111 Works

Data from: Gene flow between wheat and wild relatives: empirical evidence from Aegilops geniculata, Ae. neglecta and Ae. triuncialis

Nils Arrigo, Roberto Guadagnuolo, Sylvain Lappe, Sophie Pasche, Christian Parisod & François Felber
Gene flow between domesticated species and their wild relatives is receiving growing attention. The present study addressed introgression between wheat and natural populations of its wild relatives (Aegilops species). The sampling included 472 individuals, collected from 32 Mediterranean populations of three widespread Aegilops species (Ae. geniculata, Ae. neglecta and Ae. triuncialis), and compared wheat field borders to areas isolated from agriculture. Individuals were characterized with AFLP fingerprinting, analysed through two computational approaches (i.e. Bayesian estimations...

Data from: Power and temptation cause shifts between exploitation and cooperation in a cleaner wrasse mutualism

Simon Gingins, Redouan Bshary, Johanna Werminghausen, Rufus A. Johnstone & Alexandra S. Grutter
In many instances of cooperation, only one individual has both the potential and the incentive to ‘cheat’ and exploit its partner. Under these asymmetric conditions, a simple model predicts that variation in the temptation to cheat and in the potential victim's capacity for partner control leads to shifts between exploitation and cooperation. Here, we show that the threat of early termination of an interaction was sufficient to induce cleaner wrasse Labroides dimidiatus to feed selectively...

Data from: Uncovering cryptic parasitoid diversity in Horismenus (Chalcidoidea, Eulophidae)

Sarah G. Kenyon, Sven Buerki, Christer Hansson, Nadir Alvarez & Betty Benrey
Horismenus parasitoids are an abundant and understudied group of eulophid wasps found mainly in the New World. Recent surveys based on morphological analyses in Costa Rica have quadrupled the number of named taxa, with more than 400 species described so far. This recent revision suggests that there is still a vast number of unknown species to be identified. As Horismenus wasps have been widely described as parasitoids of insect pests associated with crop plants, it...

Data from: Effects of food variability on growth and reproduction of Aedes aegypti

Michael Zeller & Jacob C. Koella
Despite a large body of knowledge about the evolution of life histories, we know little about how variable food availability during an individual's development affects its life history. We measured the effects of manipulating food levels during early and late larval development of the mosquito Aedes aegypti on its growth rate, life history and reproductive success. Switching from low to high food led to compensatory growth: individuals grew more rapidly during late larval development and...

Data from: The simultaneous inducibility of phytochemicals related to plant direct and indirect defences against herbivores is stronger at low elevation

Loïc Pellissier, Xoaquín Moreira, Holger Danner, Martha Serrano, Nicolas Salamin, Nicole M. Van Dam & Sergio Rasmann
Ecological theory indicates that warmer and more stable climates should result in stronger biotic interactions. Therefore, plant species growing at lower elevations and experiencing greater herbivore pressure, should invest in higher levels of defences than those at higher elevations. Nonetheless, there are a number of studies that have found no effect of elevational gradients on plant defensive traits. Several factors might explain the lack of consistency for the altitude-defence relationships; including 1) the reduction of...

Data from: Microbiome affects egg carotenoid investment, nestling development and adult oxidative costs of reproduction in Great tits

Staffan Jacob, Nathalie Parthuisot, Armelle Vallat, Felipe Ramon-Portugal, Fabrice Helfenstein & Philipp Heeb
1. Parasites influence allocation trade-offs between reproduction and self-maintenance and consequently shape host life-history traits. The host microbiome includes pathogenic and commensal micro-organisms that are remarkable in their diversity and ubiquity. However, experimental studies investigating whether the microbiome shapes host reproduction are still lacking. 2. In this study, we tested whether the microbiome affects three important components of bird reproduction, namely (i) the maternal transfer of anti-microbial compounds to the eggs, (ii) the development of...

Data from: Corticosterone: effects on feather quality and deposition into feathers

Susanne Jenni-Eiermann, Fabrice Helfenstein, Armelle Vallat, Gaétan Glauser & Lukas Jenni
1. The concentration of the glucocorticoid hormone corticosterone (CORT) is increasingly used in ecology and conservation biology as an integrated measure of the historical record of an individual's hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activity during feather growth. However, where and how CORT is incorporated in feathers is incompletely known. 2. We therefore examined whether CORT is reliably measured with an enzyme immunoassay, where CORT is incorporated in the feather and where it affects feather quality, and whether CORT...

Data from: Very high resolution digital elevation models: are multi-scale derived variables ecologically relevant?

Kevin Leempoel, Christian Parisod, Céline Geiser, Lucas Daprà, Pascal Vittoz & Stéphane Joost
Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) are often used in landscape ecology to retrieve elevation or first derivative terrain attributes such as slope or aspect in the context of species distribution modelling. However, DEM-derived variables are scale-dependent and, given the increasing availability of very high resolution (VHR) DEMs, their ecological relevance must be assessed for different spatial resolutions. In a study area located in the Swiss Western Alps, we computed VHR DEMs-derived variables related to morphometry, hydrology...

