50 Works

Data from: Genetic sampling for estimating density of common species

Ellen Cheng, Karen E. Hodges, Rahel Sollmann & L. Scott Mills
Understanding population dynamics requires reliable estimates of population density, yet this basic information is often surprisingly difficult to obtain. With rare or difficult-to-capture species, genetic surveys from noninvasive collection of hair or scat has proved cost-efficient for estimating densities. Here, we explored whether noninvasive genetic sampling (NGS) also offers promise for sampling a relatively common species, the snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus Erxleben, 1777), in comparison with traditional live trapping. We optimized a protocol for single-session...

Data from: Spatial and temporal components of induced plant responses in the context of herbivore life history and impact on host

Charles J. Mason, Caterina Villari, Ken Keefover-Ring, Stephanie Jagemann, Jun Zhu, Pierluigi Bonello & Kenneth F. Raffa
Plants defend against herbivores and pathogens through integrated constitutive and induced defenses. Induced responses may be expressed locally or tissue/plant-wide, i.e. systemically, and may also be primed for subsequent attack. Although the elicitation and efficacy of induced responses are increasingly well-characterized, we have little understanding of how timing and within-plant spatial patterns of induced defenses relate to different herbivore behaviors and selective pressures. We used interactions between pines and their major mortality agents, native bark...

Data from: A degradation debt? large-scale shifts in community composition and loss of biomass in a tropical forest fragment after 40 years of isolation

Rakan A. Zahawi, Federico Oviedo-Brenes & Chris J. Peterson
Habitat loss and fragmentation are among the biggest threats to tropical biodiversity and associated ecosystem services. We examined forest dynamics in a mid-elevation 365-ha fragment in southern Costa Rica. The fragment was isolated in the mid-1970s and belongs to the Las Cruces Biological Station. A 2.25-ha permanent plot was established in the center of the old-growth forest (>400 m to nearest edge boundary) and all plants >5 cm DBH were censused, mapped, and identified to...

Data from: Integrating viability and fecundity selection to illuminate the adaptive nature of genetic clines

Susana M. Wadgymar, S. Caroline Daws, Jill Anderson & Jill T. Anderson
Genetically-based trait variation across environmental gradients can reflect adaptation to local environments. However, natural populations that appear well-adapted often exhibit directional, not stabilizing, selection on ecologically-relevant traits. Temporal variation in the direction of selection could lead to stabilizing selection across multiple episodes of selection, which might be overlooked in short-term studies that evaluate relationships of traits and fitness under only one set of conditions. Furthermore, non-random mortality prior to trait expression can bias inferences about...

Data from: Duplication and sub/neofunctionalization of Malvolio, an insect homolog of Nramp, in the subsocial beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides

Elijah C. Mehlferber, Kyle M. Benowitz, Eileen M. Roy-Zokan, Elizabeth C. McKinney, Christopher B. Cunningham & Allen J. Moore
With growing numbers of sequenced genomes, increasing numbers of duplicate genes are uncovered. Here we examine Malvolio, a gene in the natural resistance-associated macrophage protein (Nramp) family, that has been duplicated in the subsocial beetle, Nicrophorus vespilloides, which exhibits advanced parental behavior. There is only one copy of Mvl in honey bees and Drosophila, whereas in vertebrates there are two copies that are subfunctionalized. We first compared amino acid sequences for Drosophila, beetles, mouse and...

Data from: Multi-modal defenses in aphids offer redundant protection and increased costs likely impeding a protective mutualism

Adam J. Martinez, Matthew R. Doremus, Laura J. Kraft, Kyungsun L. Kim & Kerry M. Oliver
1.The pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, maintains extreme variation in resistance to its most common parasitoid wasp enemy, Aphidius ervi, which is sourced from two known mechanisms: protective bacterial symbionts, most commonly Hamiltonella defensa, or endogenously encoded defenses. We have recently found that individual aphids may employ each defense individually, occasionally both defenses together, or neither. 2.In field populations, Hamiltonella-infected aphids are found at low to moderate frequencies and while less is known about the frequency...

