73 Works

Data from: The fourth dimension of tool use: temporally enduring artefacts aid primates learning to use tools

Dorothy M. Fragaszy, Dora Biro, Yonat Eshchar, Tatyana Humle, Patrícia Izar, Briseida Resende & Elisabetta Visalberghi
All investigated cases of habitual tool use in wild chimpanzees and capuchin monkeys include youngsters encountering durable artefacts, most often in a supportive social context. We propose that enduring artefacts associated with tool use, such as previously used tools, partly processed food items and residual material from previous activity, aid non-human primates to learn to use tools, and to develop expertise in their use, thus contributing to traditional technologies in non-humans. Therefore, social contributions to...

Bird communities across varying landcover types in a Neotropical city

Will Hayes, Jessica Fisher, Meshach Pierre, Jake Bicknell & Zoe Davies
Urbanization poses a serious threat to local biodiversity, yet towns and cities with abundant natural features may harbor important species populations and communities.While the contribution of urban greenspaces to conservation has been demonstrated by numerous studies within temperate regions, few consider the bird communities associated with different landcovers in Neotropical cities. To begin to fill this knowledge gap, we examined how the avifauna of a wetland city in northern Amazonia (Georgetown, Guyana) varied across six...

The impact of a heat and moisture exchange mask on respiratory symptoms and airway response to exercise in asthma

John Dickinson, Anna Jackson, James Hull, James Hopker, Hannah Fletcher, William Gowers & John Molphy
Respiratory symptoms, including cough are prevalent in asthmatic individuals when exercising. This study investigates whether a heat and moisture exchanger (HME) face mask is effective in modulating exercise induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) and post exercise cough in a cold, dry environment in asthmatic individuals. Twenty-six participants diagnosed with asthma (20 males, 6 females) completed three cycling exercise challenges (EX) at 8 oC and 24% relative humidity (RH) in a randomised order. Participants wore either an HME...

Testing Incentives

Chima Rickards & Kelly Zhang
We experimentally vary the lottery amount offered to identify how a small vs. high lottery amount increases or decreases conversion from a direct incentive.

Emotions and Complex Social Problems (Turkey)

, Elizabeth Summerell, Karolina Dyduch-Hazar & Meghann Matthews
Apologies can improve intergroup attitudes in a number of ways such as fostering forgiveness, changing attitudes towards the outgroup after an apology has been given, and restoring trust (for a review, see Blatz & Philpot, 2010). However, there are many psychological barriers experienced by transgressors hindering their willingness to offer an apology, including: Low concern for the victim or relationship, perceived threat to the transgressor’s self-image, and perceived apology ineffectiveness (Schumann, 2018). Humility may be...

Bird community data from Wallacea biogeographic region collected 2018-2020

S.L. Mitchell, D.P. Edwards, R.W. Martin, A. Kastanya, A. Karja, P.G. Akbar, K. Jordan, T. Martin, J. Supriatna, N. Winarni, Z.G. Davies & M.J. Struebig
Bird community data from fixed point count stations generated by experienced ornithologists in Borneo and the Wallacean islands of Sulawesi (Buton), Seram, Buru, Talaud and Sangihe. Bird surveys were undertaken between 2016 and 2020, with work on any given island lasting ~3 months, except for Borneo where surveys were undertaken across 3 years (2014 – 2016). Surveys were repeated four times at each site on Sulawesi (Buton), Seram, Buru and once each on Talaud and...

Data from: Ancestral origins and invasion pathways in a globally invasive bird correlate with climate and influences from bird trade

Hazel Jackson, Diederik Strubbe, Simon Tollington, Robert Prys-Jones, Erik Matthysen & Jim J. Groombridge
Invasive species present a major threat to global biodiversity. Understanding genetic patterns and evolutionary processes that reinforce successful establishment is paramount for elucidating mechanisms underlying biological invasions. Among birds, the ring-necked parakeet (Psittacula krameri) is one of the most successful invasive species, established in over 35 countries. However, little is known about the evolutionary genetic origins of this species and what population genetic signatures tell us about patterns of invasion. We reveal the ancestral origins...

High Carbon Stock stratification of the SAFE project site, Sabah, Malaysian Borneo, 2015 [HMTF]

N.J. Deere, G. Guillera-Arroita, E.L. Baking, H. Bernard, M. Pfeifer, G. Reynolds, O.R. Wearn, Z.G. Davies & M.J. Struebig
This data set provides a spatial stratification of forest cover into discrete vegetation classes according to the High Carbon Stock (HCS) Approach. The data set covers the Stability of Altered Forest Ecosystems (SAFE) project site located in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. Data were collected in 2015 during a project which was included in the NERC Human-modified tropical forest (HMTF) programme.

