55 Works

Data from: The fourth dimension of tool use: temporally enduring artefacts aid primates learning to use tools

Dorothy M. Fragaszy, Dora Biro, Yonat Eshchar, Tatyana Humle, Patrícia Izar, Briseida Resende & Elisabetta Visalberghi
All investigated cases of habitual tool use in wild chimpanzees and capuchin monkeys include youngsters encountering durable artefacts, most often in a supportive social context. We propose that enduring artefacts associated with tool use, such as previously used tools, partly processed food items and residual material from previous activity, aid non-human primates to learn to use tools, and to develop expertise in their use, thus contributing to traditional technologies in non-humans. Therefore, social contributions to...

Data from: Ancestral origins and invasion pathways in a globally invasive bird correlate with climate and influences from bird trade

Hazel Jackson, Diederik Strubbe, Simon Tollington, Robert Prys-Jones, Erik Matthysen & Jim J. Groombridge
Invasive species present a major threat to global biodiversity. Understanding genetic patterns and evolutionary processes that reinforce successful establishment is paramount for elucidating mechanisms underlying biological invasions. Among birds, the ring-necked parakeet (Psittacula krameri) is one of the most successful invasive species, established in over 35 countries. However, little is known about the evolutionary genetic origins of this species and what population genetic signatures tell us about patterns of invasion. We reveal the ancestral origins...

The impact of a heat and moisture exchange mask on respiratory symptoms and airway response to exercise in asthma

John Dickinson, Anna Jackson, James Hull, James Hopker, Hannah Fletcher, William Gowers & John Molphy
Respiratory symptoms, including cough are prevalent in asthmatic individuals when exercising. This study investigates whether a heat and moisture exchanger (HME) face mask is effective in modulating exercise induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) and post exercise cough in a cold, dry environment in asthmatic individuals. Twenty-six participants diagnosed with asthma (20 males, 6 females) completed three cycling exercise challenges (EX) at 8 oC and 24% relative humidity (RH) in a randomised order. Participants wore either an HME...

Bird communities across varying landcover types in a Neotropical city

Will Hayes, Jessica Fisher, Meshach Pierre, Jake Bicknell & Zoe Davies
Urbanization poses a serious threat to local biodiversity, yet towns and cities with abundant natural features may harbor important species populations and communities.While the contribution of urban greenspaces to conservation has been demonstrated by numerous studies within temperate regions, few consider the bird communities associated with different landcovers in Neotropical cities. To begin to fill this knowledge gap, we examined how the avifauna of a wetland city in northern Amazonia (Georgetown, Guyana) varied across six...

Bird community data from Wallacea biogeographic region collected 2018-2020

S.L. Mitchell, D.P. Edwards, R.W. Martin, A. Kastanya, A. Karja, P.G. Akbar, K. Jordan, T. Martin, J. Supriatna, N. Winarni, Z.G. Davies & M.J. Struebig
Bird community data from fixed point count stations generated by experienced ornithologists in Borneo and the Wallacean islands of Sulawesi (Buton), Seram, Buru, Talaud and Sangihe. Bird surveys were undertaken between 2016 and 2020, with work on any given island lasting ~3 months, except for Borneo where surveys were undertaken across 3 years (2014 – 2016). Surveys were repeated four times at each site on Sulawesi (Buton), Seram, Buru and once each on Talaud and...

High Carbon Stock stratification of the SAFE project site, Sabah, Malaysian Borneo, 2015 [HMTF]

N.J. Deere, G. Guillera-Arroita, E.L. Baking, H. Bernard, M. Pfeifer, G. Reynolds, O.R. Wearn, Z.G. Davies & M.J. Struebig
This data set provides a spatial stratification of forest cover into discrete vegetation classes according to the High Carbon Stock (HCS) Approach. The data set covers the Stability of Altered Forest Ecosystems (SAFE) project site located in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. Data were collected in 2015 during a project which was included in the NERC Human-modified tropical forest (HMTF) programme.

