28 Works

Up-regulation of sarcoplasmic reticulum function protects skeletal muscle against cytoplasmic calcium overload during hibernation in ground squirrels

Zhe Wang
We investigated the potential mechanism of the SR in maintenance of calcium (Ca2+) homeostasis of slow-twitch muscle (soleus, SOL), fast-twitch muscle (extensor digitorum longus, EDL) and mixed muscle (gastrocnemius, GAS) in hibernating ground squirrels (Spermophilus dauricus). Results showed that cytosolic and SR Ca2+ concentrations in distinct skeletal muscle fibers increased and decreased during late torpor, respectively, but both returned to summer-active levels during early torpor. Ryanodine receptor1 (RyR1) and sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase isoform 1...

Data from: Ecology, biofacies, biogeography and systematics of micromorphic lingulate brachiopods from the Ordovician (Darriwilian–Sandbian) of south-central China

Lars E. Holmer, Mansoureh Ghobadi Pour, Leonid E. Popov, Zhiliang Zhang & Zhifei Zhang
Ordovician (Darriwilian to Sandbian) micromorphic linguliform lingulate brachiopods are described from the Guniutan Formation at the Fenxiang section in Hubei province, and the Maocaopu and Cili sections in Hunan province of south-central China, situated on the Yangtze Platform. A total of 7560 specimens from 155 limestone samples (within the interval of Lenodus variabilis – Pygodus anserinus biozones) are assigned to 22 species, representing a low taxonomic diversity and low abundance fauna. The fauna is dominated...

Development of the early Cambrian oryctocephalid trilobite Oryctocarella duyunensis from western Hunan, China

Tao Dai, Nigel Hughes, Xingliang Zhang & Shanchi Peng
Abundant articulated specimens of the oryctocarine trilobite Oryctocarella duyunensis from the lower Cambrian (Stage 4, Series 2) Balang Formation at the Bulin section in western Hunan Province, South China, permit the description of all meraspid degrees. The maximum number of thoracic segments observed in this collection is 11. Meraspid growth was accompanied by progressive and gradual change in overall form, and this animal showed an homonomously segmented trunk with variation in the number of pygidial...

Geometric morphometric analysis of Protoconites minor from the Cambrian (Terreneuvian) Yanjiahe Formation in Three Gorges, South China

Junfeng Guo, Yanlong Chen, Zuchen Song, Zhifei Zhang, Marissa J. Betts, Yajuan Zheng & Xiaoyong Yao
The Ediacaran to Cambrian transition is a critical interval of time during which major evolutionary changes occurred. Recently, abundant Protoconites minor have been recovered from the silty shales of the lower Cambrian Yanjiahe Formation (Terreneuvian, Fortunian – Stage 2) in the Three Gorges area of South China. These fossils represent an important ecological diversification of macroscopic organisms at the onset of the Cambrian. Protoconites minor is a probable cnidarian-grade organism preserved by carbon compression. Herein,...

Data from: Late Triassic (Julian) conodont biostratigraphy of a transition from reefal limestones to deep-water environments on the Cimmerian terranes (Taurus mountains, southern Turkey)

Yanlong Chen & Alexander Lukeneder
Sections at Aşağiyaylabel and Yukariyaylabel, Taurus Mountains, southern Turkey, provide a rare opportunity to investigate conodont faunas in detail across a reef to slope transition. Intensive sampling of limestone beds (wackestones to packstones) through approximately 3 m at these locations has led to the recognition of a new lower Carnian (Julian 1/2) conodont fauna within the Kartoz and Kasimlar formations. Members of the subfamilies Paragondolellinae and Pseudofurnishiinae are recognized. The genus Kraussodontus is reported for...

Data from: Multi-jawed chaetognaths from the Chengjiang Lagerstätte (Cambrian, Series 2, Stage 3) of Yunnan, China

Degan Shu, Simon Conway Morris, Jian Han, Jennifer F. Hoyal Cuthill, Zhifei Zhang, Meirong Cheng & Hai Huang
Chaetognaths (arrow-worms) are enigmatic in terms of their phylogenetic position, while the existence of Protosagitta spinosa from the Chengjiang Lagerstätte suggests minimal change in their unique bodyplan since at least the early Cambrian. Apart from rare (and sometimes controversial) soft-bodied remains, the fossil record of chaetognaths is otherwise almost entirely dependent on early Palaeozoic phosphatic microfossils, some of which are placed amongst so-called protoconodonts. Fused spine clusters are strikingly similar to the cephalic grasping apparatus...

