In an archipelagic system, species diversity is maintained and determined by the balance among speciation, extinction, and migration. As the number of species increases, the average population size of each species decreases, and the extinction likelihood of any given species grows. In contrast, the role of reduced population size in geographic speciation has received comparatively less research attention. Here, to study the rate of recurrent speciation, we adopted a simple multi-species two-island model and considered...
One of several hypotheses proposed to explain polyandry in eusocial insects is the parasite–pathogen hypothesis (PPH), in which a colony of workers with multiple patrilines due to queen polyandry is less likely to fall victim to a parasite or pathogen threat because of genetic variability of the colony’s workforce. We challenged colonies with different strains of an entomopathogenic fungus to determine pathogen virulence and worker survival. We found that workers from different patrilines differed in...
Genetic diversity, structure, and demography of Pandanus boninensis(Pandanaceae) with sea drifted seeds, endemic to the Ogasawara Islands of Japan: Comparison between young and old islandsSuzuki Setsuko, Kyoko Sugai, Ichiro Tamaki, Koji Takayama, Hidetoshi Kato & Hiroshi Yoshimaru
Pandanus boninensis, endemic to the Ogasawara Islands, Japan, is distributed on both the older Bonin and younger Volcano Islands. In this study, we conducted population genetic analyses of P. boninensis on these islands to examine the population diversity and structure across old and young islands, to assess potential differences in population demography with island age, and to collect any evidence of migration between old and young islands. We found that the genetic diversity of expressed...
Data from: Intraspecific variations in life history traits of two pecky rice bug species from Japan: mapping emergence dates and number of annual generationsKazuhisa Yamasaki, Ken Tabuchi, Akihiko Takahashi, Takeshi Osawa, Akira Yoshioka, Yasushi Ishigooka, Shigeto Sudo & Mayura Takada
The mirid bugs Stenotus rubrovittatus and Trigonotylus caelestialium, which cause pecky rice, have become a threat to rice cultivation in Asia. Damage caused by these pests has rapidly become frequent since around 2000 in Japan. Their expansion pattern is not simple, and predicting their future spread remains challenging. Some insects with wide ranges have locally adapted variations in life-history traits. We performed laboratory rearing experiments to assess the geographical scale of intraspecific variations in life-history...
ANDEAN frugivory: data on plant–bird interactions and functional traits of plant and bird species from montane forests along the AndesD. Matthias Dehling, Irene M. A. Bender, Pedro G. Blendinger, Marcia C. Muñoz, Marta Quitián, Francisco Saavedra, Vinicio Santillán, Katrin Böhning-Gaese, Eike-Lena Neuschulz & Matthias Schleuning
Species differ in their resource use and their interactions with other species and, consequently, they fulfil different functional roles in ecological processes. Species with specialized functional roles (specialists) are considered important for communities because they often interact with species with which few other species interact, thereby contributing complementary functional roles to ecological processes. However, the contribution of specialists could be low if they only interact with a small range of interaction partners. In contrast, species...
Bark beetles attack their hosts at uniform intervals to avoid intraspecific competition in the phloem. Bark texture and phloem thickness also affect bark beetle attacks, and the bark characteristics are not spatially homogeneous; therefore, the distribution patterns of entry holes can demonstrate an aggregated distribution. Polygraphus proximus Blandford (Coleoptera: Scolytinae) is a non-aggressive phloephagous bark beetle that feeds on Far Eastern firs. They have caused mass mortality in Russia and Japan. However, the distribution pattern...
Tokyo Metropolitan University6
University of Tokyo2
Universidad Católica de Cuenca1
Senckenberg Biodiversity and Climate Research Centre1
National Agriculture and Food Research Organization1
National Institute for Environmental Studies1
Département de la Formation, de la Jeunesse et de la Culture1