44 Works

Data from: Oviposition site choice under conflicting risks demonstrates that aquatic predators drive terrestrial egg-laying

Justin C. Touchon & Julie L. Worley
Laying eggs out of water was crucial to the transition to land and has evolved repeatedly in multiple animal phyla. However, testing hypotheses about this transition has been difficult because extant species only breed in one environment. The pantless treefrog, Dendropsophus ebraccatus, makes such tests possible because they lay both aquatic and arboreal eggs. Here, we test the oviposition site choices of D. ebraccatus under conflicting risks of arboreal egg desiccation and aquatic egg predation,...

Data from: Spatial soil heterogeneity has a greater effect on symbiotic arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities and plant growth than genetic modification with Bacillus thuringiensis toxin genes

Tanya E. Cheeke, Ursel M. Schütte, Chris M. Hemmerich, Mitchell B. Cruzan, Todd N. Rosenstiel & James D. Bever
Maize, genetically modified with the insect toxin genes of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), is widely cultivated, yet its impacts on soil organisms are poorly understood. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) form symbiotic associations with plant roots and may be uniquely sensitive to genetic changes within a plant host. In this field study, the effects of nine different lines of Bt maize and their corresponding non-Bt parental isolines were evaluated on AMF colonization and community diversity in plant...

Data from: Can long-range PCR be used to amplify genetically divergent mitochondrial genomes for comparative phylogenetics? A case study within spiders (Arthropoda: Araneae).

Andrew G. Briscoe, Sarah Goodacre, Susan E. Masta, Martin I. Taylor, Miquel A. Arnedo, David Penney, John Kenny, Simon Creer & Sara Goodacre
The development of second generation sequencing technology has resulted in the rapid production of large volumes of sequence data for relatively little cost, thereby substantially increasing the quantity of data available for phylogenetic studies. Despite these technological advances, assembling longer sequences, such as that of entire mitochondrial genomes, has not been straightforward. Existing studies have been limited to using only incomplete or nominally intra-specific datasets resulting in a bottleneck between mitogenome amplification and downstream high-throughput...

Data from: Experimental evolution with Caenorhabditis nematodes

Henrique Teotónio, Suzanne Estes, Patrick C. Phillips & Charles F. Baer
The hermaphroditic nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has been one of the primary model systems in biology since the 1970s, but only within the last two decades has this nematode also become a useful model for experimental evolution. Here, we outline the goals and major foci of experimental evolution with C. elegans and related species, such as C. briggsae and C. remanei, by discussing the principles of experimental design, and highlighting the strengths and limitations of Caenorhabditis...

Population decline of a long-distance migratory passerine at the edge of its range: nest predation, nest replacement, and immigration

Michael Murphy, Lucas Redmond, Amy Dolan, Nathan Cooper, Christopher Chutter & Sarah Cancellieri
The relative importance of predators and resources (i.e., food) for the dynamics of migratory bird populations is poorly known. Resource availability may be more likely in resource poor environments, but given that nest failure in most systems is due mainly to predation, predator effects may predominate. We document a rapid decline of an isolated Eastern Kingbird (Tyrannus tyrannus) population breeding in the Great Basin Desert of eastern Oregon, USA, and evaluate whether it was driven...

Informatics and statistics for: Stable coexistence or competitive exclusion? Fern endophytes demonstrate rapid turnover favoring a dominant fungus

Brett Younginger, Nathan Stewart, Mehmet Balkan & Daniel Ballhorn
Fungal endophytes are critical members of the plant microbiome, but their community dynamics throughout an entire growing season are underexplored. Additionally, most fungal endophyte research has centered on seed-reproducing hosts, while spore-reproducing plants spend a significant proportion of their lifecycle in a haploid state and may filter vertically-transmitted fungi. In order to examine annual fungal endophyte community dynamics in a spore-reproducing host, we examined endophytes in a single population of ferns, Polystichum munitum, in the...

