120 Works

High-speed terrestrial substrate transitions: how a fleeing cursorial day gecko copes with compliance changes that are experienced in nature

Emily Naylor, Emily Naylor & Timothy Higham
1. Animal movement is often largely determined by abiotic conditions of the environment, including substrate properties. While a large body of work has improved our understanding of how different substrate properties can impact locomotor performance and behavior, few of these studies have investigated this relationship during transitions within a single locomotor event. 2. In nature, terrestrial animals frequently encounter substrate transitions, or changes in substrate level, incline, texture, and/or compliance during a single bout of...

Shame and Trauma Go to Class

Abby Wilkerson
To be a member of an oppressed social group is to face differential risk of trauma. Using Sandra Lee Bartky’s recognition of certain emotional states as “primordial disclosure,” I explore socially occasioned trauma, shame, and depression as gendered and racialized phenomena in higher education—a crucial site for exploring the processes that situate some bodyminds as normative, deserving, and competent, while others are situated as less able or deserving, or as intruders. Given systemic inequality, mental...

Data from: Does increased heat resistance result in higher susceptibility to predation? A test using (Drosophila melanogaster) selection and hardening

Sandra Hangartner, Ian Dworkin, Michael DeNieu & Ary A. Hoffmann
Heat resistance of ectotherms can be increased both by plasticity and evolution, but these effects may have trade-offs resulting from biotic interactions. Here we test for predation costs in Drosophila melanogaster populations with altered heat resistance produced by adult hardening and directional selection for increased heat resistance. In addition, we also tested for genetic trade-offs by testing heat resistance in lines that have evolved under increased predation risk. We show that while 35/37°C hardening increases...

Data from: Simultaneous delimitation of species and quantification of interspecific hybridization in Amazonian peacock cichlids (genus Cichla) using multi-locus data

Stuart C. Willis, Jason Macrander, Izeni P. Farias & Guillermo Orti
BACKGROUND: Introgression likely plays a significant role in evolution, but understanding the extent and consequences of this process requires a clear identification of species boundaries in each focal group. The delimitation of species, however, is a contentious endeavor. This is true not only because of the inadequacy of current tools to identify species lineages, but also because of the inherent ambiguity between natural populations and species paradigms. The result has been a debate about the...

Data from: Effectiveness of phylogenomic data and coalescent species-tree methods for resolving difficult nodes in the phylogeny of advanced snakes (Serpentes: Caenophidia)

R. Alexander Pyron, Catriona R. Hendry, Vincent M. Chou, Emily M. Lemmon, Alan R. Lemmon & Frank T. Burbrink
Next-generation genomic sequencing promises to quickly and cheaply resolve remaining contentious nodes in the Tree of Life, and facilitates species-tree estimation while taking into account stochastic genealogical discordance among loci. Recent methods for estimating species trees bypass full likelihood-based estimates of the multi-species coalescent, and approximate the true species-tree using simpler summary metrics. These methods converge on the true species-tree with sufficient genomic sampling, even in the anomaly zone. However, no studies have yet evaluated...

Data from: Phylogenomic analyses reveal convergent patterns of adaptive evolution in elephant and human ancestries

Morris Goodman, Kirstin N. Sterner, M. Munirul Islam, Monica Uddin, Chet C. Sherwood, Patrick R. Hof, Zhuo-Cheng Hou, Leonard Lipovich, Hui Jia, Lawrence I. Grossman, Derek E. Wildman, M. Islam & Z. C. Hou
Specific sets of brain-expressed genes, such as aerobic energy metabolism genes, evolved adaptively in the ancestry of humans and may have evolved adaptively in the ancestry of other large-brained mammals. The recent addition of genomes from two afrotherians (elephant and tenrec) to the expanding set of publically available sequenced mammalian genomes provided an opportunity to test this hypothesis. Elephants resemble humans by having large brains and long life spans; tenrecs, in contrast, have small brains...

Data from: A quantitative method for inferring locomotory shifts in amniotes during ontogeny, its application to dinosaurs, and its bearing on the evolution of posture

Kimberley E. J. Chapelle, Roger B. J. Benson, Josef Stiegler, Alejandro Otero, Qi Zhao & Jonah N. Choiniere
Evolutionary transitions between quadrupedal and bipedal postures are pivotal to the diversification of amniotes on land, including in our own lineage (Hominini). Heterochrony is suggested as a macroevolutionary mechanism for postural transitions, but understanding postural evolution in deep time is hindered by a lack of methods for inferring posture in extinct species. Dinosaurs are an excellent natural laboratory for understanding postural transitions, because their lineage contains at least four instances of quadrupedality evolving from bipedality,...

