41 Works

Data from: Creating virtual species to test species distribution models: The importance of landscape structure, dispersal and population processes

Liam Grimmett
The use of virtual species to test species distribution models is important for understanding how aspects of the model development process influence model performance. Typically, virtual species are simulated by defining its niche as a function of environmental variables and simulate occurrence probabilistically via Bernoulli trials. This approach ignores endogenous processes known to drive species distribution like dispersal and population dynamics. To understand whether these processes are important for simulating virtual species we compared the...

Birds and insects respond differently to combinations of semi-natural features in farm landscapes

Mark Hall, Dale Nimmo & Andrew F Bennett
Semi-natural features among farmland have a key role in maintaining wildlife in rural landscapes. Practical conservation requires knowledge of which combinations of features are of greatest value and whether this differs among faunal groups. We used a ‘landscape’ approach to investigate the relative importance to birds and insects (bees, flies, wasps) of combinations of three wooded features typical of farmland in south-eastern Australia: scattered trees, wooded roadsides and wooded streamside vegetation. We selected 44 landscapes...

Sex-specific shifts in morphology and diet in a frog after 50 years of anthropogenic habitat fragmentation

Qiang Wu, Fabien Aubret, Lingbing Wu & Ping Ding
Aim: Phenotypic shifts are commonly observed when animals face insular habitat change and may reflect ongoing stresses on individuals. However, the generality and the driving processes of this ‘island rule’ remain equivocal, notably in amphibians. Here, we investigate both morphological and dietary shifts in a frog using a mosaic of human-created islands to assess the potential operating mechanisms underlying these phenotypic responses. Location: Thousand Island Lake, China. Taxon: The Chinese piebald odorous frog, Odorrana schmackeri....

Additional file 1 of Photolysis of caged cytokinin in single cells of Arabidopsis thaliana

Lachlan Dow, Russell A. Barrow, Rosemary G. White & Ulrike Mathesius
Additional file 1: Figure S1. Structure of caged benzyladenine, showing atom numbering system. Figure S2. 1H NMR spectrum of Caged benzyladenine in CDCl3. Figure S3. 13C NMR spectrum of caged benzyladenine in CDCl3. Figure S4. Low resolution (A) and high resolution (B) ESI mass spectra of caged benzyladenine. Figure S5. Infrared spectrum of caged benzyladenine, as powder. Figure S6. Structure of caged adenine, showing atom numbering system. Figure S7. 1H NMR spectrum of caged adenine,...

Photolysis of caged cytokinin in single cells of Arabidopsis thaliana

Lachlan Dow, Russell A. Barrow, Rosemary G. White & Ulrike Mathesius
Abstract Background Cytokinins are a class of phytohormone that play a crucial role in the development of plants. They are involved in the regulation of nearly every aspect of plant growth, from germination to senescence. The role of cytokinins in many developmental programs is complex and varies both spatially and temporally. Current techniques used to investigate the functions of cytokinins in plant development lack this spatial and temporal resolution required to observe cell-type specific effects....

Additional file 3 of Physiotherapists’ opinions, barriers, and enablers to providing evidence-based care: a mixed-methods study

Connor Gleadhill, Katarzyna Bolsewicz, Simon R. E. Davidson, Steven J. Kamper, Amanda Tutty, Emma Robson, Priscilla Viana Da Silva, Bruce Donald, Katherine Dooley, Joshua Manvell, Nicole Manvell, Andrew Delbridge & Christopher M. Williams
Additional file 3. Online supplement 2.

Data from: Religion does matter for climate change attitudes and behavior

Mark Morrison, Roderick Duncan & Kevin Parton
Little research has focused on the relationship between religion and climate change attitudes and behavior. Further, while there have been some studies examining the relationship between environmental attitudes and religion, most are focused on Christian denominations and secularism, and few have examined other religions such as Buddhism. Using an online survey of 1,927 Australians we examined links between membership of four religious groupings (Buddhists, Christian literalists and non-literalists, and Secularists) and climate change attitudes and...

