differential gene expression has been associated with transitions between behavioral states for a wide variety of organisms and behaviors. Heterochrony, genetic toolkits, and predictable pathways underlying behavioral transitions have been hypothesized to explain the relationship between transcription and behavioral changes. Less studied is how variation in transcription is related to variation within a behavior, and if the genes that are associated with this variation are predictable. Here we adopt an evolutionary systems biology perspective to...

Data from: The effect of size and sex-ratio experiences on reproductive competition in Nicrophorus vespilloides burying beetles in the wild

Paul E. Hopwood, Allen J. Moore, Tom Tregenza & Nick J. Royle
Male parents face a choice: should they invest more in caring for offspring or in attempting to mate with other females? The most profitable course depends on the intensity of competition for mates, which is likely to vary with the population sex ratio. However, the balance of pay-offs may vary among individual males depending on their competitive prowess or attractiveness. We tested the prediction that sex ratio and size of the resource holding male provide...

Data from: Soil microbial communities alter leaf chemistry and influence allelopathic potential among coexisting plant species

Scott J. Meiners, Kelsey K. Phipps, , Thomas Canam, Walter P. Carson & Thomas H. Pendergast
While both plant–soil feedbacks and allelochemical interactions are key drivers of plant community dynamics, the potential for these two drivers to interact with each other remains largely unexplored. If soil microbes influence allelochemical production, this would represent a novel dimension of heterogeneity in plant–soil feedbacks. To explore the linkage between soil microbial communities and plant chemistry, we experimentally generated soil microbial communities and evaluated their impact on leaf chemical composition and allelopathic potential. Four native...

Data from: Characterization of 42 polymorphic microsatellite loci in Mimulus ringens (Phrymaceae) using Illumina sequencing

Schyler O. Nunziata, Jeffrey D. Karron, Randall J. Mitchell, Stacey L. Lance, Kenneth L. Jones & Dorset W. Trapnell
Premise of the study: Microsatellite markers were isolated and characterized in Mimulus ringens (Phrymaceae), a herbaceous wetland perennial, to facilitate studies of mating patterns and population genetic structure. Methods and Results: A total of 42 polymorphic loci were identified from a sample of 24 individuals from a single popula- tion in Ohio, USA. The number of alleles per locus ranged from two to nine, and median observed heterozygosity was 0.435. Conclusions: This large number of...

Data from: Linking the vectorial capacity of multiple vectors to observed patterns of West Nile virus transmission

Joseph R. McMillan, Rebekah A. Blakney, Daniel G. Mead, William T. Koval, Sarah M. Coker, Lance A. Waller, Uriel Kitron & Gonzalo M. Vazquez-Prokopec
1. Theoretical models suggest that increased vector species participation in pathogen transmission significantly increases the prevalence of vector and host infections. However, there has been a lack of empirical evidence to support this. 2. We linked transmission potential of multiple vectors species to observed patterns of enzootic pathogen transmission by conducting longitudinal field surveillance of West Nile virus (WNv) infections in Culex spp. mosquitoes and avian host communities in the southeastern U.S. We then used...

Data from: Are species differences in maternal effects arising from maternal care adaptive?

Kyle M. Benowitz, Katherine J. Moody & Allen J. Moore
Parental care benefits offspring through maternal effects influencing their development, growth and survival. However, although parental care in general is likely the result of adaptive evolution, it does not follow that specific differences in the maternal effects that arise from care are also adaptive. Here, we used an interspecific cross-fostering design in the burying beetle species Nicrophorus orbicollis and N. vespilloides, both of which have elaborate parental care involving direct feeding of regurgitated food to...

Data from: Livestock abundance predicts vampire bat demography, immune profiles, and bacterial infection risk

Daniel J. Becker, Gábor Á. Czirják, Dmitriy V. Volokhov, Alexandra B. Bentz, Jorge E. Carrera, Melinda S. Camus, Kristen J. Navara, Vladimir E. Chizhikov, M. Brock Fenton, Nancy B. Simmons, Sergio E. Recuenco, Amy T. Gilbert, Sonia Altizer & Daniel G. Streicker
Human activities create novel food resources that can alter wildlife–pathogen interactions. If resources amplify or dampen pathogen transmission likely depends on both host ecology and pathogen biology, but studies that measure responses to provisioning across both scales are rare. We tested these relationships with a four-year study of 369 common vampire bats across ten sites in Peru and Belize that differ in the abundance of livestock, an important anthropogenic food source. We quantified innate and...

Data from: Conflicting evolutionary histories of the mitochondrial and nuclear genomes in New World Myotis bats

, Brant C. Faircloth, Kevin A.M. Sullivan, Troy J. Kieran, Travis C. Glenn, Michael W. Vandewege, , Robert J. Baker, Richard D. Stevens, David A. Ray, Thomas E Lee, Roy N Platt & Kevin A M Sullivan
The rapid diversification of Myotis bats into more than 100 species is one of the most extensive mammalian radiations available for study. Efforts to understand relationships within Myotis have primarily utilized mitochondrial markers and trees inferred from nuclear markers lacked resolution. Our current understanding of relationships within Myotis is therefore biased towards a set of phylogenetic markers that may not reflect the history of the nuclear genome. To resolve this, we sequenced the full mitochondrial...