Humans of AI3SD: Dr Jennifer Hiscock

Michelle Pauli & Jennifer R. Hiscock
This interview forms part of our Humans of AI3SD Series. Dr Jennifer Hiscock is a reader in supramolecular chemistry at the University of Kent and a UKRI Future Leaders fellow. Her research is focused on a new approach to antibiotic and anti-cancer drug design and she is also co-founder of an international Women in Supramolecular Chemistry network. In this Humans of AI3SD interview she discusses the marginalisation of women in chemistry, using AI to handle...

Data from: A spatially integrated framework for assessing socioecological drivers of carnivore decline

Nicolás Gálvez, Gurutzeta Guillera-Arroita, Freya A. V. St. John, Elke Schüttler, David W. Macdonald & Zoe G. Davies
Habitat loss, fragmentation and degradation are key threats to the long-term persistence of carnivores, which are also susceptible to direct persecution by people. Integrating natural and social science methods to examine how habitat configuration/quality and human–predator relations may interact in space and time to effect carnivore populations within human-dominated landscapes will help prioritise conservation investment and action effectively. We propose a socioecological modelling framework to evaluate drivers of carnivore decline in landscapes where predators and...

Data from: Reconciling timber extraction with biodiversity conservation in tropical forests using reduced-impact logging

Jake E. Bicknell, Matthew J. Struebig & Zoe G. Davies
1. Over 20% of the world's tropical forests have been selectively logged, and large expanses are allocated for future timber extraction. Reduced-impact logging (RIL) is being promoted as best practice forestry that increases sustainability and lowers CO2 emissions from logging, by reducing collateral damage associated with timber extraction. RIL is also expected to minimize the impacts of selective logging on biodiversity, although this is yet to be thoroughly tested. 2. We undertake the most comprehensive...

Data from: Do rivers influence fine-scale population genetic structure of tigers in the Sundarbans?

M. Abdul Aziz, Olutolani Smith, Adam Barlow, Simon Tollington, & Jim J. Groombridge
Global tiger Panthera tigris populations mostly survive within the geographically fragmented forest patches, thereby limited genetic exchange between isolated populations. Assessing the genetic status of these populations can reveal the effects of dispersal barriers and provide critical insights to guide future conservation actions. Using non-invasively collected biological samples, we investigated fine-scale genetic structure of tigers in the Sundarbans mangrove forests intersected by the complex river systems, and which holds one of the largest global tiger...

Data from: A unified model for optimizing riverscape conservation

Tibor Erõs, Jesse R. O'Hanley & István Czeglédi
1.Spatial prioritization tools provide a means of finding efficient trade-offs between biodiversity protection and the delivery of ecosystem services. Although a large number of prioritization approaches have been proposed in the literature, most are specifically designed for terrestrial systems. When applied to river ecosystems, they often fail to adequately account for the essential role that landscape connectivity plays in maintaining both biodiversity and ecosystem services. This is particularly true of longitudinal connectivity, which in many...

Data from: Graph drawing using tabu search coupled with path relinking

Fadi K. Dib & Peter Rodgers
Graph drawing, or the automatic layout of graphs, is a challenging problem. There are several search based methods for graph drawing which are based on optimizing an objective function which is formed from a weighted sum of multiple criteria. In this paper, we propose a new neighbourhood search method which uses a tabu search coupled with path relinking to optimize such objective functions for general graph layouts with undirected straight lines. To our knowledge, before...

Data from: Inferential biases linked to unobservable states in complex occupancy models

Brittany A. Mosher, Larissa L. Bailey, Ben A. Hubbard & Kathryn P. Huyvaert
Modeling of species distributions has undergone a shift from relying on equilibrium assumptions to recognizing transient system dynamics explicitly. This shift has necessitated more complex modeling techniques, but the performance of these dynamic models has not yet been assessed for systems where unobservable states exist. Our work is motivated by the impacts of the emerging infectious disease chytridiomycosis, a disease of amphibians that associated with declines of many species worldwide. Using this host-pathogen system as...