Data from: Energetic fitness: field metabolic rates assessed via 3D accelerometry complement conventional fitness metrics

David Gremillet, Amelie Lescroel, Grant Ballard, Katie M. Dugger, Melanie Massaro, Elizabeth L. Porzig & David G. Ainley
1) Evaluating the fitness of organisms is an essential step towards understanding their responses to environmental change. Connections between energy expenditure and fitness have been postulated for nearly a century. However, testing this premise among wild animals is constrained by difficulties in measuring energy expenditure while simultaneously monitoring conventional fitness metrics such as survival and reproductive output. 2) We addressed this issue by exploring the functional links between field metabolic rate (FMR), body condition, sex,...

Predator responses to fire: a global systematic review and meta-analysis

William Geary, Tim Doherty, Dale Nimmo, Ayesha Tulloch & Euan Ritchie
1. Knowledge of how disturbances such as fire shape habitat structure and composition, and affect animal interactions, is fundamental to ecology and ecosystem management. Predators also exert strong effects on ecological communities, through top-down regulation of prey and competitors, which can result in trophic cascades. Despite their ubiquity, ecological importance and potential to interact with fire, our general understanding of how predators respond to fire remains poor, hampering ecosystem management. 2. To address this important...

Fire, drought and flooding rains: the effect of climatic extremes on bird species’ responses to time since fire

Jemima Connell, Mark Hall, Dale Nimmo, Simon Watson & Michael Clarke
Aim: Climatic extremes and fire affect ecosystems across the globe, yet our understanding of how species are influenced by the interaction of these broad-scale ecological drivers is poorly understood. Using a ten-year dataset, we tested how extreme drought and rainfall interacted with time since fire (TSF) to shape bird species’ distributions. Location: Semi-arid mallee woodlands of south-eastern Australia. Methods: We quantified the effects of climatic extremes on bird species’ occurrence, species richness and incidence at...

Molecular gut content analysis indicates the inter- and intra-guild predation patterns of spiders in conventionally managed vegetable fields

Hafiz Sohaib Ahmed Saqib, Pingping Liang, Minsheng You & Geoff M. Gurr
Inter- and intra-guild interactions are important in the coexistence of predators and their prey, especially in highly disturbed vegetable cropping systems with sporadic food resources. Assessing the dietary range of a predator taxon characterized by diverse foraging behavior using conventional approaches, such as visual observation and conventional molecular approaches for prey detection, has serious logistical problems. In this study, we investigated the trophic interactions of a functionally diverge group of predators -spiders- to accomplish the...

Genomic trajectories of a near-extinction event in the Chatham Island black robin

Johanna von Seth, Tom van der Valk, Edana Lord, Hanna Sigeman, Remi-André Olsen, Michael Knapp, Olga Kardailsky, Fiona Robertson, Marie Hale, Dave Houston, Euan Kennedy, Love Dalén, Karin Norén, Melanie Massaro, Bruce C. Robertson & Nicolas Dussex
Abstract Background Understanding the micro-­evolutionary response of populations to demographic declines is a major goal in evolutionary and conservation biology. In small populations, genetic drift can lead to an accumulation of deleterious mutations, which will increase the risk of extinction. However, demographic recovery can still occur after extreme declines, suggesting that natural selection may purge deleterious mutations, even in extremely small populations. The Chatham Island black robin (Petroica traversi) is arguably the most inbred bird...

Physiotherapists’ opinions, barriers, and enablers to providing evidence-based care: a mixed-methods study

Connor Gleadhill, Katarzyna Bolsewicz, Simon R. E. Davidson, Steven J. Kamper, Amanda Tutty, Emma Robson, Priscilla Viana Da Silva, Bruce Donald, Katherine Dooley, Joshua Manvell, Nicole Manvell, Andrew Delbridge & Christopher M. Williams
Abstract Background Physiotherapists deliver evidence-based guideline recommended treatments only half of the time to patients with musculoskeletal conditions. Physiotherapists’ behaviour in clinical practice are influenced by many cognitive, social, and environmental factors including time and financial pressures. Many initiatives aimed at improving physiotherapists’ uptake of evidence-based care have failed to appreciate the context involved in clinical decisions and clinical practice. Therefore, we aimed to describe: i) opinions toward evidence; ii) how evidence is accessed; iii)...

