36 Works

Hair phenotype diversity across Indriidae lemurs

Elizabeth Tapanes, Rachel Jacobs, Ian Harryman, , Mitchell Irwin, Jason Kamilar & Brenda Bradley
Objectives: Hair (i.e., pelage/fur) is a salient feature of primate (including human) diversity and evolution—serving functions tied to thermoregulation, protection, camouflage, and signaling—but wild primate pelage evolution remains relatively understudied. Specifically, assessing multiple hypotheses across distinct phylogenetic scales is essential but is rarely conducted. We examine whole body hair color and density variation across Indriidae (Avahi, Indri, Propithecus)—a lineage that, like humans, exhibits vertical posture (i.e., their whole bodies are vertical to the sun). Materials...

Nest choice in arboreal ants is an emergent consequence of network creation under spatial constraints

Matina Donaldson-Matasci, Joanna Chang, Scott Powell & Elva J. H. Robinson
Biological transportation networks must balance competing functional priorities. The self-organizing mechanisms used to generate such networks have inspired scalable algorithms to construct and maintain low-cost and efficient human-designed transport networks. The pheromone-based trail networks of ants have been especially valuable in this regard. Here, we use turtle ants as our focal system: In contrast to the ant species usually used as models for self-organized networks, these ants live in a spatially constrained arboreal environment where...

Phylogenomics and fossil data inform the systematics and geographic range evolution of a diverse Neotropical ant lineage

Benjamin Blanchard, Shauna Price, Scott Powell, Bonnie Blaimer & Corrie Moreau
Recent advances in phylogenomics allow for the use of large amounts of genetic information in phylogenetic inference. Ideally, the increased resolution and accuracy of such inferences facilitate improved understanding of macroevolutionary processes. Here, we integrate ultraconserved elements (UCEs) with fossil and biogeographic range data to explore diversification and geographic range evolution in the diverse turtle ant genus Cephalotes. We focus on the potential role of the uplift of the Panamanian land bridge and the putative...

Assessing the role of task-irrelevant features on post-inhibition behavior

Samoni Nag, Patrick Cox, Stephen Mitroff & Dwight Kravitz
Response inhibition refers to the suppression of a prepotent response, most often tested using simple go/no-go tasks wherein a majority of trials require a response (go) and a much smaller subset require a different- or non-response (no-go). Inhibiting a response is often associated with a cascade of behavioral changes, such as subsequent trials showing less efficient behavior. There is an active debate about the degree to which these effects are response- or stimulus-specific and about...

Mugs and Plants: Object Semantic Knowledge Alters Perceptual Processing with Behavioral Ramifications

Dick Dubbelde
Neural processing of objects with action associations recruits dorsal visual regions more than neural processing of objects without such associations. We hypothesized that because the dorsal and ventral visual pathways have differing proportions of magno- and parvocellular input, there should be behavioral differences in perceptual tasks between manipulable and nonmanipulable objects. This hypothesis was tested in college-age adults across five experiments (Ns = 26, 26, 30, 25, and 25) using a gap-detection task, suited to...

Partner fidelity and environmental filtering preserve stage-specific turtle ant gut symbioses for over 40 million years

Yi Hu, Catherine D’Amelio, Benoît Béchade, Christian Cabuslay, Piotr Lukasik, Jon Sanders, Shauna Price, Emily Fanwick, Scott Powell, Corrie Moreau & Jacob Russell
Sustaining beneficial gut symbioses presents a major challenge for animals, Including holometabolous insects. Social insects may meet such challenges through behavioral symbiont transfer and transgenerational inheritance through colony founders. We address such potential through colony-wide explorations across 13 eusocial, holometabolous ant species in the genus Cephalotes. Through amplicon sequencing and qPCR, we show that previously characterized worker microbiomes are largely conserved across adult castes, that adult microbiomes exhibit strong trends of phylosymbiosis, and that Cephalotes...

Visual Working Memory and Motion

Sanika Paranjape, Simon Kaplan, Chunyue Teng & Dwight Kravitz
Direct interactions between working memory and perception for color and motion

Visual Working Memory and Motion

Simon Kaplan, Sanika Paranjape, Chunyue Teng & Dwight Kravitz
Direct interactions between working memory and perception for color and motion

Assessing the role of task-irrelevant features on post-inhibition behavior (match versus non-match)

Samoni Nag, Patrick Cox, Dwight Kravitz & Stephen Mitroff
Response inhibition refers to the suppression of a prepotent response, most often tested using simple go/no-go tasks wherein a majority of trials require a response (go) and a much smaller subset require a different- or non-response (no-go). Inhibiting a response is often associated with a cascade of behavioral changes, such as subsequent trials showing less efficient behavior. There is an active debate about the degree to which these effects are response- or stimulus-specific and about...