Data from: Go large or go conical: allometric trajectory of an early Cambrian acrotretide brachiopod

Zhiliang Zhang, Timothy Topper, Yanlong Chen, Luke Stroze, Feiyang Chen, Lars Holmer, Glenn Brock & Zhifei Zhang
Acrotretides are extinct micromorphic brachiopods that exhibited considerable morphological variation during their rapid evolution in the early Palaeozoic. The plano-conical shells of acrotretides are distinct in comparison to other brachiopod groups and despite their diversity and abundance in early Palaeozoic communities, their origins, early evolution, life history and phylogeny are poorly understood. Here, we employ advanced geometric morphometrics to quantitatively investigate ontogenetic variation and allometry in the ventral valve of the oldest known acrotretide species...

Advanced Cambrian hydroid fossils (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa) extend the medusozoan evolutionary history

Xikun Song, Bernhard Ruthensteiner, Mingxin Lyu, Xi Liu, Jian Wang & Jian Han
Primitive cnidarians are crucial for elucidating the early evolution of metazoan body plans and life histories in the late Neoproterozoic and Palaeozoic. The highest complexity of both evolutionary aspects within cnidarians is found in extant hydrozoans. Many colonial hydrozoans coated with chitinous exoskeletons have the potential to form fossils; however, only a few fossils possibly representing hydroids have been reported, which still require scrutiny. Here, we present an exceptionally well-preserved hydroid found in the Upper...

Data from: Potential geographic distributions of endangered Opisthopappus Shih in response to environmental changes

Hao Zhang, Hang Ye, En Zang, Qiyang Qie, Shan He, Weili Hao, Yafei Lan, Zhixia Liu, Genlou Sun & Yiling Wang
Environmental changes could dramatically influence the distribution area and niche of organisms. Taihang Mountains contain numerous endemic species, regarded as a center of distribution and diversity for many plant genera. It is necessary that having more comprehensive studies of test climate effects on species in this area. Opisthopappus (containing two species Opisthopappus taihangensis and Opisthopappus longilobus) is an endangered and endemic genus in the Taihang Mountains. Predicting the suitable potential distribution, exploring the niche difference...

Data from: Nutrient-specific compensation for seasonal cold stress in a free-ranging temperate colobine monkey

Songtao Guo, Rong Hou, Paul A. Garber, David Raubenheimer, Nicoletta Righini, Weihong Ji, Ollie Jay, Shujun He, Fan Wu, Fangfang Li, Baoguo Li, Song-Tao Guo, Shu-Jun He, Fang-Fang Li, Bao-Guo Li & Wei-Hong Ji
1. Homeostatic responses of animals to environmentally-induced changes in nutrient requirements provide a powerful basis for predictive ecological models, and yet such responses are virtually unstudied in the wild. 2. We tested for macronutrient-specific compensatory feeding responses by free-ranging golden snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana) inhabiting high altitude temperate forests where they experience a substantial difference in ambient temperature in cold winters vs. warmer springs. The monkeys had free access to natural foods throughout the year,...

The geometry of resource constraint: an empirical study of the golden snub-nosed monkey

Rong Hou, Colin Chapman, Jessica Rothman, He Zhang, Kang Huang, Songtao Guo, Baoguo Li & David Raubenheimer
1. Apposite conceptualization and measurement of resource variation is critical for understanding many issues in ecology, including ecological niches, persistence and distribution of populations, the structure of communities, and population resilience to perturbations. 2. We apply the nutritional geometry framework to conceptualise and quantify the responses of a temperate-living primate, the golden snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus roxellana) to variation in resource quality and quantity and in nutrient requirements associated with seasonal environments. 3. We present a...

Using demographic model selection to untangle allopatric divergence and diversification mechanisms in the Rheum palmatum complex in the Eastern Asiatic Region

Li Feng, Markus Ruhsam, Yi-Han Wang, Zhong-Hu Li & Xu-Mei Wang
Allopatric divergence is often initiated by geological uplift and restriction to sky-islands, climate oscillations, or river capture. However, it can be difficult to establish which mechanism was the most likely to generate the current phylogeographic structure of a species. Recently, genomic data in conjunction with a model testing framework have been applied to address this issue in animals. To test whether such an approach is also likely to be successful in plants we used population...