Data from: Incorporating anthropogenic effects into trophic ecology: predator-prey interactions in a human-dominated landscape

Ine Dorresteijn, Jannik Schultner, Dale G. Nimmo, Joern Fischer, Jan Hanspach, Tobias Kuemmerle, Laura Kehoe & Euan G. Ritchie
Apex predators perform important functions that regulate ecosystems worldwide. However, little is known about how ecosystem regulation by predators is influenced by human activities. In particular, how important are top-down effects of predators relative to direct and indirect human-mediated bottom-up and top-down processes? Combining data on species' occurrence from camera traps and hunting records, we aimed to quantify the relative effects of top-down and bottom-up processes in shaping predator and prey distributions in a human-dominated...

Data from: Incorporating disturbance into trophic ecology: fire history shapes mesopredator suppression by an apex predator

William L. Geary, Euan G. Ritchie, Jessica A. Lawton, Thomas R. Healey & Dale G. Nimmo
1.Apex predators can suppress smaller bodied ‘mesopredators’. In doing so, they can provide refuge to species preyed upon by mesopredators, which is particularly important in regions where mesopredators are invasive. While most studies of mesopredator suppression focus on the response of mesopredators to human control of apex predators, other factors –including natural and anthropogenic disturbance – also drive the occurrence of apex predators and, in doing so, might shape spatial patterns of mesopredator suppression. 2.We...

Data from: Ecological correlates of Himalayan musk deer Moschus leucogaster

Paras Bikram Singh, Pradip Saud, Kumar Mainali, Doug Cram, Arjun Thapa, Nar Bahadur Chhetri, Laxman P. Poudyal, Hem Sagar Baral, Zhigang Jiang & Douglas Cram
Himalayan musk deer (Moschus leucogaster; hereafter musk deer) are endangered as a result of poaching and habitat loss. The species is nocturnal, crepuscular and elusive, making direct observation of habitat use and behavior difficult. However, musk deer establish and repeatedly use the same latrines for defecation. To quantify musk deer habitat correlates, we used observational spatial data based on presence-absence of musk deer latrines, as well as a range of fine spatial-scale ecological covariates. To...

Data from: Increasing belief but issue fatigue: changes in Australian Household Climate Change Segments between 2011 and 2016

Mark Morrison, Kevin Parton, Don W. Hine & Donald W. Hine
We applied the segmentation methodology developed by Leiserowitz, Maibach, and Roser-Renouf (2009) to national Australian samples collected in 2011 (n=1927) and 2016 (n=2503). In both samples we identified six Australian household segments which we labelled alarmed, concerned, cautious, disengaged, doubtful and dismissive. Between the two periods, we found the proportion of households in the alarmed and concerned segments was stable; however there was a decrease (28% to 20%) in the proportion of households in the...

Irreproducibility in searches of scientific literature: a comparative analysis

Gabor Pozsgai, Gabor Lövei, Liette Vasseur, Geoff Gurr, Péter Batáry, Janos Korponai, Nick Littlewood, Jian Liu, Arnold Móra, John Obrycki, Olivia Reynolds, Jenni Stockan, Heather VanVolkenburg, Jie Zhang, Wenwu Zhou & Minsheng You
1. Repeatability is the cornerstone of science and it is particularly important for systematic reviews. However, little is known on how researchers’ choice of database and search platform influence the repeatability of systematic reviews. Here, we aim to unveil how the computer environment and the location where the search was initiated from influence hit results. 2. We present a comparative analysis of time-synchronized searches at different institutional locations in the world, and evaluate the consistency...

Attributes of rock-dwelling reptiles within the Australian wheat-sheep zone

Damian Michael
Rocky environments host rich levels of biodiversity, and provide vital habitat for specialised organisms, range-restricted species, and a broad range of ectotherms adapted to saxicoline environments. In Australia, rock habitat is being destroyed during soil amelioration practices associated with agricultural intensification. Advances in rock crushing technology, developed to expand or increase crop yields and efficiency, pose an undocumented threat to biodiversity, especially reptiles dependent on non-renewable rock habitat in agricultural landscapes worldwide. Rock removal is...

Additional file 2 of Genomic trajectories of a near-extinction event in the Chatham Island black robin

Johanna von Seth, Tom van der Valk, Edana Lord, Hanna Sigeman, Remi-André Olsen, Michael Knapp, Olga Kardailsky, Fiona Robertson, Marie Hale, Dave Houston, Euan Kennedy, Love Dalén, Karin Norén, Melanie Massaro, Bruce C. Robertson & Nicolas Dussex
Additional file 2.