Speciation hypotheses from phylogeographic delimitation yield an integrative taxonomy for Seal Salamanders (Desmognathus monticola)

Robert Pyron, Kyle O'Connell, Sophie Duncan, Frank Burbrink & David Beamer
Significant advances have been made in species delimitation and numerous methods can test precisely defined models of speciation, though the synthesis of phylogeography and taxonomy is still sometimes incomplete. Emerging consensus treats distinct genealogical clusters in genome-scale data as strong initial evidence of speciation in most cases; a hypothesis that must therefore be falsified under an explicit evolutionary model. We can now test speciation hypotheses linking trait differentiation to specific mechanisms of divergence with increasingly...

Specimen list and landmark coordinates for the palate of early salamanders

Jia Jia, Guangzhao Li & Ke-Qin Gao
Ecological preferences and life history strategies have enormous impacts on the evolution and phenotypic diversity of salamanders, but the yet established reliable ecological indicators hinder investigations on the paleobiology of early salamanders. Here we statistically demonstrate using geometric morphometric analysis that both the shape of the palate and many non-shape variables particularly associated with vomerine teeth are ecologically informative in early stem- and basal crown-group salamanders. The morphology of the palate is heavily impacted by...

Spartina patens surveys of flowering density at marsh-forest ecotone

Ezra Kottler & Keryn Gedan
Climate change is driving abiotic shifts that can threaten the conservation of foundation species and the habitats they support. Range shifts are one mechanism of escape, but this requires successful colonization of habitats where interspecific interactions may differ from those to which a species has adapted. For plants with multiple reproductive strategies, these range-edge interactions may alter the investment or allocation towards a given reproductive strategy. In this study, we quantify sexual reproduction of the...

Dimensional Obsessive-Compulsive Subscales and Visual Search Capabilities

Sydni Nadler, Samoni Nag, Patrick Cox, Emma Siritzky, Dwight Kravitz & Stephen Mitroff
There is extensive research exploring various factors that impact visual search—the ability to find targets among distractors. One area of success has been to examine how individual differences traits predict search efficiency, and this general line of inquiry can have strong theoretical and practical implications. However, relatively little work has examined how search performance might vary as a function of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) symptomatology. In the attempt to continue understanding individual differences that may help...

U.S. School Closure & Distance Learning Database

Zachary Parolin & Emma Lee
The U.S. School Closure & Distance Learning Database tracks year-over-year change in in-person attendance across more than 100,000 schools throughout the COVID-19 pandemic.

Assessing the role of task-irrelevant features on post-inhibition deficits

Samoni Nag, Patrick Cox, Dwight Kravitz & Stephen Mitroff
Response inhibition refers to the suppression of a prepotent response, most often tested using simple go/no-go tasks wherein a majority of trials require a response (go) and a much smaller subset require a non-response (no-go). Inhibiting a response is often associated with a cascade of behavioral changes, such as subsequent trials showing less efficient behavior. There is an active debate about the degree to which these effects are response- or stimulus-specific and about whether post-inhibition...

Semantic Context

Ellie Robbins
All projects relating to semantic context (Ebbinghaus arrangement, VR, etc)

Examining the Relationship between ADHD, Impulsivity, and Visual Search

Emma Siritzky, Sanika Paranjape, Beck Hardy & Stephen Mitroff
Visual search, finding targets among distractors, is a complex cognitive skill that underlies many real-world tasks. Unfortunately, performance can suffer as a result of reduced attentional control. This effect has been demonstrated through increased false-alarm rates (i.e., incorrectly reporting a target is present when none is). Individuals with impaired attentional control have a tendency to falsely identify targets more than their more attentive, and less impulsive, counterparts on visual search tasks. With this study, we...

Islands Within Islands: Bacterial Phylogenetic Structure and Consortia in Hawaiian Lava Caves and Fumaroles

Rebecca Prescott, Tatyana Zamkovaya, Stuart Donachie, Diana Northup, Joseph Mendley, Natalia Monsalve, Jimmy Saw, Alan Decho, Patrick Chain & Penelope Boston
Lava caves, tubes, and fumaroles in Hawai‘i present a range of volcanic, oligotrophic environments from different lava flows and host unexpectedly high levels of bacterial diversity. These features provide an opportunity to study the ecological drivers that structure bacterial community diversity and assemblies in volcanic ecosystems and compare the older, more stable environments of lava tubes, to the more variable and extreme conditions of younger, geothermally active caves and fumaroles. Using 16S rRNA amplicon-based sequencing...