Three oaks Microsatellite data

Xiaodan Chen
Knowledge of interspecific divergence and population expansions/contractions of dominant forest trees in response to geological events and climatic oscillations is of major importance to understand their evolution and demography. However, the interspecific patterns of genetic differentiation and spatiotemporal population dynamics of three deciduous Cerris oak species (Q. acutissima, Q. variabilis and Q. chenii) that are widely distributed in China remain poorly understood. In this study, we genotyped 16 nuclear loci in 759 individuals sampled from...

Data from: Early Cambrian (stage 4) brachiopods from the Shipai Formation in the Three Gorges area of South China

Xiaolin Duan, Marissa Betts, Lars Holmer, Yanlong Chen, Fan Liu, Yue Liang & Zhifei Zhang
Diverse and abundant fossil taxa have been described in the lower Cambrian Shipai Formation in the Three Gorges area of Hubei province, South China, but the diversity of the co-occurring brachiopod fauna and their taxonomy is still far from clear. Here we describe the brachiopod fauna recovered from the Shipai Formation in the Three Gorges area of South China, including representatives of the subphylum Linguliformea: linguloids(Lingulellotreta ergalievi, Eoobolus malongensis and Neobolidae gen. indet. sp. indet.),...

Enduring evolutionary embellishment of cloudinids: Lifting the veil of the Cambrian Explosion

Tae-Yoon Park, Jikhan Jung, Mirinae Lee, Sangmin Lee, Yong Yi Zhen, Hong Hua, Lucas V. Warren & Nigel C. Hughes
The Ediacaran–Cambrian transition and the following Cambrian Explosion are among the most fundamental events in the evolutionary history of animals. Understanding these events is enhanced when phylogenetic linkages can be established among animal fossils across this interval and their trait evolution monitored. Doing this is challenging because the fossil record of animal lineages that span this transition is sparse, preserved morphologies generally simple, and lifestyles in the Ediacaran and Cambrian quite different. Here we identify...

Data from: Remarkably conserved plastid genomes of Quercus Group Cerris in China: comparative and phylogenetic analyses

Yanci Yang, Yiheng Hu, Ting Ren, Jingjing Sun & Guifang Zhao
Quercus is one of the most important genera for considering its economic and ecological values, with approximately 500 species worldwide. Quercus group Cerris is endemic to Eurasia (including 11 species), and three species (Quercus acutissima, Quercus chenii and Quercus variabilis) are widely distributed in China. Here, we sequenced the complete plastid genomes of Q. acutissima and Q. chenii by Illumina pair-end sequencing, and obtained an additional plastome of Q. variabilis from GenBank. Although geographically distant...

A ten-faced hexangulaconulariid from Cambrian Stage 2 of South China

Junfeng Guo, Jian Han, Heyo Van Iten, Zuchen Song, Yaqin Qiang, Wenzhe Wang, Zhifei Zhang & Guoxiang Li
Hexangulaconulariids (Cambrian stages 1‒2) are an extinct group of medusozoan polyps having a biradially symmetrical, fan-shaped periderm that is distinct from those of medusozoan polyps showing three-, four-, five-, or six-fold radial symmetry. Hexangulaconulariids exhibit substantial variation in gross morphology, including variation in the number of faces on each of the two major sides of the periderm. An intermediate taxon of hexangulaconulariids with ten faces (five on each major side) was expected. Here we describe...

Strain-hardening effect on critical strain assessment of pipe plastic bending at buckling

M. Zheng & Z.M. Li
In the current paper, the characteristic factor is extracted from the analytical solution of the bending moment for a rectangular strainhardening beam first. Thereafter, the characteristic factor β is transplanted into the previously proposed assessment of the critical buckling strain for rigid-perfectly plastic bending pipe by analogy method, thus an extended expression of the critical buckling strain for a pipe plastic bending including strain-hardening effect is developed. Moreover, available test data is employed to check...

Data from: An intermediate type of medusa from the early Cambrian Kuanchuanpu Formation, South China

Xing Wang, Jean Vannier, Xiaoguang Yang, Shin Kubota, Qiang Ou, Xiaoyong Yao, Kentaro Uesugi, Osamu Sasaki, Tsuyoshi Komiya & Jian Han
The tetraradial or pentaradial fossil embryos and related hatched individuals from the early Cambrian Kuanchuanpu Formation are of great interest for understanding the early evolution of medusozoans. The phylogenetic and evolutionary significance of their external and internal characters (e.g. manubrium, tentacles, septa and claustra) is still controversial. Here we describe a new pentamerous medusozoan, Hanagyroia orientalis gen. et sp. nov., characterized by five well-developed perradial oral lips around a remarkably large manubrium, a conspicuous equatorial...

