11 Works

Climate seasonality drives ant-plant-herbivore interactions via plant phenology in an extrafloral nectary-bearing plant community

Eduardo Calixto, Letícia Novaes, Danilo Santos, Denise Lange, Xoaquín Moreira & Kleber Del-Claro
Interactions between ants and plants bearing extrafloral nectaries (EFNs) are among the most common mutualisms in Neotropical regions. Plants secrete extrafloral nectar, a carbohydrate-rich food that attracts ants, which in return protect plants against herbivores. This ant-plant mutualism is subjected to temporal variation, in which abiotic factors can drive the establishment and frequency of such mutualistic interaction. However, studies investigating how abiotic factors (e.g., climate) directly and indirectly influence ant-plant-herbivore interactions are incipient. In this...

Spatial and temporal heterogeneity in pollinator communities maintains within-species floral odour variation

Mark A. Szenteczki, Adrienne Godschalx, Andrea Galmán, Anahí Espíndola, Marc Gibernau, Nadir Alvarez & Sergio Rasmann
Flowering plants emit complex bouquets of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to mediate interactions with their pollinators. These bouquets are undoubtedly influenced by pollinator-mediated selection, particularly in deceptively-pollinated species that rely on chemical mimicry. However, many uncertainties remain regarding how spatially and temporally heterogeneous pollinators affect the diversity and distribution of floral odour variation. Here, we characterized and compared the floral odours of ten populations of deceptively-pollinated Arum maculatum (Araceae), and inter-annual and decadal variation in...

Data from: Anti-herbivore defences and insect herbivory: interactive effects of drought and tree neighbours

Bastien Castagneyrol, Hervé Jactel & Xoaquin Moreira
1. How much a plant is attacked by insect herbivores likely depends on its apparency and ability to produce defensive traits, which may be modified by neighbouring plants and abiotic conditions. Yet, how much the direct and trait-mediated effects of neighbours on herbivory is modified by abiotic factors is still unknown. 2. By using a tree diversity experiment in SW France, we measured leaf insect herbivory (chewers and miners), nutritional quality (water content, C/N ratio,...

Effects of soil salinity on the expression of direct and indirect defences in wild cotton (Gossypium hirsutum)

Luis Abdala-Roberts, Teresa Quijano-Medina, Ted Turlings, Paula Sosenski, Luca Grandi, Jose Cervera & Xoaquin Moreira
Previous studies have reported effects of abiotic factors on herbivore-induced plant defences based on effects on single plant traits. However, plants commonly express multiple defences simultaneously and these traits are often correlated. Thus, a fuller understanding of abiotic-context dependency in plant defence requires measuring multiple traits and addressing their patterns of correlated expression. We evaluated the effects of soil salinity on the induction of direct (phenolic compounds, gossypol gland density) and indirect (volatile organic compounds,...

Plant species-specificity of ant-plant mutualistic interactions: Differential predation of termites by Camponotus crassus on five species of extrafloral nectaried plants

Eduardo Calixto, Denise Lange, Xoaquín Moreira & Kleber Del-Claro
There is increasing evidence that the outcomes of mutualistic interactions between ants and plants bearing extrafloral nectaries (EFNs) is context-dependent. In particular, the total number, density and size of EFNs, as well as the abundance and identity of ants attending host plants, are considered as key factors determining the nature and strength of ant-EFN-bearing plant interaction. Although many previous studies have investigated context-dependency in ant–plant protection mutualisms mediated by EFNs, few have tested whether the...

Data from: Bottom-up effects of host-plant species diversity and top-down effects of ants interactively increase plant performance

Xoaquín Moreira, Kailen A. Mooney, Rafael Zas & Luis Sampedro
While plant diversity is well known to increase primary productivity, whether these bottom-up effects are enhanced by reciprocal top-down effects from the third trophic level is unknown. We studied whether pine tree species diversity, aphid-tending ants and their interaction determined plant performance and arthropod community structure. Plant diversity had a positive effect on aphids, but only in the presence of mutualistic ants, leading to threefold greater number of both groups in the tri-specific cultures than...

Ontogenetic consistency in oak defence syndromes

Xoaquín Moreira
1. Plant species allocate resources to multiple defensive traits simultaneously, which often leads to so-called defence syndromes, i.e. suites of traits that are co-expressed. While reports of ontogenetic variation in plant defences are commonplace, no research to date has tested for ontogenetic shifts in defence syndromes. In addition, we still know little about how ecological and evolutionary factors concurrently shape plant defence syndromes via ontogeny. 2. We tested for ontogenetic variation in plant defence syndromes...

Constitutive and induced phenolics and volatiles in Quercus pyrenaica

Andrea Galmán, Luis Abdala-Roberts, Pola Wartalska, Felisa Covelo, Gregory Röder, Mark A. Szenteczki, Xoaquín Moreira & Sergio Rasmann
With this dataset, we studied elevational gradients and their underlying climatic factors in constitutive and induced phenolics and volatile organic compounds in Oak trees. Oak defences were measured in leaves in a field study. The dataset includes data for 18 populations of Quercus pyrenaica spanning a 1300 m elevational gradient (from 370 to 1614 m) with their correspondence coordinates. In each population we sampled six saplings that were randomly assigned to one of two treatments:...

Data from: Urbanization affects oak–pathogen interactions across spatial scales

Laura Van Dijk, Xoaquin Moreira, Anna Barr, Luis Abdala-Roberts, Bastien Castagneyrol, Maria Faticov, Bess Hardwick, Jan Ten Hoopen, Raul De La Mata, Ricardo Matheus Pires, Tomas Roslin, Dmitry Schigel, Bart Timmermans & Ayco Tack
The world is rapidly urbanizing, thereby transforming natural landscapes and changing the abundance and distribution of organisms. However, insights into the effects of urbanization on species interactions, and plant-pathogen interactions in particular, are lacking. We investigated the effects of urbanization on powdery mildew infection on Quercus robur at continental and within-city scales. At the continental scale, we compared infection levels between urban and rural areas of different-sized cities in Europe, and investigated whether plant traits,...

Leaf functional traits and insular colonization: subtropical islands as a melting pot of trait diversity in a widespread plant lineage

Carlos Garcia-Verdugo, Pedro Monroy, Francisco I. Pugnaire, Joana Jura-Morawiec, Xoaquín Moreira & Jaume Flexas
Aim: One of the main goals of functional biogeography is to examine distribution patterns of trait diversity, and islands provide excellent study cases for this emerging field. We tested the hypothesis that multiple dispersals from a common mainland pool would promote functional similarity among island systems when environmental conditions are similar, but also novel phenotypic traits related to colonization history and exploitation of new habitats. Location: Mediterranean Basin and Macaronesian islands Methods: We used the...

Data from: Tree species diversity alters plant defence investment in an experimental forest plantation in Southern Mexico

Silvia Rosado-Sánchez, Víctor Parra-Tabla, David Betancur-Ancona, Xoaquín Moreira & Luis Abdala-Roberts
The effects of plant species diversity on plant traits conferring herbivore resistance (e.g., chemical defences), as well as the mechanisms underlying such effects, have received little attention. One potential mechanism for diversity effects on plant defences is that increased plant growth at high diversity could lead to reduced investment in defences via growth-defence trade-offs. We measured tree growth (diameter at breast height) and collected leaves for quantification of total phenolics on 2.5-year old plants of...

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