10 Works

Data from: Limited evidence for third party affiliation during development in wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii)

Jordan A. Miller, Margaret A. Stanton, Elizabeth V. Lonsdorf, Kaitlin R. Wellens, A. Catherine Markham & Carson M. Murray
Examining the ontogeny of conflict-mitigating behaviors in our closest living relatives is an important component of understanding the evolutionary origins of cooperation in our species. In this study, we used 26 years of data to investigate the emergence of third party affiliation (TPA), defined as affiliative contact given to recipients of aggression by uninvolved bystanders (regardless of initiation), in wild immature eastern chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) of Gombe National Park, Tanzania. We also characterized TPA...

Data from: Context-dependent defences in turtle ants: resource defensibility and threat level induce dynamic shifts in soldier deployment

Scott Powell, Matina Donaldson-Matasci, Augustus Woodrow-Tomizuka & Anna Dornhaus
1. Induced defences involve the dynamic deployment of limited and specialized defensive resources across multiple locations, to maximize organismal defensive function and fitness. They have been studied intensively in plants and solitary animals, but the induced defences of complex animal societies are poorly understood by comparison, despite the coordinated defensive actions of these taxa. 2. Here, we ask whether the level of environmental danger induces shifts in the deployment of limited and morphologically specialized soldiers...

Data from: Safety and immunogenicity of the Na-GST-1 hookworm vaccine in Brazilian and American adults

Amar Jariwala, Anna Yakovleva, Carlos Geraldo Fraga, David J. Diemert, Doreen Campbell, Frederico Talles, Guangzhao Li, Janaína Freire, Jeffrey Bethony, Jill Brelsford, Jin Peng, Maria Flávia Gazzinelli, Maria Victoria Periago, Maria Elena Bottazzi, Martin Enk, Peter Hotez, Robert Hamilton, Rodrigo Correa-Oliveira, Shannon Grahek & Vanderson Valente
Necator americanus Glutathione-S-Transferase-1 (Na-GST-1) plays a role in the digestion of host hemoglobin by adult N. americanus hookworms. Vaccination of laboratory animals with recombinant Na-GST-1 is associated with significant protection from challenge infection. Recombinant Na-GST-1 was expressed in Pichia pastoris and adsorbed to aluminum hydroxide adjuvant (Alhydrogel) according to current Good Manufacturing Practice. Two Phase 1 trials were conducted in 142 healthy adult volunteers in the United States and Brazil, first in hookworm-naïve individuals and...

Data from: Advances in neglected tropical disease vaccines: developing relative potency and functional assays for the Na-GST-1/Alhydrogel hookworm vaccine

Jill B. Brelsford, Jordan L. Plieskatt, Anna Yakovleva, Amar Jariwala, Brian P. Keegan, Jin Peng, Pengjun Xia, Guangzhao Li, Doreen Campbell, Maria V. Periago, Rodrigo Correa-Oliveira, Maria Elena Bottazzi, Peter J. Hotez, David Diemert & Jeffrey M. Bethony
A new generation of vaccines for the neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) have now advanced into clinical development, with the Na-GST-1/Alhydrogel Hookworm Vaccine already being tested in Phase 1 studies in healthy adults. The current manuscript focuses on the often overlooked critical aspects of NTD vaccine product development, more specifically, vaccine stability testing programs. A key measure of vaccine stability testing is "relative potency" or the immunogenicity of the vaccine during storage. As with most NTD...

Data from: Does increased heat resistance result in higher susceptibility to predation? A test using (Drosophila melanogaster) selection and hardening

Sandra Hangartner, Ian Dworkin, Michael DeNieu & Ary A. Hoffmann
Heat resistance of ectotherms can be increased both by plasticity and evolution, but these effects may have trade-offs resulting from biotic interactions. Here we test for predation costs in Drosophila melanogaster populations with altered heat resistance produced by adult hardening and directional selection for increased heat resistance. In addition, we also tested for genetic trade-offs by testing heat resistance in lines that have evolved under increased predation risk. We show that while 35/37°C hardening increases...

Data from: Day/night upper thermal limits differ within Ectatomma ruidum ant colonies

Annika S. Nelson, Trey Scott, Maciej Barczyk, Terrence P. McGlynn, Arian Avalos, Elizabeth Clifton, Amlan Das, Andreia Figueiredo, Laura L. Figueroa, Mark Janowiecki, Sarah Pahlke, Jignasha D. Rana & Sean O'Donnell
In the tropics, daily temperature fluctuations can pose physiological challenges for ectothermic organisms, and upper thermal limits may affect foraging activity over the course of the day. Variation in upper thermal limits can occur among and within species, and for social insects such as ants, within colonies. Within colonies, upper thermal limits may differ among individuals or change for an individual throughout the day. Daytime foragers of the Neotropical ant Ectatomma ruidum have higher critical...

Data from: High-protein paternal diet confers an advantage to sons in sperm competition

Felix Zajitschek, Susanne Zajitschek & Mollie Manier
Parental environment can widely influence offspring phenotype, but paternal effects in the absence of parental care remain poorly understood. We asked if protein content in the larval diet of fathers affected paternity success and gene expression in their sons. We found that males reared on high-protein diet had sons that fared better during sperm competition, suggesting that postcopulatory sexual selection is subject to transgenerational paternal effects. Moreover, immune response genes were downregulated in sons of...

Data from: Phylogenetic evidence from freshwater crayfishes that cave adaptation is not an evolutionary dead-end

David Ben Stern, Jesse Breinholt, Carlos Pedraza-Lara, Marilú López-Mejía, Christopher L. Owen, Heather Bracken-Grissom, , Keith A. Crandall & James W. Fetzner
Caves are perceived as isolated, extreme habitats with a set of uniquely specialized biota, which long ago led to the idea that caves are ‘evolutionary dead-ends.’ This suggests that cave-adapted taxa may be doomed for extinction before they can diversify or transition to a more stable state. However, this hypothesis has not been explicitly tested in a phylogenetic framework with multiple independent cave-dwelling groups. Here we use the freshwater crayfish, a group with dozens of...

Data from: Functional divergence of the nuclear receptor NR2C1 as a modulator of pluripotentiality during hominid evolution

Jennifer L. Baker, Katherine A. Dunn, Joseph Mingrone, Bernard A. Wood, Beverly A. Karpinski, Chet C. Sherwood, Derek E. Wildman, Thomas M. Maynard & Joseph P. Bielawski
Genes encoding nuclear receptors (NRs) are attractive as candidates for investigating the evolution of gene regulation because they (1) have a direct effect on gene expression and (2) modulate many cellular processes that underlie development. We employed a three-phase investigation linking NR molecular evolution among primates with direct experimental assessment of NR function. Phase 1 was an analysis of NR domain evolution and the results were used to guide the design of phase 2, a...

Data from: Fit for genomic and proteomic purposes: sampling the fitness of nucleic acid and protein derivatives from formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue

Anna Yakovleva, Jordan L. Plieskatt, Sarah Jensen, Razan Humeida, Jonathan Lange, Guangzhao Li, Paige Bracci, Sylvia Silver, Jeffrey Michael Bethony & Jonathan Lang
The demand for nucleic acid and protein derivatives from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue has greatly increased due to advances in extraction and purification methods, making these derivatives available for numerous genomic and proteomic platforms. Previously, DNA, RNA, microRNA (miRNA), or protein derived from FFPE tissue blocks were considered "unfit" for such platforms, as the process of tissue immobilization by FFPE resulted in cross-linked, fragmented, and chemically modified macromolecules. We conducted a systematic examination of nucleic...

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