Data from: Suitability of Laurentian Great Lakes for invasive species based on global species distribution models and local habitat

Andrew M. Kramer, Gust Annis, Marion E. Wittmann, William L. Chadderton, Edward S. Rutherford, David M. Lodge, Lacey Mason, Dmitry Beletsky, Catherine Riseng & John M. Drake
Efficient management and prevention of species invasions requires accurate prediction of where species of concern can arrive and persist. Species distribution models provide one way to identify potentially suitable habitat by developing the relationship between climate variables and species occurrence data. However, these models when applied to freshwater invasions are complicated by two factors. The first is that the range expansions that typically occur as part of the invasion process violate standard species distribution model...

Data from: Not all weeds are created equal: a database approach uncovers differences in the sexual system of native and introduced weeds

Megan L. Van Etten, Jeffrey K. Conner, Shu-Mei Chang & Regina S. Baucom
Weedy species provide excellent opportunities to examine the process of successful colonization of novel environments. Despite the influence of the sexual system on a variety of processes from reproduction to genetic structure, how the sexual system of species influences weediness has received only limited consideration. We examined the hypothesis that weedy plants have an increased likelihood of being self-compatible compared with nonweedy plants; this hypothesis is derived from Baker's law, which states that species that...

Data from: Differential host responses to parasitism shape divergent fitness costs of infection

Sarah A. Budischak, Dawn O'Neal, Anna E. Jolles & Vanessa O. Ezenwa
Fitness costs of infection are fundamental to understanding the ecology and evolution of host-parasite interactions. However, these costs, and particularly their underlying mechanisms, are challenging to evaluate in wild populations. Here, we quantified total and species-specific costs of gastrointestinal worms on African buffalo, by combining the power of an anthelmintic treatment experiment that perturbed the entire worm community with a longitudinal study that tracked the two most dominant community members. Reducing all worms improved buffalo...

Data from: Competitive response of savanna tree seedlings to C4 grasses is negatively related to photosynthesis rate

Tracy A. Campbell & Ricardo M. Holdo
Savanna tree species vary in the magnitude of their response to grass competition, but the functional traits that explain this variation remain largely unknown. To address this gap, we grew seedlings of 10 savanna tree species with and without grasses in a controlled greenhouse experiment. We found strong interspecific differences in tree competitive response, which was positively related to photosynthesis rates, suggesting a trade-off between the ability to grow well under conditions of low and...

Data from: Nest survival modeling using a multi-species approach in forests managed for timber and biofuel feedstock

Zachary G. Loman, Adrian P. Monroe, Sam K. Riffell, Darren A. Miller, Francisco J. Vilella, Bradley R. Wheat, Scott A. Rush, James A. Martin & Samuel K. Riffell
1. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) intercropping is a novel forest management practice for biomass production intended to generate cellulosic feedstocks within intensively managed loblolly pine-dominated landscapes. These pine plantations are important for early-successional bird species, as short rotation times continually maintain early successional habitat. We tested the efficacy of using community models compared to individual surrogate species models in understanding influences on nest survival. We analysed nest data to test for differences in habitat use for...

Data from: Monarch butterfly population decline in North America: identifying the threatening processes

Wayne E. Thogmartin, Ruscena Wiederholt, Karen Oberhauser, Ryan G. Drum, Jay E. Diffendorfer, Sonia Altizer, Orley R. Taylor, John Pleasants, Darius Semmens, Brice Semmens, Richard Erickson, Kaitlin Libby & Laura Lopez-Hoffman
The monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) population in North America has sharply declined over the last two decades. Despite rising concern over the monarch butterfly's status, no comprehensive study of the factors driving this decline has been conducted. Using partial least-squares regressions and time-series analysis, we investigated climatic and habitat-related factors influencing monarch population size from 1993 to 2014. Potential threats included climatic factors, habitat loss (milkweed and overwinter forest), disease and agricultural insecticide use (neonicotinoids)....

Data from: Extensive genetic diversity is present within North American switchgrass germplasm

Joseph Evans, Millicent D. Sanciangco, Kin H. Lau, Emily Crisovan, Kerrie Barry, Chris Daum, Hope Hundley, Jerry Jenkins, Megan Kennedy, Govindarajan Kunde-Ramamoorthy, Brieanne Vaillancourt, Ananta Acharya, Jeremy Schmutz, Malay Saha, Shawn M. Kaeppler, E. Charles Brummer, Michael D. Casler & C. Robin Buell
Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a perennial native North American grass present in two ecotypes: upland, found primarily in the northern range of switchgrass habitats, and lowland, found largely in the southern reaches of switchgrass habitats. Previous studies focused on a diversity panel of primarily northern switchgrass, so to expand our knowledge of genetic diversity in a broader set of North American switchgrass, exome capture sequence data were generated for 632 additional, primarily lowland individuals....

