15 Works

High-speed terrestrial substrate transitions: how a fleeing cursorial day gecko copes with compliance changes that are experienced in nature

Emily Naylor, Emily Naylor & Timothy Higham
1. Animal movement is often largely determined by abiotic conditions of the environment, including substrate properties. While a large body of work has improved our understanding of how different substrate properties can impact locomotor performance and behavior, few of these studies have investigated this relationship during transitions within a single locomotor event. 2. In nature, terrestrial animals frequently encounter substrate transitions, or changes in substrate level, incline, texture, and/or compliance during a single bout of...

Testing the utility of alternative metrics of branch support to address the ancient evolutionary radiation of tunas, stromateoids, and allies (Teleostei: Pelagiaria)

Dahiana Arcila, Lily C. Hughes, Fernando Meléndez-Vazquez, Carole C. Baldwin, William T. White, Kent E. Carpenter, Jeffrey T. Williams, Mudjekeewis D. Santos, John J. Pogonoski, Masaki Miya, Guillermo Ortí & Ricardo Betancur-R.
The use of high-throughput sequencing technologies to produce genome-scale datasets was expected to settle some long-standing controversies across the Tree of Life, particularly in areas where short branches occur at deep timescales. Instead, these datasets have often yielded many well-supported but conflicting topologies, and highly variable gene-tree distributions. A variety of branch-support metrics beyond the nonparametric bootstrap are now available to assess how robust a phylogenetic hypothesis may be, as well as new methods to...

Cortex cis-regulatory switches establish scale colour identity and pattern diversity in Heliconius

Luca Livraghi, Joseph J. Hanly, Ling Sheng Loh, Anna Ren, Ian A. Warren, Carolina Concha, Charlotte Wright, Jonah M. Walker, Jessica Foley, Henry Arenas-Castro, Arnaud Martin, William O. McMillan, Chris D. Jiggins, Steven M. Van Bellghem, Gabriela Montejo-Kovacevich, James J. Lewis, Micheal W. Perry, Zachary H. Goldberg, Laura H. Lopez, Riccardo Papa & Eva S.M. Van Der Heijden
In Heliconius butterflies, wing pattern diversity is controlled by a few genes of large effect that regulate colour pattern switches between morphs and species across a large mimetic radiation. One of these genes, cortex, has been repeatedly associated with colour pattern evolution in butterflies. Here we carried out CRISPR knock-outs in multiple Heliconius species and show that cortex is a major determinant of scale cell identity. Chromatin accessibility profiling and introgression scans identified cis-regulatory regions...

UAB Study of Aging

Senait Tekle
Over the next 3 years, analyses of data from the UAB Study of Aging I and UAB Study of Aging II will leave to at least five peer-reviewed manuscripts (see above), pilot data for at least one grant proposal; and at least five presentations at Annual Meetings of the American Geriatrics Society or the Gerontological Society of America. In addition, this work will lead to collaborations among investigators at UAB (Richard Kennedy) George Washington University...

A genetic switch for male UV-iridescence in an incipient species pair

Vincent Ficarrotta, Joseph J. Hanly, Ling S. Loh, Caroline M. Francescutti, Anna Ren, Kalle Tunström, Christopher W. Wheat, Adam H. Porter, Brian A. Counterman & Arnaud Martin
Mating cues evolve rapidly and can contribute to species formation and maintenance. However, little is known about how sexual signals diverge and how this variation integrates with other barrier loci to shape the genomic landscape of reproductive isolation. Here, we elucidate the genetic basis of UV iridescence, a courtship signal that differentiates the males of Colias eurytheme butterflies from a sister species, allowing females to avoid costly heterospecific matings. Anthropogenic range expansion of the two...

Phylogenomics of piranhas and pacus (Serrasalmidae) uncovers how dietary convergence and parallelism obfuscate traditional morphological taxonomy

Matthew Kolmann & Lily Hughes
The Amazon and neighboring South American river basins harbor the world’s most diverse assemblages of freshwater fishes. One of the most prominent South American fish families is the Serrasalmidae (pacus and piranhas), found in nearly every continental basin. Serrasalmids are keystone ecological taxa, being some of the top riverine predators as well as the primary seed dispersers in the flooded forest. Despite their widespread occurrence and notable ecologies, serrasalmid evolutionary history and systematics are controversial....

The evolutionary ecology of primate hair coloration: a phylogenetic approach

Rachel B. Bell, Brenda J. Bradley & Jason M. Kamilar
Understanding trait evolution is essential for explaining modern biological diversity, and this is particularly exemplified by studies of coloration. Recent studies have applied evolutionary models to understand animal coloration, yet we have limited knowledge of how this trait evolves in mammals in a comparative context. Here we use phylogenetic methods to examine how different traits are associated with the evolutionary diversity of primate hair color. We hypothesize that hair color evolves independently across body regions,...