Data from: Female monkeys use both the carrot and the stick to promote male participation in intergroup fights

T. Jean Marie Arseneau-Robar, Anouk Lisa Taucher, Eliane Müller, Carel Van Schaik, Redouan Bshary & Erik P. Willems
Group-level cooperation often poses a social dilemma in which joint action may be difficult to achieve. Theoretical models and experimental work on humans show that social incentives, such as punishment of defectors and rewarding of cooperators, can promote cooperation in groups of unrelated individuals. Here, we demonstrate that these processes can operate in a non-human animal species, and be used to effectively promote the production of a public good. We took advantage of the fact...

Data from: Evolutionary dynamics of specialisation in herbivorous stick insects

Chloé Larose, Sergio Rasmann & Tanja Schwander
Understanding the evolutionary dynamics underlying herbivorous insect mega-diversity requires investigating the ability of insects to shift and adapt to different host plants. Feeding experiments with nine related stick insect species revealed that insects retain the ability to use ancestral host plants after shifting to novel hosts, with host plant shifts generating fundamental feeding niche expansions. These expansions were however not accompanied by expansions of the realized feeding niches, as species on novel hosts are generally...

Data from: Male monkeys use punishment and coercion to de-escalate costly intergroup fights

T. Jean M. Arseneau-Robar, Eliane Müller, Anouk L. Taucher, Carel P. Van Schaik, Redouan Bshary & Erik P. Willems
In numerous social species, males direct aggression towards female group members during intergroup fights, and this behaviour is commonly thought to function as mate guarding, even though males often target non-receptive females. In studying intergroup fights in a wild population of vervet monkeys, we found that male intragroup aggression was primarily directed towards individuals who had either just finished exhibiting, or were currently attempting to instigate intergroup aggression. Targeted females were less likely to instigate...

Plant defense resistance in natural enemies of a specialist insect herbivore

Xi Zhang, Cong Van Doan, Carla C.M. Arce, Lingfei Hu, Sandra Gruenig, Christian Parisod, Bruce E. Hibbard, , Chad Nielson, Christelle A.M. Robert, Ricardo A.R. Machado & Matthias Erb
Plants defend themselves against herbivores through the production of toxic and deterrent metabolites. Adapted herbivores can tolerate and sometimes sequester these metabolites, allowing them to feed on defended plants and become toxic to their own enemies. Can herbivore natural enemies overcome sequestered plant defense metabolites to prey on adapted herbivores? To address this question, we studied how entomopathogenic nematodes cope with benzoxazinoid defense metabolites that are produced by grasses and sequestered by a specialist maize...

Que nous apprend OFROM du français régional d'aujourd'hui en Suisse romande ?* Premières investigations entre pratiques et métadiscours

Federica Diémoz, Julie Rothenbühler & Maguelone Sauzet

Maintenance of variation in virulence and reproduction in populations of an agricultural plant pathogen

Anik Dutta, Daniel Croll, Bruce A. McDonald & Luke G. Barrett
Genetic diversity within pathogen populations is critically important for predicting pathogen evolution, disease outcomes, and prevalence. However, we lack a good understanding of the processes maintaining genetic variation and constraints on pathogen life‐history evolution. Here, we analyzed interactions between 12 wheat host genotypes and 145 strains of Zymoseptoria tritici from five global populations to investigate the evolution and maintenance of variation in pathogen virulence and reproduction. We found a strong positive correlation between virulence (amount...

Prosocial and antisocial choices in a monogamous cichlid with biparental care

Shun Satoh, Redouan Bshary, Momoko Shibasaki, Shumpei Sogawa, Takashi Hotta, Masanori Kohda, Seishiro Inaba & Satoshi Awata
Human society is cooperative and characterized by spontaneous prosociality. Comparative studies on endotherm vertebrates suggest that social interdependence causes the evolution of proactive prosociality. To test the generality of this hypothesis, we modified a prosocial choice task for application to the convict cichlid, Amatitlania nigrofasciata, a monogamous fish with biparental care and a strong pair bond. We show that subject males learned to favor prosocial choices when their mates were the recipients in neighboring tank....

Data from: The effect of community-wide phytochemical diversity on herbivory reverses from low to high elevation

Pilar Fernandez-Conradi, Defossez Emmanuel, Delavallade Adrien, Patrice Descombes, Camille Pitteloud, Gaëtan Glauser, Loïc Pellissier & Sergio Rasmann
1. Theory predicts that a large fraction of phytochemical diversity – the richness of individual chemical compounds produced by plants – governs the complexity of interactions between plants and their herbivores. While the effect of specific classes of chemical compounds on plant resistance against herbivores has been largely documented, the effect of community-level variation in phytochemical diversity on plant-herbivore interactions has so far received minimal consideration. 2. We hypothesized that plant communities bearing on average...