Data from: Water and fish select for fleshy fruits in tropical wetland forests

Sandra Bibiana Correa, Patricia Carla De Oliveira, Catia Nunes Da Cunha, Jerry Penha, Jill T. Anderson & Sandra Correa
Adjacent floodplain and upland tropical forests experience the same temperature and precipitation regimes, but differ substantially in plant species composition and biotic interactions because of extensive flooding. We hypothesize that flooded forests filter fruiting traits linked to seed dispersal by water and fishes, such that selection by water and fish led to (1) trees that synchronize the timing of fruiting with annual floods, and (2) the evolution of fleshy tissues on fruits to improve buoyancy...

Data from: Aphid symbionts and endogenous resistance traits mediate competition between rival parasitoids

Laura J. Kraft, James Kopco, Jason P. Harmon & Kerry M. Oliver
Insects use endogenous mechanisms and infection with protective symbionts to thwart attacks from natural enemies. Defenses that target specific enemies, however, potentially mediate competition between rivals and thereby impact community composition. Following its introduction to North America to control pea aphids (Acyrthosiphon pisum), the parasitoid Aphidius ervi competitively displaced other parasitoids, except for the native Praon pequodorum. The pea aphid exhibits tremendous clonal variation in resistance to A. ervi, primarily through infection with the heritable...

Data from: Kelp and dolphin gulls cause perineal wounds in South American fur seal pups (Arctocephalus australis) at Guafo Island, Chilean Patagonia

Mauricio Seguel, Francisco Muñoz, Felipe Montalva, Diego Perez-Venegas, Héctor Paves & Nicole Gottdenker
During five reproductive seasons, we documented the presence, extent and origin of perineal wounds in South American fur seal pups (Arctocephalus australis) on Guafo Island, Northern Chilean Patagonia. The seasonal prevalence of perineal wounds ranged from 5 to 9%, and new cases were more common at the end of the breeding season (February), when pups were on average two months old and were actively expelling hookworms (Uncinaria sp). Histologically, wounds corresponded to marked ulcerative lymphoplasmacytic...

Data from: Parasitoid gene expression changes after adaptation to symbiont-protected hosts

Alice B. Dennis, Vilas Patel, Kerry M. Oliver & Christoph Vorburger
Reciprocal selection between aphids, their protective endosymbionts, and the parasitoid wasps that prey upon them offers an opportunity to study the basis of their coevolution. We investigated adaptation to symbiont-conferred defense by rearing the parasitoid wasp Lysiphlebus fabarum on aphids (Aphis fabae) possessing different defensive symbiont strains (Hamiltonella defensa). After ten generations of experimental evolution, wasps showed increased abilities to parasitize aphids possessing the H. defensa strain they evolved with, but not aphids possessing the...

Data from: Long-term monitoring data provide evidence of declining species richness in a river valued for biodiversity conservation

Mary C. Freeman, Megan M. Hagler, Phillip M. Bumpers, Kit Wheeler, Seth J. Wenger, Bryan J. Freeman & Byron J. Freeman
Free-flowing river segments provide refuges for many imperiled aquatic biota that have been extirpated elsewhere in their native ranges. These biodiversity refuges are also foci of conservation concerns because species persisting within isolated habitat fragments may be particularly vulnerable to local environmental change. We have analyzed long-term (14- and 20-year) survey data to assess evidence of fish species declines in two southeastern U.S. rivers where managers and stakeholders have identified potentially detrimental impacts of current...

Data from: Contrasting complexity of adjacent habitats influences the strength of cascading predatory effects

James E. Byers, Zachary C. Holmes & Jennafer C. Malek
Although cascading effects of top predators can help structure communities, their influence may vary across habitats that differentially protect prey. Therefore, to understand how and to what degree habitat complexity can affect trophic interactions in adjacent habitats, we used a combination of a broad regional-scale survey, manipulative field trials, and an outdoor mesocosm experiment to quantify predator–prey interaction strengths across four trophic levels. Within estuaries of the southeastern USA, bonnethead sharks (Sphyrna tiburo) hunt blue...

