94 Works

Data from: Drift load in populations of small size and low density

Yvonne Willi, Philippa Griffin & Josh Van Buskirk
According to theory, drift load in randomly mating populations is determined by past population size, because enhanced genetic drift in small populations causes accumulation and fixation of recessive deleterious mutations of small effect. In contrast, segregating load due to mutations of low frequency should decline in smaller populations, at least when mutations are highly recessive and strongly deleterious. Strong local selection generally reduces both types of load. We tested these predictions in 13 isolated, outcrossing...

Data from: Plant defence responses to volatile alert signals are population-specific

Xoaquín Moreira, William K. Petry, Johnattan Hernández-Cumplido, Stéphanie Morelon & Betty Benrey
Herbivore-induced volatiles are widespread in plants. They can serve as alert signals that enable neighbouring leaves and plants to pre-emptively increase defences and avoid herbivory damage. However, our understanding of the factors mediating volatile organic compound (VOC) signal interpretation by receiver plants and the degree to which multiple herbivores affect VOC signals is still limited. Here we investigated whether plant responses to damage-induced VOC signals were population specific. As a secondary goal, we tested for...

Data from: The importance (or lack thereof) of niche divergence to the maintenance of a northern species complex: the case of the long-toed salamander (Ambystoma macrodactylum Baird)

Julie Lee-Yaw, Darren Irwin, J. A. Lee-Yaw & D. E. Irwin
The relative importance of ecological versus non-ecological factors for the origin and maintenance of species is an open question in evolutionary biology. Young lineages—such as the distinct genetic groups that make up the ranges of many northern species—represent an opportunity to study the importance of ecological divergence during the early stages of diversification. Yet, few studies have examined the extent of niche divergence between lineages in previously glaciated regions and the role of ecology in...

Data from: Genome-wide variation in nucleotides and retrotransposons in alpine populations of Arabis alpina (Brassicaceae)

Aude Rogivue, Rimjhim Roy Choudhury, Stefan Zoller, Stéphane Joost, Francois Felber, Michel Kasser, Christian Parisod & Felix Gugerli
Advances in high-throughput sequencing have promoted the collection of reference genomes and genome-wide diversity. However, the assessment of genomic variation among populations has hitherto mainly been surveyed through single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and largely ignored the often major fraction of genomes represented by transposable elements (TEs). Despite accumulating evidence supporting the evolutionary significance of TEs, comprehensive surveys remain scarce. Here, we sequenced the full genomes of 304 individuals of Arabis alpina sampled from four nearby natural...

Data from: The effect of parasite infection on the recombination rate of the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegyti

Giacomo Zilio, Moesch Lea, Bovet Nathalie, Sarr Anouk & Koella Jacob
Sexual reproduction and meiotic recombination generate new genetic combinations and may thereby help an individual infected by a parasite to protect its offspring from being infected. While this idea is often used to understand the evolutionary forces underlying the maintenance of sex and recombination, it also suggests that infected individuals should increase plastically their rate of recombination. We tested the latter idea with the mosquito Aedes aegypti and asked whether females infected by the microsporidian...

Environmental drivers of Sphagnum growth in peatlands across the Holarctic region

Fia Bengtsson, Håkan Rydin, Jennifer Baltzer, Luca Bragazza, Zhao-Jun Bu, Simon Caporn, Ellen Dorrepaal, Kjell Ivar Flatberg, Olga Galanina, Mariusz Gałka, Anna Ganeva, Irina Goia, Nadezhda Goncharova, Michal Hajek, Akira Haraguchi, Lorna Harris, Elyn Humphreys, Martin Jiroušek, Katarzyna Kajukało, Edgar Karofeld, Natalia Koronatova, Natalia Kosykh, Anna Laine, Mariusz Lamentowicz, Elena Lapshina … & Richard J. Payne
The relative importance of global versus local environmental factors for growth and thus carbon uptake of the bryophyte genus Sphagnum – the main peat-former and ecosystem engineer in northern peatlands – remains unclear. 2) We measured length growth and net primary production (NPP) of two abundant Sphagnum species across 99 Holarctic peatlands. We tested the importance of previously proposed abiotic and biotic drivers for peatland carbon uptake (climate, N deposition, water table depth, and vascular...