Data from: A cross-continental comparison of plant and beetle responses to retention of forest patches during timber harvest

Susan C. Baker, Charles B. Halpern, Timothy J. Wardlaw, Christel Kern, Graham J. Edgar, Russell J. Thomson, Richard E. Bigley, Jerry F. Franklin, Kamal J.K. Gandhi, Lena Gustafsson, Samuel Johnson, Brian J. Palik, Thomas A. Spies, E. Ashley Steel, Jan Weslien, Joachim Strengbom & Kamal J. K. Gandhi
Timber harvest can adversely affect forest biota. Recent research and application suggest that retention of mature forest elements (‘retention forestry’), including unharvested patches (or ‘aggregates’) within larger harvested units, can benefit biodiversity compared to clearcutting. However, it is unclear whether these benefits can be generalized among the diverse taxa and biomes in which retention forestry is practiced. Lack of comparability in methods for sampling and analysing responses to timber harvest and edge creation presents a...

Data from: Genetic identification of source and likely vector of a widespread marine invader

Stacy A. Krueger-Hadfield, Nicole M. Kollars, Allan E. Strand, James E. Byers, Sarah J. Shainker, Ryuta Terada, Thomas W. Greig, Marieke Hammann, David C. Murray, Florian Weinberger & Erik E. Sotka
The identification of native sources and vectors of introduced species informs its ecological and evolutionary history and may guide policies that seek to prevent future introductions. Population genetics represents a powerful set of tools to identify origins and vectors, but can mislead when the native range is poorly sampled or few molecular markers are used. Here, we traced the introduction of the Asian seaweed Gracilaria vermiculophylla (Rhodophyta) into estuaries in coastal western North America, the...

Movement rules determine nomadic species’ responses to resource supplementation and degradation

Claire Teitelbaum, Sonia Altizer & Richard Hall
1. In environments that vary unpredictably, many animals are nomadic, moving in an irregular pattern that differs from year to year. Exploring the mechanisms of nomadic movement is needed to understand how animals survive in highly variable environments, and to predict behavioral and population responses to environmental change. 2. We developed a network model to identify plausible mechanisms of nomadic animal movement by comparing the performance of multiple movement rules along a continuum from nomadism...

Analysis of measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) titers of recovered COVID-19 patients

Jeffrey Gold, William Baumgartl, Ramazan Okyay, Warren Licht, Paul Fidel, Mairi Noverr, Larry Tilley, David Hurley, Balázs Rada & John Ashford
The measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine has been theorized to provide protection against COVID-19. Our aim was to determine whether any MMR IgG titers are inversely correlated with severity in recovered COVID-19 patients previously vaccinated with MMR II. We divided 80 subjects into two groups, comparing MMR titers to recent COVID-19 severity. The MMR II group consisted of 50 subjects who would primarily have MMR antibodies from the MMR II vaccine, and a comparison group of 30...

Evolution of multiple postzygotic barriers between species of the Mimulus tilingii complex

Gabrielle D. Sandstedt, Carrie A. Wu & Andrea L. Sweigart
Species are often defined by their ability to interbreed (i.e., Biological Species Concept), but determining how and why reproductive isolation arises between new species can be challenging. In the Mimulus tilingii species complex, three species (M. caespitosa, M. minor, and M. tilingii) are largely allopatric and grow exclusively at high elevations (>2000m). The extent to which geographic separation has shaped patterns of divergence among the species is not well understood. In this study, we determined...

Freeze-tolerance of poleward-spreading mangrove species weakened by soil properties of resident salt marsh competitor

Enjian Chen, Julie Blaze, Rachel Smith, Shaolin Peng & James Byers
1. Background: Increasing temperatures associated with climate change are shifting plant species to higher latitudes. Soil communities could aid the plants’ shift into novel areas by harbouring fewer soil-borne antagonists or more mutualists that influence the fitness and stress tolerance of the shifting species. Alternatively, they could contain novel antagonists or fewer mutualists. Thus, soil communities could positively or negatively affect plant range expansion, particularly if they influence plants’ responses to climate, such as freeze...

Data from: Spatial transitions in tree cover are associated with soil hydrology, but not with grass biomass, fire frequency, or herbivore biomass in Serengeti savannahs

Ricardo Holdo, Daphne Onderdonk, Annabelle Barr, Meshak Mwita & T. Michael Anderson
1. Although there is a well-known association between tree cover and soil texture in savannahs, the hydrological drivers of tree cover variation have not been systematically explored, particularly in parallel with factors such as fire, herbivory, and tree-grass interactions. The relationship between hydrological factors and tree cover is important for resolving the relative contribution of bottom-up vs. top-down factors in structuring savannah vegetation. 2. We quantified soil moisture dynamics across eight 1-km transects spanning tree...

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