Humans of AI3SD: Dr Jennifer Hiscock

Michelle Pauli & Jennifer R. Hiscock
This interview forms part of our Humans of AI3SD Series. Dr Jennifer Hiscock is a reader in supramolecular chemistry at the University of Kent and a UKRI Future Leaders fellow. Her research is focused on a new approach to antibiotic and anti-cancer drug design and she is also co-founder of an international Women in Supramolecular Chemistry network. In this Humans of AI3SD interview she discusses the marginalisation of women in chemistry, using AI to handle...

SI dataset S1 - knuckle-walking biomechanical strategies

Julia Arias-Martorell, Angel Zeininger & Tracy Kivell
African apes engage in a distinct form of locomotion called knuckle-walking, but there is much ambiguity as to when and how this locomotor behaviour evolved. This study aims to elucidate potential differences in knuckle-walking elbow posture and loading in African apes through the study of trabecular bone. Using a whole-epiphysis approach, we quantified variation in trabecular structure of the distal humerus of chimpanzees, western lowland gorillas, and mountain gorillas in comparison to orang-utans, siamangs and...

Optimising bat bioacoustic surveys in human-modified neotropical landscapes

Adrià López-Baucells, Natalie Yoh, Ricardo Rocha, Paulo Bobrowiec, Jorge Palmeirim & Christoph Meyer
During the last decades, the use of bioacoustics as a non-invasive and cost-effective sampling method has greatly increased worldwide. For bats, acoustic surveys have long been known to complement traditional mist-netting, however, appropriate protocol guidelines are still lacking for tropical regions. Establishing the minimum sampling effort needed to detect ecological changes in bat assemblages (e.g., activity, composition and richness) is crucial in view of workload and project cost constraints, and because detecting such changes must...

Data from: A unified model for optimizing riverscape conservation

Tibor Erõs, Jesse R. O'Hanley & István Czeglédi
1.Spatial prioritization tools provide a means of finding efficient trade-offs between biodiversity protection and the delivery of ecosystem services. Although a large number of prioritization approaches have been proposed in the literature, most are specifically designed for terrestrial systems. When applied to river ecosystems, they often fail to adequately account for the essential role that landscape connectivity plays in maintaining both biodiversity and ecosystem services. This is particularly true of longitudinal connectivity, which in many...

Data from: Reconciling timber extraction with biodiversity conservation in tropical forests using reduced-impact logging

Jake E. Bicknell, Matthew J. Struebig & Zoe G. Davies
1. Over 20% of the world's tropical forests have been selectively logged, and large expanses are allocated for future timber extraction. Reduced-impact logging (RIL) is being promoted as best practice forestry that increases sustainability and lowers CO2 emissions from logging, by reducing collateral damage associated with timber extraction. RIL is also expected to minimize the impacts of selective logging on biodiversity, although this is yet to be thoroughly tested. 2. We undertake the most comprehensive...

Data from: Do rivers influence fine-scale population genetic structure of tigers in the Sundarbans?

M. Abdul Aziz, Olutolani Smith, Adam Barlow, Simon Tollington, & Jim J. Groombridge
Global tiger Panthera tigris populations mostly survive within the geographically fragmented forest patches, thereby limited genetic exchange between isolated populations. Assessing the genetic status of these populations can reveal the effects of dispersal barriers and provide critical insights to guide future conservation actions. Using non-invasively collected biological samples, we investigated fine-scale genetic structure of tigers in the Sundarbans mangrove forests intersected by the complex river systems, and which holds one of the largest global tiger...

Data from: Inferential biases linked to unobservable states in complex occupancy models

Brittany A. Mosher, Larissa L. Bailey, Ben A. Hubbard & Kathryn P. Huyvaert
Modeling of species distributions has undergone a shift from relying on equilibrium assumptions to recognizing transient system dynamics explicitly. This shift has necessitated more complex modeling techniques, but the performance of these dynamic models has not yet been assessed for systems where unobservable states exist. Our work is motivated by the impacts of the emerging infectious disease chytridiomycosis, a disease of amphibians that associated with declines of many species worldwide. Using this host-pathogen system as...

