10 Works

Data from: Microbiome affects egg carotenoid investment, nestling development and adult oxidative costs of reproduction in Great tits

Staffan Jacob, Nathalie Parthuisot, Armelle Vallat, Felipe Ramon-Portugal, Fabrice Helfenstein & Philipp Heeb
1. Parasites influence allocation trade-offs between reproduction and self-maintenance and consequently shape host life-history traits. The host microbiome includes pathogenic and commensal micro-organisms that are remarkable in their diversity and ubiquity. However, experimental studies investigating whether the microbiome shapes host reproduction are still lacking. 2. In this study, we tested whether the microbiome affects three important components of bird reproduction, namely (i) the maternal transfer of anti-microbial compounds to the eggs, (ii) the development of...

Data from: Corticosterone: effects on feather quality and deposition into feathers

Susanne Jenni-Eiermann, Fabrice Helfenstein, Armelle Vallat, Gaétan Glauser & Lukas Jenni
1. The concentration of the glucocorticoid hormone corticosterone (CORT) is increasingly used in ecology and conservation biology as an integrated measure of the historical record of an individual's hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activity during feather growth. However, where and how CORT is incorporated in feathers is incompletely known. 2. We therefore examined whether CORT is reliably measured with an enzyme immunoassay, where CORT is incorporated in the feather and where it affects feather quality, and whether CORT...

Data from: Including community composition in biodiversity-productivity models

Nadine Sandau, Rudolf P. Rohr, Russell E. Naisbit, Yvonne Fabian, Odile T. Bruggisser, Patrik Kehrli, Alexandre Aebi & Louis-Félix Bersier
1. Studies on biodiversity and ecosystem functioning (BEF) have elicited debate over the interpretation of the positive relationship between species richness and plant productivity. Manipulating richness cannot be achieved without affecting composition; it is thus essential to consider the latter in statistical models. 2. We firstly review existing approaches that use species richness as an explanatory variable and propose modifications to improve their performance. We use an original dataset to illustrate the analyses. The classical...

Data from: Social network analysis shows direct evidence for social transmission of tool use in wild chimpanzees.

Catherine Hobaiter, Timothée Poisot, Klaus Zuberbühler, William Hoppitt & Thibaud Gruber
Claims of culture in animals have been stimulated by studies on a wide range of taxa revealing group-specific behavior patterns that remain stable through generations, consistent with different behavioral innovations spreading within groups by social transmission in a manner similar to human culture. In chimpanzees, 39 behaviors have been identified as 'cultural', because alternative genetic and environmental explanations for the observed regional variation appear less plausible. This interpretation is supported by experimental data from captive...

Data from: Decoupled post-glacial history in mutualistic plant-insect interactions: insights from the yellow loosestrife (Lysimachia vulgaris) and its associated oil-collecting bees (Macropis europaea and M. fulvipes)

Yann Triponez, Anahí Espíndola, Nils Arrigo & Nadir Alvarez
Aim: We take a comparative phylogeographical approach to assess whether three species involved in a specialized oil-rewarding pollination system (i.e. Lysimachia vulgaris and two oil-collecting bees within the genus Macropis) show congruent phylogeographical trajectories during post-glacial colonization processes. Our working hypothesis is that within specialized mutualistic interactions, where each species relies on the co-occurrence of the other for survival and/or reproduction, partners are expected to show congruent evolutionary trajectories, because they are likely to have...

Data from: Seedling resistance, tolerance and escape from herbivores: insights from co-dominant canopy tree species in a resource-poor African rain forest

Julian M. Norghauer, Gaёtan Glauser & David M. Newbery
Although plants can reduce the impacts of herbivory in multiple ways, these defensive traits are often studied in isolation and an understanding of the resulting strategies is incomplete. In the study reported here, empirical evidence was simultaneously evaluated for the three main sets of traits available to plants: (1) resistance through constitutive leaf traits, (2) tolerance to defoliation, and (3) escape in space, for three caesalpiniaceous tree species Microberlinia bisulcata, Tetraberlinia bifoliolata and T. korupensis,...

Data from: A new species of the paper wasp genus Polistes (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Polistinae) in Europe revealed by morphometrics and molecular analyses

Rainer Neumeyer, Hannes Baur, Gaston-Denis Guex & Christophe Praz
We combine multivariate ratio analysis (MRA) of body measurements and analyses of mitochondrial and nuclear data to examine the status of several species of European paper wasps (Polistes Latreille, 1802) closely related to P. gallicus. Our analyses unambiguously reveal the presence of a cryptic species in Europe, as two distinct species can be recognized in what has hitherto been considered Polistes bischoffi Weyrauch, 1937. One species is almost as light coloured as P. gallicus, and...

Data from: The influence of genetic drift and selection on quantitative traits in a plant pathogenic fungus

Tryggvi S. Stefansson, Bruce A. McDonald & Yvonne Willi
Genetic drift and selection are ubiquitous evolutionary forces acting to shape genetic variation in populations. While their relative importance has been well studied in plants and animals, less is known about their relative importance in fungal pathogens. Because agro-ecosystems are more homogeneous environments than natural ecosystems, stabilizing selection may play a stronger role than genetic drift or diversifying selection in shaping genetic variation among populations of fungal pathogens in agro-ecosystems. We tested this hypothesis by...

Data from: From parasitism to mutualism: unexpected interactions between a cuckoo and its host

Daniela Canestrari, Diana Bolopo, Ted C. J. Turlings, Gregory Röder, José M. Marcos & Vittorio Baglione
Avian brood parasites lay eggs in the nests of other birds, which raise the unrelated chicks and typically suffer partial or complete loss of their own brood. However, carrion crows Corvus corone corone can benefit from parasitism by the great spotted cuckoo Clamator glandarius. Parasitized nests have lower rates of predation-induced failure due to production of a repellent secretion by cuckoo chicks, but among nests that are successful, those with cuckoo chicks fledge fewer crows....

Data from: Wheat alleles introgress into selfing wild relatives: empirical estimates from Approximate Bayesian Computation in Aegilops triuncialis.

Mila Pajkovic, Sylvain Lappe, Rachel Barman, Christian Parisod, Samuel Neuenschwander, Jerome Goudet, Nadir Alvarez, Robero Guadagnuolo, Francois Felber, Nils Arrigo & Roberto Guadagnuolo
Extensive gene flow between wheat (Triticum sp.) and several wild relatives of the genus Aegilops has recently been detected despite notoriously high levels of selfing in these species. Here, we assess and model the spread of wheat alleles into natural populations of the barbed goatgrass (Aegilops triuncialis), a wild wheat relative prevailing in the Mediterranean flora. Our sampling, based on an extensive survey of 31 Ae. triuncialis populations collected along a 60 km x 20...

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