Spatial and temporal heterogeneity in pollinator communities maintains within-species floral odour variation

Mark A. Szenteczki, Adrienne Godschalx, Andrea Galmán, Anahí Espíndola, Marc Gibernau, Nadir Alvarez & Sergio Rasmann
Flowering plants emit complex bouquets of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to mediate interactions with their pollinators. These bouquets are undoubtedly influenced by pollinator-mediated selection, particularly in deceptively-pollinated species that rely on chemical mimicry. However, many uncertainties remain regarding how spatially and temporally heterogeneous pollinators affect the diversity and distribution of floral odour variation. Here, we characterized and compared the floral odours of ten populations of deceptively-pollinated Arum maculatum (Araceae), and inter-annual and decadal variation in...

No evidence for conspecific recruitment for cooperative hunting in lionfish Pterois miles

Hanaa Sarhan & Redouan Bshary
Lionfish are common piscivores in the Indo-Pacific and invasive in the Caribbean. A fin flaring pattern, involving a rapid undulation of the caudal fin and sequential turning of both pectoral fins, was described in zebra lionfish as a signal to initiate cooperative hunting, and it was hypothesized that such hunting tactics may also exist in other lionfish species and contribute to their successful invasion in the Caribbean. Here, we investigated one of those invasive species,...

Data from: Including community composition in biodiversity-productivity models

Nadine Sandau, Rudolf P. Rohr, Russell E. Naisbit, Yvonne Fabian, Odile T. Bruggisser, Patrik Kehrli, Alexandre Aebi & Louis-Félix Bersier
1. Studies on biodiversity and ecosystem functioning (BEF) have elicited debate over the interpretation of the positive relationship between species richness and plant productivity. Manipulating richness cannot be achieved without affecting composition; it is thus essential to consider the latter in statistical models. 2. We firstly review existing approaches that use species richness as an explanatory variable and propose modifications to improve their performance. We use an original dataset to illustrate the analyses. The classical...

Data from: Age and sex affect quantitative genetic parameters for dominance rank and aggression in free-living greylag geese

Brigitte M. Weiß & Katharina Foerster
Knowledge of the genetic and environmental influences on a character is pivotal for understanding evolutionary changes in quantitative traits in natural populations. Dominance and aggression are ubiquitous traits that are selectively advantageous in many animal societies and have the potential to impact the evolutionary trajectory of animal populations. Here we provide age- and sex-specific estimates of additive genetic and environmental components of variance for dominance rank and aggression rate in a free-living, human-habituated bird population...

Data from: Social network analysis shows direct evidence for social transmission of tool use in wild chimpanzees.

Catherine Hobaiter, Timothée Poisot, Klaus Zuberbühler, William Hoppitt & Thibaud Gruber
Claims of culture in animals have been stimulated by studies on a wide range of taxa revealing group-specific behavior patterns that remain stable through generations, consistent with different behavioral innovations spreading within groups by social transmission in a manner similar to human culture. In chimpanzees, 39 behaviors have been identified as 'cultural', because alternative genetic and environmental explanations for the observed regional variation appear less plausible. This interpretation is supported by experimental data from captive...

Data from: Modification of sperm quality after sexual abstinence in Seba's short-tailed bat, Carollia perspicillata.

Charlotte Wesseling, Nicolas Fasel, Heinz Richner & Fabrice Helfenstein
In polygynous mating systems, few males have stable access to sexual mates. With an expected higher copulation rate, harem males may deplete seminal fluids or increase epididymal sperm maturation, generating poor sperm quality. In a first study, we reported a higher sperm quality in sneaker males of Carollia perspicillata. To test whether the lower sperm quality observed in harem males was generated by an elevated copulation rate, we temporarily removed males of both social statuses...

Data from: Test of biotic and abiotic correlates of latitudinal variation in defences in the perennial herb Ruellia nudiflora

Luis Abdala-Roberts, Xoaquín Moreira, Sergio Rasmann, Victor Parra-Tabla & Kailen A. Mooney
1. Geographic variation in abiotic factors and species interactions is widespread and is hypothesized to generate concomitant patterns of species trait variation. For example, higher rates of herbivory at lower latitudes are thought to select for increased plant defences, although latitudinal variation in defences may also be influenced directly by abiotic factors and indirectly by predators and parasitoids reducing herbivore pressure. 2. We measured defences of the herb Ruellia nudiflora among 30 populations spanning a...

Data from: Evolution of plant defences along an invasion chronosequence: defence is lost due to enemy release- but not forever

Michal Gruntman, Udi Segev, Gaetan Glauser & Katja Tielbörger
The success of invasive plants has often been attributed to their rapid evolution at the introduced range. In particular, release from native enemies has been suggested to select for an evolutionary shift in resource allocation patterns from herbivore defence to increased size. Such evolutionary processes can take place not only between the native and invasive ranges but also within the invasive range over time, but this premise has been very seldom studied. In this study,...

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