Additional file 1 of Photolysis of caged cytokinin in single cells of Arabidopsis thaliana

Lachlan Dow, Russell A. Barrow, Rosemary G. White & Ulrike Mathesius
Additional file 1: Figure S1. Structure of caged benzyladenine, showing atom numbering system. Figure S2. 1H NMR spectrum of Caged benzyladenine in CDCl3. Figure S3. 13C NMR spectrum of caged benzyladenine in CDCl3. Figure S4. Low resolution (A) and high resolution (B) ESI mass spectra of caged benzyladenine. Figure S5. Infrared spectrum of caged benzyladenine, as powder. Figure S6. Structure of caged adenine, showing atom numbering system. Figure S7. 1H NMR spectrum of caged adenine,...

Data from: Evolutionary factors affecting the cross-species utility of newly developed microsatellite markers in seabirds

Yoshan Moodley, Juan F. Masello, Gopi K. Munimanda, Theresa L. Cole, Marco R. Thali, Rachael Alderman, Richard J. Cuthbert, Manuel Marin, Melanie Massaro, Joan Navarro, Richard A. Phillips, Peter G. Ryan, Cristián G. Suazo, Yves Cherel, Henri Weimerskirch, Petra Quillfeldt & Luciano Calderon
Microsatellite loci are ideal for testing hypotheses relating to genetic segregation at fine spatio-temporal scales. They are also conserved among closely related species, making them potentially useful for clarifying interspecific relationships between recently diverged taxa. However, mutations at primer binding sites may lead to increased nonamplification, or disruptions that may result in decreased polymorphism in nontarget species. Furthermore, high mutation rates and constraints on allele size may also with evolutionary time, promote an increase in...

Data from: Crop pests and predators exhibit inconsistent responses to surrounding landscape composition

Daniel S. Karp, Rebecca Chaplin-Kramer, Timothy D. Meehan, Emily A. Martin, Fabrice DeClerck, Heather Grab, Claudio Gratton, Lauren Hunt, Ashley E. Larsen, Alejandra Martínez-Salinas, Megan E. O’Rourke, Adrien Rusch, Katja Poveda, Mattias Jonsson, Jay A. Rosenheim, Nancy A. Schellhorn, Teja Tscharntke, Stephen D. Wratten, Wei Zhang, Aaron L. Iverson, Lynn S. Adler, Matthias Albrecht, Audrey Alignier, Gina M. Angelella, Muhammad Zubair Anjum … & Yi Zou
The idea that noncrop habitat enhances pest control and represents a win–win opportunity to conserve biodiversity and bolster yields has emerged as an agroecological paradigm. However, while noncrop habitat in landscapes surrounding farms sometimes benefits pest predators, natural enemy responses remain heterogeneous across studies and effects on pests are inconclusive. The observed heterogeneity in species responses to noncrop habitat may be biological in origin or could result from variation in how habitat and biocontrol are...

Data from: Testing the assumptions of the pyrodiversity begets biodiversity hypothesis for termites in semi-arid Australia

Hayley Davis, Euan G. Ritchie, Sarah Avitabile, Tim Doherty & Dale G. Nimmo
Fire shapes the composition and functioning of ecosystems globally. In many regions, fire is actively managed to create diverse patch mosaics of fire-ages under the assumption that a diversity of post-fire age classes will provide a greater variety of habitats, thereby enabling species with differing habitat requirements to coexist, and enhancing species diversity (the pyrodiversity begets biodiversity hypothesis). However, studies provide mixed support for this hypothesis. Here, using termite communities in a semi-arid region of...

Taxonomic revision reveals potential impacts of Black Summer megafires on a cryptic species

Chris Jolly, Harry Moore, Mitchell Cowan, Teigan Cremona, Judy Dunlop, Sarah Legge, Grant Linley, Vivianna Miritis, John Woinarski & Dale Nimmo
Context: Sound taxonomy is the cornerstone of biodiversity conservation. Without a fundamental understanding of species delimitations, as well as their distributions and ecological requirements, our ability to conserve them is drastically impeded. Cryptic species – two or more distinct species currently classified as a single species – present a significant challenge to biodiversity conservation. How do we assess the conservation status and address potential drivers of extinction if we are unaware of a species’ existence?...

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