Trade-offs select for optimal allocation of resources among competing functions. Parents are selected to maximize production of viable offspring by balancing between progeny number and “quality.” Telomeres are nucleoproteins, at the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes, that shorten when cells divide. Because shortening below a certain threshold depresses organismal functioning and rate of shortening depends on environmental conditions, telomeres are good candidates as mediators of trade-offs. We altered brood size of barn swallow Hirundo rustica and...
Sex allocation theory predicts that parents are selected to bias their progeny sex ratio (SR) towards the sex that will benefit the most from parental quality. Because parental quality may differentially affect survival of sons and daughters, a pivotal test of the adaptive value of SR adjustment is whether parents overproduce offspring of the sex that accrue larger fitness advantages from high parental quality. However, this crucial test of the long-term fitness consequences of sex...
Data from: Antipsychotic dose mediates the association between polypharmacy and corrected QT intervalCorrado Barbui, Irene Bighelli, Giuseppe Carrà, Mariasole Castellazzi, Claudio Lucii, Giovanni Martinotti, Michela Nosè, Giovanni Ostuzzi & Giovanni Targher
Antipsychotic (AP) drugs have the potential to cause prolongation of the QT interval corrected for heart rate (QTc). As this risk is dose-dependent, it may be associated with the number of AP drugs concurrently prescribed, which is known to be associated with increased cumulative equivalent AP dosage. This study analysed whether AP dose mediates the relationship between polypharmacy and QTc interval. We used data from a cross-sectional survey that investigated the prevalence of QTc lengthening...
Data from: Cardiovascular variability analysis and baroreflex estimation in patients with type 2 diabetes in absence of any manifest neuropathySílvia Cristina Garcia De Moura-Tonello, Alberto Porta, Andrea Marchi, Alessandra De Almeida Fagundes, Cristina De Oliveira Francisco, Patricia Rehder-Santos, Juliana Cristina Milan-Mattos, Rodrigo Polaquini Simões, Mariana De Oliveira Gois & Aparecida Maria Catai
Introduction: Indexes derived from spontaneous heart period (HP) and systolic arterial pressure (SAP) fluctuations can detect autonomic dysfunction in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) associated to cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN) or other neuropathies. It is unknown whether HP and SAP variability indexes are sensitive enough to detect the autonomic dysfunction in DM patients without CAN and other neuropathies. Methods: We evaluated 68 males aged between 40 and 65 years. The group was composed...
Data from: Migratory connectivity and effects of winter temperatures on migratory behaviour of the European robin Erithacus rubecula: a continent-wide analysisRoberto Ambrosini, José Cuervo, Chris Du Feu, Wolfgang Fiedler, Musitelli Federica, Diego Rubolini, Beatrice Sicurella, Fernando Spina, Nicola Saino, Anders Møller & Federica Musitelli
1. Many partially migratory species show phenotypically divergent populations in terms of migratory behaviour, with climate hypothesized to be a major driver of such variability through its differential effects on sedentary and migratory individuals. 2. Based on long-term (1947–2011) bird ringing data, we analysed phenotypic differentiation of migratory behaviour among populations of the European robin Erithacus rubecula across Europe. 3. We showed that clusters of populations sharing breeding and wintering ranges varied from partial (British...
The complement system is an innate immunity effector mechanism; its action is antagonized by a wide array of pathogens and complement evasion determines the virulence of several infections. We investigated the evolutionary history of the complement system and of bacterial-encoded complement-interacting proteins. Complement components targeted by several pathogens evolved under strong selective pressure in primates, with selection acting on residues at the contact interface with microbial/viral proteins. Positively selected sites in CFH and C4BPA account...
Data from: Sex-dependent carry-over effects on timing of reproduction and fecundity of a migratory birdNicola Saino, Roberto Ambrosini, Manuela Caprioli, Andrea Romano, Maria Romano, Diego Rubolini, Chiara Scandolara & Felix Liechti
Life of many organisms flows as a sequence of annual cycles. Timing of cyclical events is shaped by natural selection also via the domino effects that any life history stage has on the stages that follow. Such ‘carry-over effects’ have major consequences for evolutionary, ecological and demographic processes, but the causes that generate their individual-level variation, including the effect of sex, are poorly understood. We used light-level geolocators to study carry-over effects on the year-round...
Data from: A 45-second self-test for cardiorespiratory fitness: heart rate-based estimation in healthy individualsFrancesco Sartor, Matteo Bonato, Gabriele Papini, Andrea Bosio, Rahil A. Mohammed, Alberto G. Bonomi, Jonathan P. Moore, Giampiero Merati, Antonio La Torre & Hans-Peter Kubis
Cardio-respiratory fitness (CRF) is a widespread essential indicator in Sports Science as well as in Sports Medicine. This study aimed to develop and validate a prediction model for CRF based on a 45 second self-test, which can be conducted anywhere. Criterion validity, test re-test study was set up to accomplish our objectives. Data from 81 healthy volunteers (age: 29 ± 8 years, BMI: 24.0 ± 2.9), 18 of whom females, were used to validate this...
Data from: Early exposure to a bacterial endotoxin advances the onset of moult in the European starlingSimone Pirrello, Andrea Pilastro, Diego Rubolini, Jacopo Cecere, Andrea Romano, Alessandro Andreotti, Stefano Volponi, Nicola Saino, Matteo Griggio & Lorenzo Serra
In animals, events occurring early in life can have profound effects on subsequent life-history events. Early developmental stresses often produce negative long-lasting impacts, although positive effects of mild stressors have also been documented. Most studies of birds have investigated the effects of events occurring at early developmental stages on the timing of migration or reproduction, but little is known on the long-term effects of these early events on moulting and plumage quality. We exposed European...
University of Milan9
University of Milano-Bicocca5
Max Planck Institute for Ornithology1
University of Padua1
Federal University of São Carlos1
University of Pavia1
Istituto Superiore per la Protezione e la Ricerca Ambientale1
University of Paris-Sud1
Eindhoven University of Technology1