The names don’t matter but the numbers do: searching for stability in Carboniferous brachiopod paleocommunities from the North American Midcontinent

Luke Strotz & Bruce Lieberman
A key question in paleoecology and macroevolution is whether assemblages of species (paleocommunities) are persistent entities that endure over millions of years. Whilst community turnover in the face of abiotic change is the presumed norm, paleocommunities have been shown to persist for long time periods and regardless of environmental disruption. It remains an open question however, as to what processes allow for this. We investigate these questions by analyzing the Carboniferous brachiopod paleocommunities from the...

Virtual screening for functional foods against the main protease of 2019 novel coronavirus

Binglin Li, Jiao Wang, Xiaoli Zhang & Alejandra B. Omarini
Design and development of an effective method or technologyto combat the 2019 novel coronavirus remains a challenge. In this work, the special attention was paid on the interaction between functional foods and the main protease of 2019-nCoV. Here, 10870 ligands were employed and screened by the molecular docking, which involved 12 kinds of functional foods (carbohydrates, fat acids, phospholipids, vitamin, β-sitosterol, flavonoids, nordihydroguaiaretic acid, curcumin, nookatone, β-pinene, tincturoid, and their isomers/analogs/derivatives). Then, 60 ligands were...

Data from: Cambrian petalonamid Stromatoveris phylogenetically links Ediacaran biota to later animals

Jennifer Hoyal Cuthill, Jian Han & Jennifer F. Hoyal Cuthill
Macro-organisms of the Ediacaran period (635-541 Ma) were large and morphologically complex, with some living in aphotic habitats, presenting the possibility that they were early animals. However, ‘bizarre’ Ediacaran morphologies and mouldic preservation have frustrated comparison to later taxa. Consequently, both the positions of Ediacaran biota in the tree of life and the origins of the Metazoa have been unresolved. Here we provide phylogenetic evidence to identify Ediacaran macro-biota as animals, based on 206 new...

Data from: Cold and hungry: combined effects of low temperature and resource scarcity on an edge-of-range temperate primate, the golden snub-nose monkey

Rong Hou, Colin A. Chapman, Ollie Jay, Songtao Guo, Baoguo Li & David Raubenheimer
Both biotic and abiotic factors play important roles in influencing ecological distributions and niche limits. Where biotic and abiotic stressors co-occur in space and time, homeostatic systems face a different category of challenge in which stressors compound to impose a challenge that is greater than the sum of the separate factors. We studied the homeostatic strategies of the golden snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus roxellana), a species living in temperate deciduous forests at the edge of the...

Electrochemical and thermodynamic properties of 1-phenyl-3-(phenylamino)propan -1-one with Na2WO4 on N80 Steel

Yun Wang, Lei Zhang, Jun Hu, Jiangli Cao & Minxu Lu
The corrosion inhibition effect and adsorption behavior of 1-phenyl-3-(phenylamino)propan-1-one(PPAPO) on N80 steel in hydrochloric solution have been investigated by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), electrochemical method and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The corrosion inhibition mechanism of PPAPO with Na2WO4 was interpreted from the point of view of the thermodynamic. The results indicated that PPAPO with Na2WO4 acted as a mixed type inhibitor. The inhibition film formed on N80 steel surface can increase the charge transfer resistance...

Data from: A new tetraradial olivooid (Medusozoa) from the Lower Cambrian (Stage 2) Yanjiahe Formation, South China

Junfeng Guo, Jian Han, Heyo Van Iten, Zuchen Song, Yaqin Qiang, Wenzhe Wang, Zhifei Zhang, Guoxiang Li, Yifei Sun & Jie Sun
Octapyrgites elongatus n. gen. n. sp., a relatively rare, tetraradial olivooid (Cnidaria, Medusozoa), is described from Bed 5 of the Yanjiahe Formation (Cambrian Stage 2) near Yichang, China. Though similar to Olivooides and Quadrapyrgites from the Fortunian Stage in consisting of a partially corrugated (long.) periderm with a quadrate (transv.) apical portion and V-shaped apertural lobes, O. elongatus is substantially larger than other olivooids. The elongate apical region of O. elongatus is similar to four-sided...

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