17 Works

Megafruit and megafauna diversity are positively associated, while megafruit traits are related to abiotic factors, in Tropical Asia

Kim McConkey, Ahimsa Campos-Arceiz, Richard Corlett, Sushma H. S., Lisa Ong & Jedediah Brodie
Aim For tens of millions of years, herbivorous megafauna were abundant across the globe, fulfilling important ecological roles including seed dispersal. Megafruits are very large fruits that are dispersed most effectively by megafauna. However, megafruits also occur in ecosystems where megafauna are extinct or were never present, emphasizing our incomplete understanding of megafauna-megafruit relationships. Here we use the complex biogeography of tropical Asia to investigate how megafruit diversity and traits are associated with the diversity...

Transcriptional networks underlying a primary ovarian insufficiency disorder in alligators naturally exposed to EDCs: Transformed read counts and supplementary materials

Matthew Hale, Therese Koal, Tuan Hai Pham, John Bowden & Ben Parrott
Interactions between the endocrine system and environmental contaminants are responsible for impairing reproductive development and function. Despite the taxonomic diversity of affected species and attendant complexity inherent to natural systems, the underlying signaling pathways and cellular consequences are mostly studied in lab models. To resolve the genetic and endocrine pathways that mediate affected ovarian function in organisms exposed to endocrine disrupting contaminants in their natural environments, we assessed broad-scale transcriptional and steroidogenic responses to exogenous...

Influence of the evolution of cultural landscapes as heritage on 20th century international heritage preservation doctrine

Cari Goetcheus & Nora J. Mitchell
The Athens and Venice charters are generally considered the philosophical foundation of modern heritage preservation. Throughout the 20th century, preservation practitioners have continually debated these early doctrines, especially as they’ve been applied to increasingly diverse places in ever-changing social contexts. As important shifts in heritage preservation theory have evolved, a broad range of values have extended the definition of cultural heritage from monument-specific sites to larger landscapes, from local to regional and national scales, from...

Data from: Population genetics and independently replicated evolution of predator-associated burst speed ecophenotypy in mosquitofish

Thomas J DeWitt, Nicholas J Troendle, Mariana Mateos & Rodney Mauricio
Many species show replicated ecophenotypy due to recurring patterns of natural selection. Based on the presence or absence of pursuit predators, at least 17 species of fish repeatedly differentiated in body shape in a manner that increases burst swimming speed and the likelihood of predator escape. The predator-associated burst speed (PABS) ecophenotype is characterized by a small head and trunk and enlarged caudal region. Mechanisms promoting replicated phenotype-environment association include selection (without evolution), a single...

Seminatural habitat surrounding farms promotes multifunctionality in avian ecosystem services

Elissa Olimpi, Karina Garcia, David Gonthier, Claire Kremen, William Snyder, Erin Wilson-Rankin & Daniel Karp
Farmland birds can suppress insect pests, but may also consume beneficial insects, damage crops, and potentially carry foodborne pathogens. As bird communities shift in response to farming practices, so too do the benefits (services) and costs (disservices) from birds. Understanding how and why ecosystem services and disservices covary can inform management interventions that enhance synergies, avoid tradeoffs, and promote multifunctionality. We investigated how farmland diversification practices influence the services and disservices provided by wild birds...

Natural variation further increases resilience of sorghum bred for chronically drought-prone environments

Hongxu Dong, Techale Birhan, Nezif Abajebel, Misganu Wakjira, Tesfaye Mitiku, Cornelia Lemke, Vincent Vadez, Andrew H Paterson & Kassahun Bantte
Moisture stress is one of the major constraints for crop production in African Sahel. Here, we explore the potential to use natural genetic variation to build on the inherent drought tolerance of an elite sorghum cultivar (Teshale) bred for Ethiopian conditions including chronic drought, evaluating a backcross nested-association mapping population using 12 diverse founder lines crossed with Teshale under three drought-prone environments in Ethiopia. All twelve populations averaged higher head exsertion and lower leaf senescence...

Data from: Emerging wild virus of native grass bioenergy feedstock is well established in the Midwestern USA and associated with premature stand senescence

Carolyn M. Malmstrom, Anna K. Busch, Ellen A. Cole, Piotr Trebicki, Pauline Bernardo, Ally K. Brown, Douglas A. Landis & Benjamin P. Werling
This dataset includes values for the prevalence of switchgrass mosaic virus (Genus Marafivirus, Family Tymoviridae) detected with molecular diagnostics (RT-PCR) in individual Panicum virgatum (switchgrass) plants and in Graminella leafhoppers that feed on them. Surveys were conducted in 15 sites in August 2012. Stands surveyed had been established for some time and represent a range of landscape contexts. Measures of stand height and percent senescence were also collected. Land cover composition surrounding each site was...

Scores from S.invicta queen supergene pheromone discrimination assays

Haolin Zeng
Ants use chemical signals to communicate for various purposes related to colony function. Social organization in the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, is determined by the Sb supergene, with colonies of the monogyne (single-queen) form lacking the element and colonies of the polygyne (multiple-queen) form possessing it. Polygyne workers accept new reproductive queens in their nest, but only those carrying Sb; young winged queens lacking this genetic element are executed as they mature sexually...

True or False IDO Data February 20, 2020 11.52

S.L. Eaddy, X. Lu, Y. Gin & L. Austin
COVID-19 measures have necessarily disrupted vaccinations and have been detrimental to measles prevention. As of October 2021, nearly 41 countries had paused their measles campaigns, leaving more than 94 million people at risk of missing vaccines. Therefore, it is critical for public health officials to continue to provide resources, promote vaccination, and change behaviors despite the pandemic. The study’s purpose is to enhance the information-environment level, population-level, and system-level outcomes to determine infectious disease outbreak...

