95 Works

Dataset for: Relative contribution of high and low elevation soil microbes and nematodes to ecosystem functioning

Sergio Rasmann, Sarah Semeraro, Alan Kergunteuil, Sara Sánchez-Moreno, Jérémy Puissant, Tim Goodall & Robert Griffiths
Ecosystem productivity is largely dependent on soil nutrient cycling which, in turn, is driven by decomposition rates governed by locally-adapted belowground microbial and invertebrate communities. How climate change will impact soil biota and the correlated ecosystem functioning, however, remains largely an open question. To address this challenge, we first characterized the functional identity of soil microbial and nematode communities originated from the foothills or in the sub-alpine soils of the Alps, and then, using a...

Étude des contours prosodiques des listes ouvertes dans le corpus OFROM

Laure Anne Johnsen & Mathieu Avanzi

Data from: Seedling resistance, tolerance and escape from herbivores: insights from co-dominant canopy tree species in a resource-poor African rain forest

Julian M. Norghauer, Gaёtan Glauser & David M. Newbery
Although plants can reduce the impacts of herbivory in multiple ways, these defensive traits are often studied in isolation and an understanding of the resulting strategies is incomplete. In the study reported here, empirical evidence was simultaneously evaluated for the three main sets of traits available to plants: (1) resistance through constitutive leaf traits, (2) tolerance to defoliation, and (3) escape in space, for three caesalpiniaceous tree species Microberlinia bisulcata, Tetraberlinia bifoliolata and T. korupensis,...

Data from: The relative contribution of species richness and species composition to ecosystem functioning

Nadine Sandau, Yvonne Fabian, Odile T. Bruggisse, Rudolf P. Rohr, Russell E. Naisbit, Patrik Kehrli, Alexandre Aebi, Louis-Félix Bersier & Odile T. Bruggisser
The influence of species diversity on ecosystem functioning has been the subject of many experiments and remains a key question for ecology and conservation biology. However, the fact that diversity cannot be manipulated without affecting species composition makes this quest methodologically challenging. We used partial Mantel tests to evaluate the relative importance of diversity and of composition on biomass production. Here, we applied partial Mantel tests (controlling for the other variable) on two datasets, the...

Data from: A new species of the paper wasp genus Polistes (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Polistinae) in Europe revealed by morphometrics and molecular analyses

Rainer Neumeyer, Hannes Baur, Gaston-Denis Guex & Christophe Praz
We combine multivariate ratio analysis (MRA) of body measurements and analyses of mitochondrial and nuclear data to examine the status of several species of European paper wasps (Polistes Latreille, 1802) closely related to P. gallicus. Our analyses unambiguously reveal the presence of a cryptic species in Europe, as two distinct species can be recognized in what has hitherto been considered Polistes bischoffi Weyrauch, 1937. One species is almost as light coloured as P. gallicus, and...

Data from: The influence of genetic drift and selection on quantitative traits in a plant pathogenic fungus

Tryggvi S. Stefansson, Bruce A. McDonald & Yvonne Willi
Genetic drift and selection are ubiquitous evolutionary forces acting to shape genetic variation in populations. While their relative importance has been well studied in plants and animals, less is known about their relative importance in fungal pathogens. Because agro-ecosystems are more homogeneous environments than natural ecosystems, stabilizing selection may play a stronger role than genetic drift or diversifying selection in shaping genetic variation among populations of fungal pathogens in agro-ecosystems. We tested this hypothesis by...

Data from: Decision making for mitigating wildlife diseases: from theory to practice for an emerging fungal pathogen of amphibians

Stefano Canessa, Claudio Bozzuto, Evan H. Campbell Grant, Sam S. Cruickshank, Matthew C. Fisher, Jacob C. Koella, Stefan Lötters, An Martel, Frank Pasmans, Benjamin C. Scheele, Annemarieke Spitzen-Van Der Sluijs, Sebastian Steinfartz, Benedikt R. Schmidt & Ben C. Scheele
1.Conservation science can be most effective in its decision-support role when seeking answers to clearly formulated questions of direct management relevance. Emerging wildlife diseases, a driver of global biodiversity loss, illustrate the challenges of performing this role: in spite of considerable research, successful disease mitigation is uncommon. Decision analysis is increasingly advocated to guide mitigation planning, but its application remains rare. 2.Using an integral projection model, we explored potential mitigation actions for avoiding population declines...

Data from: Genome reorganization in F1 hybrids uncovers the role of retrotransposons in reproductive isolation

Natacha Senerchia, Felber François & Christian Parisod
Interspecific hybridization leads to new interactions among divergent genomes, revealing the nature of genetic incompatibilities having accumulated during and after the origin of species. Conflicts associated with misregulation of transposable elements (TEs) in hybrids expectedly result in their activation and genome-wide changes that may be key to species boundaries. Repetitive genomes of wild wheats have diverged under differential dynamics of specific long terminal repeat retrotransposons (LTR-RTs), offering unparalleled opportunities to address the underpinnings of plant...