Data from: Multi-locus phylogenetic analysis reveals the pattern and tempo of bony fish evolution

Richard E. Broughton, Ricardo Betancur-R., Chenhong Li, Gloria Arratia & Guillermo Orti
Over half of all vertebrates are “fishes”, which exhibit enormous diversity in morphology, physiology, behavior, reproductive biology, and ecology. Investigation of fundamental areas of vertebrate biology depend critically on a robust phylogeny of fishes, yet evolutionary relationships among the major actinopterygian and sarcopterygian lineages have not been conclusively resolved. Although a consensus phylogeny of teleosts has been emerging recently, it has been based on analyses of various subsets of actinopterygian taxa, but not on a...

Data from: Ecological fidelity of functional traits based on species presence-absence in a modern mammalian bone assemblage (Amboseli, Kenya)

Joshua H. Miller, Anna Kay Behrensmeyer, Andrew Du, S. Kathleen Lyons, David Patterson, Anikó Tóth, Amelia Villaseñor, Erustus Kanga & Denné Reed
Comparisons between modern death assemblages and their source communities have demonstrated fidelity to species diversity across a variety of environments and taxonomic groups. However, differential species preservation and collection (including body-size bias) in both modern and fossil death assemblages may still skew the representation of other important ecological characteristics. Here, we move beyond live-dead taxonomic fidelity and focus on the recovery of functional ecology (how species interact with their ecosystem) at the community level for...

Data from: Systematics of the blindsnakes (Serpentes: Scolecophidia: Typhlopoidea) based on molecular and morphological evidence

Robert Alexander Pyron & Van Wallach
The blindsnake superfamily Typhlopoidea (Gerrhopilidae, Typhlopidae, and Xenotyphlopidae) is a diverse, widespread part of the global snake fauna. A recent systematic revision based on molecular phylogenetic analyses and some morphological evidence presented a preliminary solution to the non-monophyly of many previously recognized genera, but additional clarification is needed regarding the recognition of some species and genera. We rectify these problems here with a new molecular phylogenetic analysis including 95 of the 275 currently recognized, extant...

Data from: Fully-sampled phylogenies of squamates reveal evolutionary patterns in threat status

João Filipe Riva Tonini, Karen H. Beard, Rodrigo Barbosa Ferreira, Walter Jetz & R. Alexander Pyron
Macroevolutionary rates of diversification and anthropogenic extinction risk differ vastly throughout the Tree of Life. This results in a highly heterogeneous distribution of Evolutionary distinctiveness (ED) and threat status among species. We examine the phylogenetic distribution of ED and threat status for squamates (amphisbaenians, lizards, and snakes) using fully-sampled phylogenies containing 9574 species and expert-based estimates of threat status for ~ 4000 species. We ask whether threatened species are more closely related than would be...

Data from: Assessment of disease progression in dysferlinopathy – a one year cohort study

Volker Straub, Ursula Moore, Marni Jacobs, Meredith K. James, Anna G. Mayhew, Roberto Fernandez-Torron, Jia Feng, Avital Cnaan, Michelle Eagle, Karen Bettinson, Laura E. Rufibach & Robert Muni Lofra
Objective: To assess the ability of functional measures to detect disease progression in dysferlinopathy over 6 months and 1 year. Methods: 193 patients with dysferlinopathy were recruited to the Jain Foundation’s International Clinical Outcome Study for Dysferlinopathy. Baseline, 6 months and 1 year assessments included: adapted North Star Assessment (a-NSAA), Motor Function Measure (MFM-20), timed function tests, 6 minute walk test (6MWT), Brooke Scale, Jebsen Test, manual muscle testing (MMT) and hand-held dynamometry (HHD). Patients...

