10 Works

Data from: Fully-sampled phylogenies of squamates reveal evolutionary patterns in threat status

João Filipe Riva Tonini, Karen H. Beard, Rodrigo Barbosa Ferreira, Walter Jetz & R. Alexander Pyron
Macroevolutionary rates of diversification and anthropogenic extinction risk differ vastly throughout the Tree of Life. This results in a highly heterogeneous distribution of Evolutionary distinctiveness (ED) and threat status among species. We examine the phylogenetic distribution of ED and threat status for squamates (amphisbaenians, lizards, and snakes) using fully-sampled phylogenies containing 9574 species and expert-based estimates of threat status for ~ 4000 species. We ask whether threatened species are more closely related than would be...

Data from: Chimpanzee fathers bias their behaviour towards their offspring

Carson M. Murray, Margaret A. Stanton, Elizabeth V. Lonsdorf, Emily E. Wroblewski & Anne E. Pusey
Promiscuous mating was traditionally thought to curtail paternal investment owing to the potential costs of providing care to unrelated infants. However, mounting evidence suggests that males in some promiscuous species can recognize offspring. In primates, evidence for paternal care exists in promiscuous Cercopithecines, but less is known about these patterns in other taxa. Here, we examine two hypotheses for paternal associations with lactating mothers in eastern chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii): paternal effort, whereby males associate...

Data from: Discovery of metabolic biomarkers for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy within a natural history study

Simina M. Boca, Maki Nishida, Michael Harris, Shruti Rao, Amrita K. Cheema, Kirandeep Gill, Haeri Seol, Lauren P. Morgenroth, Erik Henricson, Craig McDonald, Jean K. Mah, Paula R. Clemens, Eric P. Hoffman, Yetrib Hathout & Subha Madhavan
Serum metabolite profiling in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) may enable discovery of valuable molecular markers for disease progression and treatment response. Serum samples from 51 DMD patients from a natural history study and 22 age-matched healthy volunteers were profiled using liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS) for discovery of novel circulating serum metabolites associated with DMD. Fourteen metabolites were found significantly altered (1% false discovery rate) in their levels between DMD patients and healthy...

Data from: The heritability of chimpanzee and human brain asymmetry

Aida Gómez-Robles, William D. Hopkins, Steven J. Schapiro & Chet C. Sherwood
Human brains are markedly asymmetric in structure and lateralized in function, which suggests a relationship between these two properties. The brains of other closely related primates, such as chimpanzees, show similar patterns of asymmetry, but to a lesser degree, indicating an increase in anatomical and functional asymmetry during hominin evolution. We analysed the heritability of cerebral asymmetry in chimpanzees and humans using classic morphometrics, geometric morphometrics, and quantitative genetic techniques. In our analyses, we separated...

Data from: Morphometric variation of extant platyrrhine molars: taxonomic implications for fossil platyrrhines

Mónica Nova Delgado, Jordi Galbany & Alejandro Pérez-Pérez
The phylogenetic position of many fossil platyrrhines with respect to extant ones is not yet clear. Two main hypotheses have been proposed: the layered or successive radiations hypothesis suggests that Patagonian fossils are Middle Miocene stem platyrrhines lacking modern descendants, whereas the long lineage hypothesis argues for an evolutionary continuity of all fossil platyrrhines with the extant ones. Our geometric morphometric analysis of a 15 landmark-based configuration of platyrrhines’ first and second lower molars suggest...

Data from: Novel approaches for phylogenetic inference from morphological data and total-evidence dating in squamate reptiles (lizards, snakes, and amphisbaenians)

R. Alexander Pyron
Here, I combine previously underutilized models and priors to perform more biologically-realistic phylogenetic inference from morphological data, with an example from squamate reptiles. When coding morphological characters, it is often possible to denote ordered states with explicit reference to observed or hypothetical ancestral conditions. Using this logic, we can integrate across character-state labels and estimate meaningful rates of forward and backwards transitions from plesiomorphy to apomorphy. I refer to this approach as MkA, for 'asymmetric.'...

Data from: Tightly congruent bursts of lineage and phenotypic diversification identified in a continental ant radiation

Shauna L. Price, Rampal S. Etienne & Scott Powell
Adaptive diversification is thought to be shaped by ecological opportunity. A prediction of this ecological process of diversification is that it should result in congruent bursts of lineage and phenotypic diversification, but few studies have found this expected association. Here, we study the relationship between rates of lineage diversification and body size evolution in the turtle ants, a diverse Neotropical clade. Using a near complete, time-calibrated phylogeny we investigated lineage diversification dynamics and body size...

Data from: Integrating phylogenomic and morphological data to assess candidate species-delimitation models in brown and red-bellied snakes (Storeria)

Robert Alexander Pyron, Felisa W. Hsieh, Alan R. Lemmon, Emily M. Lemmon & Catriona R. Hendry
Systematics at the species level is still marked by theoretical and empirical tensions amongst the desires to identify geographical lineages, delimit species, and estimate their relationships. These goals are often confounded because each relies, at least to some extent, on the others being known. However, recently developed methods can simultaneously address all three. Furthermore, next-generation genomic sequencing allows us to generate large-scale molecular data sets to examine variation within species at a fine scale. Finally,...

Data from: How many more? Sample size determination in studies of morphological integration and evolvability

Mark Grabowski & Arthur Porto
The variational properties of living organisms are an important component of current evolutionary theory. As a consequence, researchers working on the field of multivariate evolution have increasingly used integration and evolvability statistics as a way of capturing the potentially complex patterns of trait association and their effects over evolutionary trajectories. Little attention has been paid, however, to the cascading effects that inaccurate estimates of trait covariance have on these widely used evolutionary statistics. Here, we...

Data from: Novel opsin gene variation in large-bodied, diurnal lemurs

Rachel L. Jacobs, Tammie S. MacFie, Amanda N. Spriggs, Andrea L. Baden, Toni Lyn Morelli, Mitchell T. Irwin, Richard R. Lawler, Jennifer Pastorini, Mireya Mayor, Runhua Lei, Ryan Culligan, Melissa T. R. Hawkins, Peter M. Kappeler, Patricia C. Wright, Edward E. Louis, Nicholas I. Mundy & Brenda J. Bradley
Some primate populations include both trichromatic and dichromatic (red–green colour blind) individuals due to allelic variation at the X-linked opsin locus. This polymorphic trichromacy is well described in day-active New World monkeys. Less is known about colour vision in Malagasy lemurs, but, unlike New World monkeys, only some day-active lemurs are polymorphic, while others are dichromatic. The evolutionary pressures underlying these differences in lemurs are unknown, but aspects of species ecology, including variation in activity...

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