Optimising bat bioacoustic surveys in human-modified neotropical landscapes

Adrià López-Baucells, Natalie Yoh, Ricardo Rocha, Paulo Bobrowiec, Jorge Palmeirim & Christoph Meyer
During the last decades, the use of bioacoustics as a non-invasive and cost-effective sampling method has greatly increased worldwide. For bats, acoustic surveys have long been known to complement traditional mist-netting, however, appropriate protocol guidelines are still lacking for tropical regions. Establishing the minimum sampling effort needed to detect ecological changes in bat assemblages (e.g., activity, composition and richness) is crucial in view of workload and project cost constraints, and because detecting such changes must...

SI dataset S1 - knuckle-walking biomechanical strategies

Julia Arias-Martorell, Angel Zeininger & Tracy Kivell
African apes engage in a distinct form of locomotion called knuckle-walking, but there is much ambiguity as to when and how this locomotor behaviour evolved. This study aims to elucidate potential differences in knuckle-walking elbow posture and loading in African apes through the study of trabecular bone. Using a whole-epiphysis approach, we quantified variation in trabecular structure of the distal humerus of chimpanzees, western lowland gorillas, and mountain gorillas in comparison to orang-utans, siamangs and...

Data from: Aging infrastructure creates opportunities for cost-efficient restoration of aquatic ecosystem connectivity

Thomas M. Neeson, Allison T. Moody, Jesse R. O'Hanley, Matthew Diebel, Patrick J. Doran, Michael C. Ferris, Timothy Colling & Peter B. McIntyre
A hallmark of industrialization is the construction of dams for water management and roads for transportation, leading to fragmentation of aquatic ecosystems. Many nations are striving to address both maintenance backlogs and mitigation of environmental impacts as their infrastructure ages. Here, we test whether accounting for road repair needs could offer opportunities to boost conservation efficiency by piggybacking connectivity restoration projects on infrastructure maintenance. Using optimization models to align fish passage restoration sites with likely...

Data from: The temporal signature of memories: identification of a general mechanism for dynamic memory replay in humans

Sebastian Michelmann, Howard Bowman & Simon Hanslmayr
Reinstatement of dynamic memories requires the replay of neural patterns that unfold over time in a similar manner as during perception. However, little is known about the mechanisms that guide such a temporally structured replay in humans, because previous studies used either unsuitable methods or paradigms to address this question. Here, we overcome these limitations by developing a new analysis method to detect the replay of temporal patterns in a paradigm that requires participants to...

Data from: Sex-specific but not sexually explicit: pupillary responses to dressed and naked adults

Janice Attard-Johnson & Markus Bindemann
Dilation of the pupils is an indicator of an observer's sexual interest in other people, but it remains unresolved whether this response is strengthened or diminished by sexually explicit material. To address this question, this study compared pupillary responses of heterosexual men and women to naked and dressed portraits of male and female adult film actors. Pupillary responses corresponded with observers' self-reported sexual orientation, such that dilation occurred during the viewing of opposite-sex people, but...

Data from: Assessing the conservation value of secondary savanna for large mammals in the Brazilian Cerrado

Guilherme B. Ferreira, Jorge A. Ahumada, Marcelo J. R. Oliveira, Fernando F. De Pinho, Izabela M. Barata, Chris Carbone & Ben Collen
Debate about the conservation value of secondary habitats has tended to focus on tropical forests, increasingly recognizing the role of secondary forests for biodiversity conservation. However, there remains a lack of information about the conservation value of secondary savannas. Here, we conducted a camera trap survey to assess the effect of secondary vegetation on large mammals in a Brazilian Cerrado protected area, using a single-season occupancy framework to investigate the response of individual species (species-level...