Data from: Sapwood capacitance is greater in evergreen sclerophyll species growing in high compared to low rainfall environments

Anna E. Richards, Ian J. Wright, Tanja I. Lenz & Amy E. Zanne
1. The capacitative release of water from sapwood allows photosynthesis to continue for longer into dry periods, both diurnally and seasonally. However, costs of high capacitance include increased vulnerability to xylem cavitation. The degree of reliance on stored water is predicted to differ among environments as a result of this trade off 2. Xylem water potential and sapwood capacitance were measured on 32 evergreen sclerophyll shrub and tree species in eastern Australia, sampled from four...

Habitat transitions alter the adaptive landscape and shape phenotypic evolution in needlefishes (Belonidae)

Matthew Kolmann, Michael D. Burns, Justin Y. K. Ng, Nathan R. Lovjoy & Devin D. Bloom
Habitat occupancy can have a profound influence on macroevolutionary dynamics, and a switch in major habitat type may alter the evolutionary trajectory of a lineage. In this study we investigate how evolutionary transitions between marine and freshwater habitats affect macroevolutionary adaptive landscapes, using needlefishes (Belonidae) as a model system. We examined the evolution of body shape and size in marine and freshwater needlefishes and tested for phenotypic change in response to transitions between habitats. Using...

Testing the utility of alternative metrics of branch support to address the ancient evolutionary radiation of tunas, stromateoids, and allies (Teleostei: Pelagiaria)

Dahiana Arcila, Lily C. Hughes, Fernando Meléndez-Vazquez, Carole C. Baldwin, William T. White, Kent E. Carpenter, Jeffrey T. Williams, Mudjekeewis D. Santos, John J. Pogonoski, Masaki Miya, Guillermo Ortí & Ricardo Betancur-R.
The use of high-throughput sequencing technologies to produce genome-scale datasets was expected to settle some long-standing controversies across the Tree of Life, particularly in areas where short branches occur at deep timescales. Instead, these datasets have often yielded many well-supported but conflicting topologies, and highly variable gene-tree distributions. A variety of branch-support metrics beyond the nonparametric bootstrap are now available to assess how robust a phylogenetic hypothesis may be, as well as new methods to...

Cortex cis-regulatory switches establish scale colour identity and pattern diversity in Heliconius

Luca Livraghi, Joseph J. Hanly, Ling Sheng Loh, Anna Ren, Ian A. Warren, Carolina Concha, Charlotte Wright, Jonah M. Walker, Jessica Foley, Henry Arenas-Castro, Arnaud Martin, William O. McMillan, Chris D. Jiggins, Steven M. Van Bellghem, Gabriela Montejo-Kovacevich, James J. Lewis, Micheal W. Perry, Zachary H. Goldberg, Laura H. Lopez, Riccardo Papa & Eva S.M. Van Der Heijden
In Heliconius butterflies, wing pattern diversity is controlled by a few genes of large effect that regulate colour pattern switches between morphs and species across a large mimetic radiation. One of these genes, cortex, has been repeatedly associated with colour pattern evolution in butterflies. Here we carried out CRISPR knock-outs in multiple Heliconius species and show that cortex is a major determinant of scale cell identity. Chromatin accessibility profiling and introgression scans identified cis-regulatory regions...

The geometry of resource constraint: an empirical study of the golden snub-nosed monkey

Rong Hou, Colin Chapman, Jessica Rothman, He Zhang, Kang Huang, Songtao Guo, Baoguo Li & David Raubenheimer
1. Apposite conceptualization and measurement of resource variation is critical for understanding many issues in ecology, including ecological niches, persistence and distribution of populations, the structure of communities, and population resilience to perturbations. 2. We apply the nutritional geometry framework to conceptualise and quantify the responses of a temperate-living primate, the golden snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus roxellana) to variation in resource quality and quantity and in nutrient requirements associated with seasonal environments. 3. We present a...

Phylogenomics and fossil data inform the systematics and geographic range evolution of a diverse Neotropical ant lineage

Benjamin Blanchard, Shauna Price, Scott Powell, Bonnie Blaimer & Corrie Moreau
Recent advances in phylogenomics allow for the use of large amounts of genetic information in phylogenetic inference. Ideally, the increased resolution and accuracy of such inferences facilitate improved understanding of macroevolutionary processes. Here, we integrate ultraconserved elements (UCEs) with fossil and biogeographic range data to explore diversification and geographic range evolution in the diverse turtle ant genus Cephalotes. We focus on the potential role of the uplift of the Panamanian land bridge and the putative...