Data from: A spatially integrated framework for assessing socioecological drivers of carnivore decline

Nicolás Gálvez, Gurutzeta Guillera-Arroita, Freya A. V. St. John, Elke Schüttler, David W. Macdonald & Zoe G. Davies
Habitat loss, fragmentation and degradation are key threats to the long-term persistence of carnivores, which are also susceptible to direct persecution by people. Integrating natural and social science methods to examine how habitat configuration/quality and human–predator relations may interact in space and time to effect carnivore populations within human-dominated landscapes will help prioritise conservation investment and action effectively. We propose a socioecological modelling framework to evaluate drivers of carnivore decline in landscapes where predators and...

Data from: Graph drawing using tabu search coupled with path relinking

Fadi K. Dib & Peter Rodgers
Graph drawing, or the automatic layout of graphs, is a challenging problem. There are several search based methods for graph drawing which are based on optimizing an objective function which is formed from a weighted sum of multiple criteria. In this paper, we propose a new neighbourhood search method which uses a tabu search coupled with path relinking to optimize such objective functions for general graph layouts with undirected straight lines. To our knowledge, before...

Updating beliefs about the sentience of animals: Humans vs. animals

Stefan Leach
Documents methods, predictions, and power analyses for an experimental study on the belief updating about animal sentience.

Updating beliefs about the sentience of animals: Subjective benchmark (pigs)

Stefan Leach, Robbie Sutton, Kristof Dhont, Karen Douglas & Zara Bergstrom
Documents methods, predictions, and power analyses for an experimental study on belief updating about animal sentience.

A patch-dynamic metacommunity perspective on the persistence of mutualistic and antagonistic bipartite networks

Jinbao Liao, Daniel Bearup & Giovanni Strona
The structure of interactions between species within a community plays a key role in maintaining biodiversity. Previous studies have found that the effects of these structures might substantially differ depending on interaction type, for example, a highly connected and nested architecture stabilizes mutualistic communities, while the stability of antagonistic communities is enhanced in modular and weakly connected structures. Here we show that, when network dynamics are modelled using a patch-dynamic metacommunity framework, the qualitative differences...

Microclimate-driven trends in spring-emergence phenology in a temperate reptile (Vipera berus): Evidence for a potential 'climate trap'?

Rebecca Turner & Ilya Maclean
Climate change will increase the exposure of organisms to higher temperatures, but can also drive phenological shifts that alter their susceptibility to conditions at the onset of breeding cycles. Organisms rely on climatic cues to time annual life-cycle events, but the extent to which climate change has altered cue reliability remains unclear. Here, we examine the risk of a ‘climate trap’ – a climatically-driven desynchronisation of the cues that determine life-cycle events and fitness later...

Data from: The temporal signature of memories: identification of a general mechanism for dynamic memory replay in humans

Sebastian Michelmann, Howard Bowman & Simon Hanslmayr
Reinstatement of dynamic memories requires the replay of neural patterns that unfold over time in a similar manner as during perception. However, little is known about the mechanisms that guide such a temporally structured replay in humans, because previous studies used either unsuitable methods or paradigms to address this question. Here, we overcome these limitations by developing a new analysis method to detect the replay of temporal patterns in a paradigm that requires participants to...

Data from: Aging infrastructure creates opportunities for cost-efficient restoration of aquatic ecosystem connectivity

Thomas M. Neeson, Allison T. Moody, Jesse R. O'Hanley, Matthew Diebel, Patrick J. Doran, Michael C. Ferris, Timothy Colling & Peter B. McIntyre
A hallmark of industrialization is the construction of dams for water management and roads for transportation, leading to fragmentation of aquatic ecosystems. Many nations are striving to address both maintenance backlogs and mitigation of environmental impacts as their infrastructure ages. Here, we test whether accounting for road repair needs could offer opportunities to boost conservation efficiency by piggybacking connectivity restoration projects on infrastructure maintenance. Using optimization models to align fish passage restoration sites with likely...

Data from: Sex-specific but not sexually explicit: pupillary responses to dressed and naked adults

Janice Attard-Johnson & Markus Bindemann
Dilation of the pupils is an indicator of an observer's sexual interest in other people, but it remains unresolved whether this response is strengthened or diminished by sexually explicit material. To address this question, this study compared pupillary responses of heterosexual men and women to naked and dressed portraits of male and female adult film actors. Pupillary responses corresponded with observers' self-reported sexual orientation, such that dilation occurred during the viewing of opposite-sex people, but...

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