Data from: Population genomics analyses of European ibex species show lower diversity and higher inbreeding in reintroduced populations

Christine Grossen, Iris Biebach, Samer Angelone-Alasaad, Lukas F. Keller & Daniel Croll
Restoration of lost species ranges to their native distribution is key for the survival of endangered species. However, reintroductions often fail and long-term genetic consequences are poorly understood. Alpine ibex (Capra ibex) are wild goats that recovered from <100 individuals to ~50,000 within a century by population reintroductions. We analyzed the population genomic consequences of the Alpine ibex reintroduction strategy. We genotyped 101'822 genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism loci in 173 Alpine ibex, the closely related...

Data from: Host genotype and environment affect the trade-off between horizontal and vertical transmission of the parasite Edhazardia aedis

Giacomo Zilio, Kevin Thiévent & Jacob C. Koella
Background: If a parasite is able to transmit horizontally or vertically, which transmission mode will it choose? We investigated how the growth conditions and the genotype of the mosquito Aedes aegypti affect the transmission mode of the parasite Edhazardia aedis. Results: In poor conditions the parasites were more likely to be transmitted horizontally, whereas in favourable conditions they were more likely to be transmitted vertically. This plasticity appears to be adaptive. Unfavourable conditions delayed emergence,...

Data from: The importance of landscape and spatial structure for hymenopteran-based food webs in an agro-ecosystem

Yvonne Fabian, Nadine Sandau, Odile T. Bruggisser, Alexandre Aebi, Patrik Kehrli, Rudolf P. Rohr, Russell E. Naisbit, Louis-Félix Bersier & Alex Aebi
1. Understanding the environmental factors that structure biodiversity and food webs among communities is central to assess and mitigate the impact of landscape changes. 2. Wildflower strips are ecological compensation areas established in farmland to increase pollination services and biological control of crop pests, and to conserve insect diversity. They are arranged in networks in order to favour high species richness and abundance of the fauna. 3. We describe results from experimental wildflower strips in...

Data from: The effects of inbreeding, genetic dissimilarity and phenotype on male reproductive success in a dioecious plant

Frédéric Austerlitz, Gabriela Gleiser, Sara Teixeira & Giorgina Bernasconi
Pollen fate can strongly affect the genetic structure of populations with restricted gene flow and significant inbreeding risk. We established an experimental population of inbred and outbred Silene latifolia plants to evaluate the effects of (i) inbreeding depression, (ii) phenotypic variation and (iii) relatedness between mates on male fitness under natural pollination. Paternity analysis revealed that outbred males sired significantly more offspring than inbred males. Independently of the effects of inbreeding, male fitness depended on...

Data from: A nation-wide survey of neonicotinoid insecticides in agricultural land with implications for agri-environment schemes

Ségolène Humann-Guilleminot, Łukasz Binkowski, Lukas Jenni, Gabriele Hilke, Gaétan Glauser & Fabrice Helfenstein
1. Neonicotinoids are the most widely used class of insecticides globally. However, the link between farming practices and the extent of contamination of soils and crops by neonicotinoid insecticides, as well as and the extent of such contamination in organic fields and ecological focus areas (EFAs) are currently unclear. 2. We measured the concentrations of five neonicotinoid insecticides (imidacloprid, clothianidin, thiamethoxam, thiacloprid, acetamiprid) in 702 soil and plant samples in 169 cultivated fields and EFAs...

Data from: No evidence of inbreeding depression in sperm performance traits in wild song sparrows

Sylvain Losdat, Ryan R. Germain, Pirmin Nietlisbach, Peter Arcese & Jane M. Reid
Inbreeding is widely hypothesized to shape mating systems and population persistence, but such effects will depend on which traits show inbreeding depression. Population and evolutionary consequences could be substantial if inbreeding decreases sperm performance and hence decreases male fertilisation success and female fertility. However, the magnitude of inbreeding depression in sperm performance traits has rarely been estimated in wild populations experiencing natural variation in inbreeding. Further, the hypothesis that inbreeding could increase within-ejaculate variation in...

Data from: From parasitism to mutualism: unexpected interactions between a cuckoo and its host

Daniela Canestrari, Diana Bolopo, Ted C. J. Turlings, Gregory Röder, José M. Marcos & Vittorio Baglione
Avian brood parasites lay eggs in the nests of other birds, which raise the unrelated chicks and typically suffer partial or complete loss of their own brood. However, carrion crows Corvus corone corone can benefit from parasitism by the great spotted cuckoo Clamator glandarius. Parasitized nests have lower rates of predation-induced failure due to production of a repellent secretion by cuckoo chicks, but among nests that are successful, those with cuckoo chicks fledge fewer crows....

Data from: The unfolding of plant growth form-defence syndromes along elevation gradients

Emmanuel Defossez, Loïc Pellisier & Sergio Rasmann
Understanding the functional economics that drives plant investment of resources requires investigating the interface between plant phenotypes and the variation in ecological conditions. While allocation to defence represents a large portion of the carbon budget, this axis is usually neglected in the study of plant economic spectrum. Using a novel geometrical approach, we analysed the co‐variation in a comprehensive set of functional traits related to plant growth strategies, as well as chemical defences against herbivores...