The locus of identity for phylogeographic species delimitation and integrative taxonomy in seal salamanders (Desmognathus monticola)

Robert Pyron, Kyle O'Connell, Sophie Duncan, Frank Burbrink & David Beamer
Significant empirical and theoretical advances have been made regarding species delimitation. Numerous methods have been developed to test precisely defined models of speciation, and the philosophical basis of species ontology has several robust definitions. However, there are still at least two distinct areas in which this synthesis is incomplete. First, computational algorithms alone are unable to settle the theory-laden question of whether a sample of individuals consists of one or more species; this is an...

Hair phenotype diversity across Indriidae lemurs

Elizabeth Tapanes, Rachel Jacobs, Ian Harryman, , Mitchell Irwin, Jason Kamilar & Brenda Bradley
Objectives: Hair (i.e., pelage/fur) is a salient feature of primate (including human) diversity and evolution—serving functions tied to thermoregulation, protection, camouflage, and signaling—but wild primate pelage evolution remains relatively understudied. Specifically, assessing multiple hypotheses across distinct phylogenetic scales is essential but is rarely conducted. We examine whole body hair color and density variation across Indriidae (Avahi, Indri, Propithecus)—a lineage that, like humans, exhibits vertical posture (i.e., their whole bodies are vertical to the sun). Materials...

Partner fidelity and environmental filtering preserve stage-specific turtle ant gut symbioses for over 40 million years

Yi Hu, Catherine D’Amelio, Benoît Béchade, Christian Cabuslay, Piotr Lukasik, Jon Sanders, Shauna Price, Emily Fanwick, Scott Powell, Corrie Moreau & Jacob Russell
Sustaining beneficial gut symbioses presents a major challenge for animals, Including holometabolous insects. Social insects may meet such challenges through behavioral symbiont transfer and transgenerational inheritance through colony founders. We address such potential through colony-wide explorations across 13 eusocial, holometabolous ant species in the genus Cephalotes. Through amplicon sequencing and qPCR, we show that previously characterized worker microbiomes are largely conserved across adult castes, that adult microbiomes exhibit strong trends of phylosymbiosis, and that Cephalotes...

Nest choice in arboreal ants is an emergent consequence of network creation under spatial constraints

Matina Donaldson-Matasci, Joanna Chang, Scott Powell & Elva J. H. Robinson
Biological transportation networks must balance competing functional priorities. The self-organizing mechanisms used to generate such networks have inspired scalable algorithms to construct and maintain low-cost and efficient human-designed transport networks. The pheromone-based trail networks of ants have been especially valuable in this regard. Here, we use turtle ants as our focal system: In contrast to the ant species usually used as models for self-organized networks, these ants live in a spatially constrained arboreal environment where...

UAB Study of Aging

Senait Tekle
Over the next 3 years, analyses of data from the UAB Study of Aging I and UAB Study of Aging II will leave to at least five peer-reviewed manuscripts (see above), pilot data for at least one grant proposal; and at least five presentations at Annual Meetings of the American Geriatrics Society or the Gerontological Society of America. In addition, this work will lead to collaborations among investigators at UAB (Richard Kennedy) George Washington University...

Spartina patens surveys of flowering density at marsh-forest ecotone

Ezra Kottler & Keryn Gedan
Climate change is driving abiotic shifts that can threaten the conservation of foundation species and the habitats they support. Range shifts are one mechanism of escape, but this requires successful colonization of habitats where interspecific interactions may differ from those to which a species has adapted. For plants with multiple reproductive strategies, these range-edge interactions may alter the investment or allocation towards a given reproductive strategy. In this study, we quantify sexual reproduction of the...

Incipient speciation and secondary contact in a fossorial island endemic, the São Tomé caecilian

Kyle O'Connell, Ivan Prates, Lauren Scheinberg, Kevin Mulder & Rayna Bell
Secondary contact of lineages in the early stages of divergence can result in lineage fusion or promote reproductive isolation through reinforcement. While these processes are well studied in many taxonomic groups, we know little about their contribution to diversification of the secretive and enigmatic caecilians (Amphibia: Gymnophiona). Here, we combine genetic (mtDNA and genome-wide SNPs) and phenotypic data to investigate the divergence history of caecilians endemic to the oceanic island of São Tomé in the...

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