Automated, high-throughput image calibration for parallel-laser photogrammetry

Emily Levy & Jack Richardson
This contains the data required to recreate the analyses in this paper. The code for performing the machine learning and image processing methods presented in the paper are available as supplemental files to the manuscript, and are also available at https://github.com/ejlevy/Photogrammetry_Coding_InterLaser_Distance. Paper abstract: Parallel-laser photogrammetry is growing in popularity as a way to collect non-invasive body size data from wild mammals. Despite its many appeals, this method requires researchers to hand-measure (i) the pixel distance...

Connectional asymmetry of the inferior parietal lobule shapes hemispheric specialization in humans, chimpanzees, and rhesus macaques

Luqi Cheng, Yuanchao Zhang, Gang Li, Jiaojian Wang, Chet Sherwood, Gaolang Gong, Linzhong Fan & Tianzi Jiang
The inferior parietal lobule (IPL) is one of the most expanded cortical regions in humans relative to other primates. It is also among the most structurally and functionally asymmetric regions in the human cerebral cortex. Whether the structural and connectional asymmetries of IPL subdivisions differ across primate species and how this relates to functional asymmetries remain unclear. We identified IPL subregions that exhibited positive allometric in both hemispheres, scaling across rhesus macaque monkeys, chimpanzees, and...

Relationships of climate, human activity, and fire history to spatiotemporal variation in annual fire probability across California: Source Code and Core Data

Isaac Park, Michael Mann, Lorraine Flint, Alan Flint & Max Moritz
In the face of recent wildfires across the Western United States, it is essential that we understand both the dynamics that drive the spatial distribution of wildfire, and the major obstacles to modeling the probability of wildfire over space and time. However, it is well documented that the precise relationships of local vegetation, climate, and ignitions, and how they influence fire dynamics, may vary over space and among local climate, vegetation, and land use regimes....

Deep ancestral introgression shapes evolutionary history of dragonflies and damselflies

Anton Suvorov, Celine Scornavacca, M. Stanley Fujimoto, Paul Bodily, Mark Clement, Keith Crandall, Michael Whiting, Daniel Schrider & Seth Bybee
Introgression is arguably one of the most important biological processes in the evolution of groups of related species, affecting at least 10% of the extant species in the animal kingdom. Introgression reduces genetic divergence between species, and in some cases can be highly beneficial, facilitating rapid adaptation to ever-changing environmental pressures. Introgression also significantly impacts inference of phylogenetic species relationships where a strictly binary tree model cannot adequately explain reticulate net-like species relationships. Here we...

Phylogenomics of bonytongue fishes (Osteoglossomorpha) shed light on the craniofacial evolution and biogeography of the weakly electric clade (Mormyridae)

Rose Peterson, John Sullivan, Carl Hopkins, Aintzane Santaquiteria, Casey Dillman, Stacy Pirro, Ricardo Betancur, Dahiana Arcila, Lily C. Hughes & Guillermo Ortí
Bonytongues (Osteoglossomorpha) constitute an ancient clade of teleost fishes distributed in freshwater habitats throughout the world. The group includes well-known species such as arowanas, featherbacks, pirarucus, and the weakly electric fishes in the family Mormyridae. Their disjunct distribution, extreme morphologies, and electrosensory capabilities (Notopteridae and Mormyroidea) have attracted interest by many, yet a comprehensive phylogenetic framework for comparative analysis is missing. We provide a phylogenomic analysis of 179 species (out of 260), 28 out of...

Data from: Experience, but not age, is associated with volumetric mushroom body expansion in solitary alkali bees

Mallory Hagadorn, Makenna Johnson, Adam Smith, Marc Seid & Karen Kapheim
In social insects, changes in behavior are often accompanied by structural changes in the brain. This neuroplasticity may come with experience (experience-dependent) or age (experience-expectant). Yet, the evolutionary relationship between neuroplasticity and sociality is unclear, because we know little about neuroplasticity in the solitary relatives of social species. We used confocal microscopy to measure brain changes in response to age and experience in a solitary halictid bee (Nomia melanderi). First, we compared the volume of...

Effects of plant hydraulic traits on the flammability of live fine canopy fuels in 62 Australian plant species

Fiona Scarff, Tanja Lenz, Anna Richards, Amy Zanne, Ian Wright & Mark Westoby
Plant species vary in how they regulate moisture and this has implications for their flammability during wildfires. We explored how fuel moisture is shaped by variation within six hydraulic traits: saturated moisture content, cell wall rigidity, cell solute potential, symplastic water fraction and tissue capacitance. Using pressure-volume curves, we measured these hydraulic traits distal shoots (i.e. twigs + leaves) in 62 plant species across four wooded communities in south-eastern Australia. For a subset of 30...

Fertilizer quantity and type alter mycorrhizae-conferred growth and resistance to herbivores

Zoe Getman-Pickering, George Stack & Jennifer Thaler
1. Plants face a constant struggle to acquire nutrients and defend themselves against herbivores. Mycorrhizae are fungal mutualists that provide nutrients that can increase plant growth and alter resistance to herbivores. The beneficial effects of mycorrhizae for nutrient acquisition can depend on the quantity and type of soil nutrients available, with plants usually benefiting more in terms of growth from mycorrhizae when nutrients are limited. However, it is unclear how the addition of different nutrients...

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