Data from: The effect of root-associated microbes on plant growth and chemical defence traits across two contrasted elevations,

Ludovico Formenti, Veronica Caggia, Jeremy Puissant, Tim Goodall, Gaëtan Glauser, Robert Griffiths & Sergio Rasmann
1. Ecotypic differences in plant growth and anti-herbivore defence phenotypes are determined by the complex interactions between the abiotic and the biotic environment. 2. Root-associated microbes (RAMs) are pervasive in nature, vary over climatic gradients, and have been shown to influence the expression of multiple plant functional traits related to biomass accumulation and biotic interactions. We addressed how variation in climatic conditions between lowland and sub-alpine habitats in the Alps and RAMs can independently or...

Oxidative costs of cooperation in cooperatively breeding Damaraland mole-rats

Rute Mendonça, Philippe Vullioud, Nathan Katlein, Armelle Vallat, Gaetan Glauser, Nigel Bennett & Fabrice Helfenstein
Within cooperatively breeding societies, individuals adjust cooperative contributions to maximise indirect fitness and minimize direct fitness costs. Yet, little is known about the physiological costs of cooperation, which may be detrimental to direct fitness. Oxidative stress, the imbalance between reactive oxygen species (by-products of energy production) and antioxidant protection, may represent such a cost when cooperative behaviours are energetically demanding. Oxidative stress can lead to the accumulation of cellular damage, compromising survival and reproduction, thus...

Effects of soil salinity on the expression of direct and indirect defences in wild cotton (Gossypium hirsutum)

Luis Abdala-Roberts, Teresa Quijano-Medina, Ted Turlings, Paula Sosenski, Luca Grandi, Jose Cervera & Xoaquin Moreira
Previous studies have reported effects of abiotic factors on herbivore-induced plant defences based on effects on single plant traits. However, plants commonly express multiple defences simultaneously and these traits are often correlated. Thus, a fuller understanding of abiotic-context dependency in plant defence requires measuring multiple traits and addressing their patterns of correlated expression. We evaluated the effects of soil salinity on the induction of direct (phenolic compounds, gossypol gland density) and indirect (volatile organic compounds,...

Eco-genetic additivity of diploids in allopolyploid wild wheats

Christian Parisod, Stella Huynh, Olivier Broennimann, Antoine Guisan & Francois Felber
Underpinnings of the distribution of allopolyploid species (hybrids with duplicated genome) along spatial and ecological gradients are elusive. As allopolyploid speciation combines the range of genetic and ecological characteristics of divergent diploids, allopolyploids initially show their additivity and are predicted to evolve differentiated ecological niches to establish in face of their competition. Here, we use four diploid wild wheats that differentially combined into four independent allopolyploid species to test for such additivity and assess the...

Data from: Wheat alleles introgress into selfing wild relatives: empirical estimates from Approximate Bayesian Computation in Aegilops triuncialis.

Mila Pajkovic, Sylvain Lappe, Rachel Barman, Christian Parisod, Samuel Neuenschwander, Jerome Goudet, Nadir Alvarez, Robero Guadagnuolo, Francois Felber, Nils Arrigo & Roberto Guadagnuolo
Extensive gene flow between wheat (Triticum sp.) and several wild relatives of the genus Aegilops has recently been detected despite notoriously high levels of selfing in these species. Here, we assess and model the spread of wheat alleles into natural populations of the barbed goatgrass (Aegilops triuncialis), a wild wheat relative prevailing in the Mediterranean flora. Our sampling, based on an extensive survey of 31 Ae. triuncialis populations collected along a 60 km x 20...

Data from: Morphological, ecological and genetic aspects associated with endemism in the Fly Orchid group

Yann Triponez, Nils Arrigo, Loïc Pellissier, Bertrand Schatz & Nadir Alvarez
The European genus Ophrys (Orchidaceae) is famous for its insect-like floral morphology, an adaptation for a pseudocopulatory pollination strategy involving Hymenoptera males. A large number of endemic Ophrys species have recently been described, especially within the Mediterranean Basin, which is one of the major species diversity hotspots. Subtle morphological variation and specific pollinator dependence are the two main perceptible criteria for describing numerous endemic taxa. However, the degree to which endemics differ genetically remains a...

Data from: Differential introgression and reorganization of retrotransposons in hybrid zones between wild wheats

Natacha Senerchia, François Felber, Béatrice North, Anouk Sarr, Roberto Guadagnuolo & Christian Parisod
The maintenance of species integrity despite pervasive hybridization is ruled by the interplay between reproductive barriers. Endogenous postzygotic isolation will shape the patterns of introgression in hybrid zones, leading to variable outcomes depending on the genetic mechanism involved. Here, we analysed experimental and natural hybrid populations of Aegilops geniculata and Aegilops triuncialis to examine the genetics of species boundaries in the face of gene flow. Because long-terminal repeat retrotransposons (LTR-RTs) showing differential evolutionary trajectories are...