Anatomy and relationships of the basal Crocodylomorphs Junggarsuchus sloani and Dibothrosuchus elaphros

James Clark & Alexander Ruebenstahl
The holotype of Junggarsuchus sloani, from the early Late Jurassic of Xinjiang, China, consists of a nearly complete skull and the anterior half of an articulated skeleton, including the pectoral girdles, nearly complete forelimbs, vertebral column, and ribs. Here we describe its anatomy and compare it to other basal crocodylomorphs, based in part on CT scans of its skull and that of Dibothrosuchus elaphros from the Early Jurassic of China. Junggarsuchus shares many features with...

A new, narrowly endemic species of swamp-dwelling dusky salamander (Plethodontidae: Desmognathus) from the Gulf Coastal Plain of Mississippi and Alabama

Robert Pyron, Kyle O'Connell, Jennifer Lamb & David Beamer
We describe a new, narrowly endemic species of swamp-dwelling dusky salamander (Plethodontidae: Desmognathus pascagoula sp. nov.) from the Gulf Coastal Plain of southeastern Mississippi and southwestern Alabama based on linear morphometrics, mitochondrial DNA, and single nucleotide polymorphisms from 881 loci produced using genotype-by-sequencing. Some populations of the new species were historically referred to as D. auriculatus, a polyphyletic assemblage of at least three species in the Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plain from Texas to North...

A latent growth modeling analysis of social norms and tobacco use among adult smokers in Mainland China [Second Pre-Registration]

Shaon Lahiri
This is the second and final pre-registration for this project. The first pre-registration is publicly available here: https://doi.org/10.17605/OSF.IO/9GHU3. It described the initial hypotheses and description for generating descriptive statistics, frequencies, and psychometrics for the dataset prior to receiving and accessing it from the data vendor. This pre-registration explains the final hypotheses and main analysis plan now that the data has been received, and descriptives/psychometrics have been completed. The main analyses in this pre-registration relate to...

Research Transparency and Reproducibility: A Complementary Module for All

Shaon Lahiri
BITSS Catalyst Project - Shaon Lahiri. This project is funded by the Berkeley Initiative for Transparency in the Social Sciences (BITSS), managed by the Center for Effective Global Action (CEGA).

Generalization between Verbal Judgments and Perceptual Discrimination of 3D Space

Prachi Mahableshwarkar
Visual distance perception uses multiple sources of information to support diverse behavioral abilities including localizing objects in an environment. Based on prior work in this field, we hypothesize that human visual distance perception in pictured scenes optimally integrates visual distance cues with temporal processing differences. To that end, we aim to answer core questions about the evolution of spatial perception in natural scene images. We will use two matched tasks focusing on depth perception (discrimination,...

Stabilized morphological evolution of spiders despite mosaic changes in foraging ecology

Jonas Wolff, Kaja Wierucka, Jonathan Coddington, Gustavo Hormiga, Michael Kelly, Marie Herberstein, Martín Ramírez & Gustavo Paterno
A prominent question in animal research is how the evolution of morphology and ecology interact in the generation of phenotypic diversity. Spiders are some of the most abundant arthropod predators in terrestrial ecosystems and exhibit a diversity of foraging styles. It remains unclear how spider body size and proportions relate to foraging style, and if the use of webs as prey capture devices correlates with changes in body characteristics. Here we present the most extensive...

Candidate-species delimitation in Desmognathus salamanders reveals gene flow across lineage boundaries, confounding phylogenetic estimation and clarifying hybrid zones

Robert Pyron, Kyle O'Connell, Emily Lemmon, Alan Lemmon & Dave Beamer
Dusky Salamanders (genus Desmognathus) currently comprise only 22 described, extant species. However, recent mitochondrial and nuclear estimates indicate the presence of up to 49 candidate species based on ecogeographic sampling. Previous studies also suggest a complex history of hybridization between these lineages. Studies in other groups suggest that disregarding admixture may affect both phylogenetic inference and clustering-based species-delimitation. With a dataset comprising 233 Anchored Hybrid Enrichment (AHE) loci sequenced for 896 Desmognathus specimens from all...

Registration Year

  • 2022
    36

Resource Types

  • Text
    19
  • Dataset
    17

Affiliations

  • George Washington University
    36
  • Nash Community College
    3
  • Deloitte (United States)
    3
  • Macquarie University
    2
  • Cornell University
    2
  • Bernardino Rivadavia Natural Sciences Museum
    1
  • University of Bath
    1
  • University of Massachusetts Amherst
    1
  • Stanford University
    1
  • Field Museum of Natural History
    1