Data from: Outcrossing mating system of the early-divergent moonwort fern (Botrychium lunaria, Ophioglossaceae) revealed in the European Alps

Benjamin Dauphin, Jason Grant & Donald Farrar
Premise of the Research. Vascular plants depend on sexual recombination for generating new genetic variability to meet environmental needs. Nevertheless, members of the early-divergent fern genus Botrychium (Ophioglossaceae) typically maintain gametophytic selfing and show strong inbreeding within populations. To explain this evolutionary anomaly, the existence of previous or current but undiscovered outcrossing, genetically rich, precursors of the existing genetically depauperate taxa has been hypothesized. Methodology. Using allele expression at thirteen independently assorting enzyme loci, we...

Data from: Ultraconserved yet informative for species delimitation: UCEs resolve long-standing systematic enigma in Central European bees

Morgan Gueuning, Christophe Praz & Juerg Frey
Accurate and testable species delimitation hypotheses are essential for measuring, surveying and managing biodiversity. Today, taxonomists often rely on mitochondrial DNA barcoding to complement morphological species delimitations. Although COI barcoding has largely proven successful in assisting identifications for most animal taxa, there are nevertheless numerous cases where mitochondrial barcodes do not necessarily reflect the species history. For instance, what is regarded as one single species can be associated with two distinct DNA barcodes, which can...

The search for sexually antagonistic genes: practical insights from studies of local adaptation and statistical genomics

Filip Ruzicka, Ludovic Dutoit, Peter Czuppon, Crispin Y. Jordan, Xiang‐Yi Li, Colin Olito, Homa Papoli Yazdi, Tim Connallon, Erik Svensson & Anna Runemark
Sexually antagonistic (SA) genetic variation—in which alleles favored in one sex are disfavored in the other—is predicted to be common and has been documented in several animal and plant populations, yet we currently know little about its pervasiveness among species or its population genetic basis. Recent applications of genomics in studies of SA genetic variation have highlighted considerable methodological challenges to the identification and characterization of SA genes, raising questions about the feasibility of genomic...

Reinforcement learning theory reveals the cognitive requirements for solving the cleaner fish market task

Andres Quiñones, Olof Leimar, Arnon Lotem & Redoaun Bshary
Learning is an adaptation that allows individuals to respond to environmental stimuli in ways that improve their reproductive outcomes. The degree of sophistication in learning mechanisms potentially explains variation in behavioural responses. Here, we present a model of learning that is inspired by documented intra- and interspecific variation in the performance in a simultaneous two-choice task, the ‘biological market task’. The task presents a problem that cleaner fish often face in nature: the decision of...


Dairazalia Sanchez Cortes, Oya Aran, Marianne Schmid Mast & Daniel Gatica-Perez
The corpus was gathered with the aim of analyzing emergent leadership as a social phenomenon that occurs in newly formed groups. For each group in the corpus, the participants performed the winter survival task. The annotations of the corpus include self-reported and perceived personality, concepts related to leadership, participants’ performance in the survival task, and manual transcriptions from the recordings in English. The full corpus contains approximately 10 hours of audio and video.

Platero y yo, un livre pour adultes ? Une approche d’un malentendu de réception

Virginie Giuliana

Die widersprüchlichen Absichten der Schweizer Bevölkerung in Bezug auf ihren Energieverbrauch

Mehdi Farsi, Laurent Ott & Sylvain Weber

Data from: Functional responses of multi-taxa communities to disturbance and stress gradients in a restored floodplain

Bertrand Fournier, François Gillet, Renée-Claire Le Bayon, Edward A. D. Mitchell & Marco Moretti
1. Trait-based approaches can reveal the mechanisms through which disturbances or stress impact communities, allowing comparisons of the role of different mechanisms in shaping communities among taxonomic groups. Such information can lead to higher comparability, transferability and predictability of the outcome of restoration projects. However, multitaxa trait-based approaches were rarely used in the context of ecosystem restoration. 2. We investigated the responses to environmental gradients of seven taxa (vascular plants, staphylinid and carabid beetles, spiders,...

Data from: Local adaptation and evolutionary potential along a temperature gradient in the fungal pathogen Rhynchosporium commune

Tryggvi S. Stefansson, Bruce A. McDonald & Yvonne Willi
To predict the response of plant pathogens to climate warming, data are needed on current thermal adaptation, the pathogen’s evolutionary potential and the link between them. We conducted a common garden experiment using isolates of the fungal pathogen Rhynchosporium commune from nine barley populations representing climatically diverse locations. Clonal replicates of 126 genetically distinct isolates were assessed for their growth rate at 12°C, 18°C and 22°C. Populations originating from climates with higher monthly temperature variation...

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  • 2012

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  • University of Neuchâtel
  • University of Lausanne
  • University of Bern
  • Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research
  • University of Zurich
  • University of Fribourg
  • Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich
  • Misión Biológica de Galicia
  • Autonomous University of Yucatán
  • Lund University