Data from: Genetic diversity in widespread species is not congruent with species richness in alpine plant communities

Pierre Taberlet, Niklaus E. Zimmermann, Thorsten Englisch, Andreas Tribsch, Rolf Holderegger, Nadir Alvarez, Harald Niklfeld, Zbigniew Mirek, Atte Moilanen, Wolfgang Ahlmer, Paolo Ajmone Marsan, Enzo Bona, Maurizio Bovio, Philippe Choler, Elżbieta Cieślak, Gheorghe Coldea, Licia Colli, Vasile Cristea, Jean-Pierre Dalmas, Božo Frajman, Luc Garraud, Myriam Gaudeul, Ludovic Gielly, Walter Gutermann, Nejc Jogan … & Karol Marhold
The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) aims at the conservation of all three levels of biodiversity, i.e. ecosystems, species and genes. Genetic diversity represents evolutionary potential and is important for ecosystem functioning. Unfortunately, genetic diversity in natural populations is hardly considered in conservation strategies because it is difficult to measure and has been hypothesized to co-vary with species richness. This means that species richness is taken as a surrogate of genetic diversity in conservation planning,...

Data from: The nature and distribution of affiliative behaviour during exposure to mild threat

Guillaume Dezecache, Julie Grezes & Christoph D. Dahl
Individual reactions to danger in humans are often characterized as antisocial and self-preservative. Yet, more than fifty years of research have showed that humans often seek social partners and behave pro-socially when confronted by danger.Yet, more than fifty years of research have showed that humans seek social partners and behave pro-socially when confronted by danger. This research has relied on post-hoc verbal reports, which fall short of capturing the more spontaneous reactions to danger and...

Data from: The contribution of a pollinating seed predator to selection on Silene latifolia females

Anne Burkhardt, Benjamin J. Ridenhour, Lynda F. Delph & Giorgina Bernasconi
Interactions, antagonistic or mutualistic, can exert selection on plant traits. We explored the role of Hadena bicruris, a pollinating seed predator, as a selective agent on its host, the dioecious plant Silene latifolia. We exposed females from artificial-selection lines (many, small flowers (SF) vs. few, large flowers (LF)) to this moth. Infestation did not differ significantly between lines, but the odds of attacked fruits aborting were higher in SF females. We partitioned selection between that...

The functional role and diversity of soil nematodes are stronger at high elevation in the lesser Himalayan mountain ranges

Yasmeen Kouser, Ali Shah & Sergio Rasmann
Soil nematodes are a foremost component of terrestrial biodiversity, they display the whole gamut of trophic guilds and life strategies, and by their activity, affect major ecosystem process, such as organic matter degradation and carbon cycling. Based on nematodes’ functional types, nematode community indices have been developed, and can be used to link variation in nematodes community composition and ecosystem processes. Yet, the use of these indices has been mainly restricted to anthropogenic stresses. In...

Cross-continental comparison of parasite communities in a wide-ranging carnivore suggests associations with prey diversity and host density

Astrid Stronen, Barbara Molnar, Paolo Ciucci, Chris Darimont, Lorenza Grottoli, Paul Paquet, Tim Sallows, Judit Smits & Heather Bryan
Parasites are integral to ecosystem functioning yet often overlooked. Improved understanding of host-parasite associations is important, particularly for wide-ranging species for which host range shifts and climate change could alter host-parasite interactions and their effects on ecosystem function. Among the most widely distributed mammals with diverse diets, grey wolves (Canis lupus) host parasites that are transmitted among canids and via prey species. Grey wolf-parasite associations may therefore influence the population dynamics and ecological functions of...

Global patterns in bumble bee pollen collection show phylogenetic conservation of diet

Thomas Wood, Guillaume Ghisbain, Pierre Rasmont, David Kleijn, Ivo Raemakers, Christophe Praz, Michael Killewald, Jason Gibbs, Kyle Bobiwash, Mira Boustani, Baptiste Martinet & Denis Michez
1. Bumble bees (Bombus) are a group of eusocial bees with a strongly generalised feeding pattern, collecting pollen from many different botanical families. Though predominantly generalists, some bumble bee species seem to have restricted dietary choices. It is unclear whether restricted diets in bumble bees are inherent or a function of local conditions due to a lack of data for many species across different regions. 2. The objective of this study was to determine whether...

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