Data from: Accuracy of climate-based forecasts of pathogen spread

Annakate M. Schatz, Andrew M. Kramer & John M. Drake
Species distribution models (SDMs) are a tool for predicting the eventual geographical range of an emerging pathogen. Most SDMs, however, rely on an assumption of equilibrium with the environment, which an emerging pathogen, by definition, has not reached. To determine if some SDM approaches work better than others for modelling the spread of emerging, non-equilibrium pathogens, we studied time-sensitive predictive performance of SDMs for Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, a devastating infectious fungus of amphibians, using multiple methods...

Data from: Influenza A virus: sampling of the unique shorebird habitat at Delaware Bay, USA

Rebecca L. Poulson, Page M. Luttrell, Morgan J. Slusher, Benjamin R. Wilcox, Lawrence J. Niles, Amanda D. Dey, Roy D. Berghaus, Scott Krauss, Robert G. Webster & David E. Stallknecht
Delaware (DE) Bay, in the northeastern United States, has long been recognized as a hotspot for avian influenza A virus (IAV); every spring, this coastal region serves as a brief stopover site for thousands of long-distance migrating shorebirds, en route to breeding grounds in the Arctic. During these stopovers, IAV have been consistently recovered from Ruddy Turnstones (Arenaria interpres) that are likely to become infected as they feed by probing sand and cobble in search...

Data from: Conservation genetics of the eastern yellow-bellied racer (Coluber constrictor flaviventris) and bullsnake (Pituophis catenifer sayi): river valleys are critical features for snakes at northern range limits

Christopher M. Somers, Carly F. Graham, Jessica A. Martino, Timothy R. Frasier, Stacey L. Lance, Laura E. Gardiner & Ray G. Poulin
On the North American Great Plains, several snake species reach their northern range limit where they rely on sparsely distributed hibernacula located in major river valleys. Independent colonization histories for the river valleys and barriers to gene flow caused by the lack of suitable habitat between them may have produced genetically differentiated snake populations. To test this hypothesis, we used 10 microsatellite loci to examine the population structure of two species of conservation concern in...

Data from: Predictors and immunological correlates of sublethal mercury exposure in vampire bats

Daniel J. Becker, Matthew M. Chumchal, Alexandra B. Bentz, Steven G. Platt, Gábor A. Czirják, Thomas R. Rainwater, Sonia Altizer & Daniel G. Streicker
Mercury (Hg) is a pervasive heavy metal that often enters the environment from anthropogenic sources such as gold mining and agriculture. Chronic exposure to Hg can impair immune function, reducing the ability of animals to resist or recover from infections. How Hg influences immunity and susceptibility remains unknown for bats, which appear immunologically distinct from other mammals and are reservoir hosts of many pathogens of importance to human and animal health. We here quantify total...

Data from: Genetic analyses reveal cryptic diversity in the native North American fire ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Solenopsis)

Pablo Chialvo, Dietrich A. Gotzek, D. DeWayne Shoemaker, Kenneth G. Ross & DEWAYNE SHOEMAKER
The native North American fire ants (Solenopsis) comprise a difficult group taxonomically that has undergone multiple revisions in the past century yet remains in a state of taxonomic uncertainty. In this study, we utilized a large set of microsatellite markers to conduct the first robust genetic analysis of the nominal species. Our approach used a variety of methods to test operational criteria commonly employed in species delimitation, including genotypic clustering, reproductive isolation/cohesion, and monophyly. We...

Data from: Fine-scale variation in microclimate across an urban landscape shapes variation in mosquito population dynamics and the potential of Aedes albopictus to transmit arboviral disease

Courtney C. Murdock, Michelle V. Evans, Taylor D. McClanahan, Kerri L. Miazgowicz & Blanka Tesla
Most statistical and mechanistic models used to predict mosquito-borne disease transmission incorporate climate drivers of disease transmission by utilizing environmental data collected at geographic scales that are potentially coarser than what mosquito populations may actually experience. Temperature and relative humidity can vary greatly between indoor and outdoor environments, and can be influenced strongly by variation in landscape features. In the Aedes albopictus system, we conducted a proof-of-concept study in the vicinity of the University of...

Registration Year

  • 2017

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • University of Georgia
  • University of Wisconsin-Madison
  • University of Montana
  • University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
  • University of Glasgow
  • Oregon State University
  • University of Minnesota
  • United States Department of Agriculture
  • University of Regina
  • Mississippi State University