Monitoring demography of resurrected populations of locally extinct and extant species to investigate drivers of species loss

Meredith Zettlemoyer
Extinctions are predicted to rise by an order of magnitude over the next century. Although contemporary documented extinctions are uncommon, local extirpations likely provide hints about global extinction risks. Comparing responses to global change of locally extinct versus extant species pairs in a phylogenetic framework could highlight why certain species are more vulnerable to extinction than others and which anthropogenic changes are most relevant to their decline. As anthropogenic changes likely interact to affect population...

Eco-evolutionary causes and consequences of rarity in plants: a meta-analysis

Jennifer Boyd, Jill Anderson, Carol Baskauf, Jessica Brzyski & Jennifer Cruse-Sanders
Species differ dramatically in their prevalence in the natural world, with many species characterized as rare due to restricted geographic distribution, low local abundance, and/or habitat specialization. We investigated eco-evolutionary causes and consequences of rarity with phylogenetically-controlled meta-analyses of population genetic diversity, fitness, and functional traits in rare and common congeneric plant species. Our syntheses included 252 rare species and 267 common congeners reported in 153 peer-reviewed articles published from 1978-2020 and one manuscript in...

Balancing carnivore conservation and sustainable hunting of a key prey species: a case study on the Florida panther and white-tailed deer

Florent Bled, Michael Cherry, Elina Garrison, Karl Miller, Mike Conner, Heather Abernathy, W. Ellsworth, Lydia Margenau, Daniel Crawford, Kristin Engebretsen, Brian Kelly, David Shindle & Richard Chandler
1. Large carnivore restoration programs are often promoted as capable of providing ecosystem services. However, these programs rarely measure effects of successful restoration on other economically and ecologically important species. In South Florida, while the endangered Florida panther (Puma concolor coryi) population has increased in recent years due to conservation efforts, the population of its main prey, the white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), has declined in some regions. The extent to which panther predation has affected...

Haplocauda, a new genus of fireflies endemic to the Amazon Rainforest (Coleoptera: Lampyridae)

Luiz Felipe Lima Da Silveira, William Lima, Cláudio Ruy Vasconcelos Da Fonseca & Joseph McHugh
Most firefly genera have poorly defined taxonomic boundaries, especially in the Neotropics, where they are more diverse and more difficult to identify. Recent advances that shed light on the diversity of fireflies in South America have focused mainly on Atlantic Rainforest taxa, whereas lampyrids in other biomes remained largely unstudied. We found three new firefly species endemic to the Amazon basin that share unique traits of the male abdomen where sternum VIII and the pygidium...

Allegheny Woodrat occupancy across Western Virginia, United States

Jason Lombardi, Michael Mengak & Steven Castleberry
The Allegheny woodrat (Neotoma magister), a rock outcrop habitat specialist, has suffered drastic reductions in geographic range over the past 40 years. Previous research has examined habitat characteristics at varying spatial scales, but none have used occupancy modeling to examine trends over time. Therefore, we used presence/absence data from live trapping to assess environmental variables likely to influence Allegheny woodrat occupancy and detection patterns at a regional scale across western Virginia, USA, from 2009 to...

Fire, grazers and browsers interact with grass competition to determine tree establishment in an African savanna

Jason Donaldson, Ricardo Holdo, T. Michael Anderson & Jeremia Sarakikya
In savanna ecosystems, fire and herbivory alter the competitive relationship between trees and grasses. Mechanistically, grazing herbivores favor trees by removing grass, which reduces tree-grass competition and limits fire. Conversely, browsing herbivores consume trees and limit their recovery from fire. Herbivore feeding decisions are in turn shaped by risk-resource trade-offs that potentially determine the spatial patterns of herbivory. Identifying the dominant mechanistic pathways by which fire and herbivores control tree cover remains challenging, but is...

Numerical model simulating the sea ice and ocean conditions in the Amundsen Sea over the period Jan. 1, 2006 to Dec. 31, 2013

Pierre St-Laurent, Eileen E. Hofmann, Robert M. Sherrell, Sharon E. Stammerjohn, Patricia L. Yager, Mathew Biddle & Amber D. York
Numerous coastal polynyas fringe the Antarctic continent and strongly influence the productivity of Antarctic shelf systems. Of the 46 Antarctic coastal polynyas documented in a recent study, the Amundsen Sea Polynya (ASP) stands out as having the highest net primary production per unit area. Incubation experiments suggest that this productivity is partly controlled by the availability of dissolved iron (dFe). As a first step toward understanding the iron supply of the ASP, we introduce four...

Bird predation and landscape context shape arthropod communities on broccoli

Joseph Taylor, Olivia Smith, William Snyder, Jeb Owen, Erin Wilson-Rankin, Max Edworthy, Christina Kennedy, Chris Latimer & William Snyder
Birds increase crop yields via consumption of pests in some contexts but disrupt pest control via intraguild predation in others. Landscape complexity acts as an inconsistent mediator, sometimes increasing, decreasing, or not impacting pest control. Here, we examined how landscape context and seasonal variation mediate the impact of birds on arthropod pests and natural enemies, leaf damage, and yields of broccoli (Brassica oleracea) on highly diversified farms that spanned the USA West Coast. Our study...

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