Data from: Context-dependent colonisation of terrestrial habitat 'islands' by a long-distance migrant bird

Robin C. Whytock, Elisa Fuentes-Montemayor, Kevin Watts, Nicholas A. Macgregor, Lefora Williams & Kirsty J. Park
Landscape context can affect how individuals perceive patch quality during colonisation. However, although context-dependent colonisation has been observed in aquatic environments it has rarely been studied in terrestrial environments or at large spatial scales. Here, we assessed how landscape context influenced colonisation rates in a large-scale (c.7000 km2) terrestrial system where colonisers (Willow Warbler Phylloscopus trochilus) are capable of rapid, long-distance movements. Bioacoustic recorders were used to detect first song dates (an indicator of colonisation...

Data from: Simplifying understory complexity in oil palm plantations is associated with a reduction in the density of a cleptoparasitic spider, Argyrodes miniaceus (Araneae: Theridiidae), in host (Araneae: Nephilinae) webs

Dakota M. Spear, William A. Foster, Andreas Dwi Advento, Mohammad Naim, Jean-Pierre Caliman, Sarah H. Luke, Jake L. Snaddon, Sudharto Ps & Edgar C. Turner
Expansion of oil palm agriculture is currently one of the main drivers of habitat modification in Southeast Asia. Habitat modification can have significant effects on biodiversity, ecosystem function, and interactions between species by altering species abundances or the available resources in an ecosystem. Increasing complexity within modified habitats has the potential to maintain biodiversity and preserve species interactions. We investigated trophic interactions between Argyrodes miniaceus, a cleptoparasitic spider, and its Nephila spp. spider hosts in...

Data from: Ecological correlates of extinction risk in Chinese birds

Yanping Wang, Xingfeng Si, Peter M. Bennett, Chuanwu Chen, Di Zeng, Yuhao Zhao, Yiru Wu & Ping Ding
China is one of the countries with the richest bird biodiversity in the world. Among the 1372 Chinese birds, 146 species are considered threatened and three species are regionally extinct according to the officially released China Biodiversity Red List in 2015. Here, we conducted the first extensive analysis to systematically investigate the patterns and processes of extinction and threat in Chinese birds. We addressed the following four questions. First, is extinction risk randomly distributed among...

Data from: Bat ensembles differ in response to use zones in a tropical biosphere reserve

Natalie Yoh, Isham Azhar, Katheryn V. Fitzgerald, Rieka Yu, Tenaja Smith-Butler, Azniza Mahyudin & Tigga Kingston
Biosphere reserves, designated under The United Nations Education, Scientific and Cultural Organization’s (UNESCO) Man and Biosphere Programme, aim to sustainably integrate protected areas into the biological and economic landscape around them by buffering strictly protected habitats with zones of limited use. However, the effectiveness of biosphere reserves and the contribution of the different zones of use to protection is poorly known. We assessed the diversity and activity of bats in the Crocker Range Biosphere Reserve...

Evidence shortfalls in the recommendations and guidance underpinning ecological mitigation for infrastructure developments

Sara Bronwen Hunter, Sophus Zu Ermgassen, Harriet Downey, Richard Griffiths & Caroline Howe
1. In the UK and European Union, legal protection of species from the impacts of infrastructure development depends upon a number of ecological mitigation and compensation (EMC) measures to moderate the conflict between development and conservation. However, the scientific evidence supporting their effectiveness has not yet been comprehensively assessed. 2. This study compiled the measures used in practice, identified and explored the guidance that informed them and, using the Conservation Evidence database, evaluated the empirical...

Registration Year

  • 2022
    4
  • 2021
    9
  • 2020
    6
  • 2019
    2
  • 2018
    9
  • 2017
    10
  • 2016
    5
  • 2015
    3
  • 2014
    2
  • 2013
    2

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    51
  • Text
    3
  • Report
    1

Affiliations

  • University of Kent
    55
  • University of Melbourne
    4
  • University of Southampton
    4
  • University College London
    4
  • University of Sheffield
    4
  • University of Cambridge
    3
  • University of Salford
    3
  • Mauritian Wildlife Foundation
    3
  • University of Lisbon
    2
  • Newcastle University
    2