Data from: Selective differentiation during the colonization and establishment of a newly invasive species

Gina L. Marchini, Tina M. Arredondo & Mitchell B. Cruzan
The potential for rapid evolution in invasive species makes them useful for studying adaptive responses of populations to novel environments. However, phenotypic divergence during invasion is not necessarily due to selection, but may be a product of neutral processes resulting from population bottlenecks during colonization and range expansion. We investigated phenotypic adaptation during the establishment and range expansion of the invasive bunchgrass, slender false brome (Brachypodium sylvaticum; Poaceae). Utilizing a novel approach, we made robust...

Data from: Increased habitat connectivity homogenizes freshwater communities: historical and landscape perspectives

Angela L. Strecker & Jeffrey T. Brittain
1. Increases in habitat connectivity can have consequences for taxonomic, functional, and genetic diversity of communities. Previously isolated aquatic habitats were connected with canals and pipelines in the largest water development project in US history, the Columbia Basin Project (eastern Washington, USA), which also altered environmental conditions; however, the ecological consequences are largely unknown. 2. Using a historical dataset, we examined long-term patterns in zooplankton communities, water chemistry and clarity, testing the hypothesis that increased...

Data from: Influences of fire–vegetation feedbacks and post-fire recovery rates on forest landscape vulnerability to altered fire regimes

Alan J. Tepley, Enrique Thomann, Thomas T. Veblen, George L.W. Perry, Andrés Holz, Juan Paritsis, Thomas Kitzberger, Kristina J. Anderson-Teixeira & George L. W. Perry
1. In the context of on-going climatic warming, forest landscapes face increasing risk of conversion to non-forest vegetation through alteration of their fire regimes and their post-fire recovery dynamics. However, this pressure could be amplified or dampened, depending on how fire-driven changes to vegetation feed back to alter the extent or behavior of subsequent fires. 2. Here we develop a mathematical model to formalize understanding of how fire–vegetation feedbacks and the time to forest recovery...

Data from: Forest passerines as a novel dispersal vector of viable bryophyte propagules

Matthew W. Chmielewski & Sarah M. Eppley
Animal dispersal influences the community structure and diversity of a wide variety of plant taxa, yet the potential effects of animal dispersal in bryophytes (hornworts, liverworts, and mosses) is poorly understood. In many communities, birds use bryophyte-abundant niche space for foraging and gathering nest material, suggesting that birds may play a role in bryophyte dispersal. As highly motile animals with long migratory routes, birds potentially provide a means for both local and long-distance bryophyte dispersal...

Data from: Size, ornamentation, and flight feather morphology promote within-pair paternity in a sexually dimorphic passerine

Diane V. Roeder, Michael S. Husak, Michael T. Murphy & Michael A. Patten
Morphology in sexually dimorphic species is related to increased opportunity for sexual selection when traits reflect individual quality. In socially monogamous species, it may function to increase variance in reproductive success if exaggerated traits are related to the opportunity to engage in extra-pair paternity (EPP). Nonetheless, it is poorly understood if ornamental versus functional traits are differentially related to the distribution of paternity across individuals. We examined EPP in the Scissor-tailed Flycatcher (Tyrannus forficatus), a...

Raw holograms frames of Bacillus Subtilis at different temperatures

Nikki Johnston, Megan Dubay, Mark Wronkiewicz, Jake Lee, Christian Lindensmith & Jay Nadeau
We describe a system for high-temperature investigations of bacterial motility using a digital holographic microscope completely submerged in heated water. Temperatures above 90 ºC could be achieved, with a constant 5 ºC offset between the sample temperature and the surrounding water bath. Using this system, we observed active motility in Bacillus subtilis up to 66 ºC. As temperatures rose, most cells became immobilized on the surface, but a fraction of cells remained highly motile at...

Safest Placement for Crosswalks at Intersections

David Hurwitz, Christopher M. Monsere, Eileen Pei Ying Chai & Sirisha Kothuri
This data provides observations and measurements used to answer questions of interest regarding how setback crosswalks at intersections affect driver behavior and intersection safety as part of the study titled “SPR840 Safest Placement for Crosswalks at Intersections.” Data includes measurements from the simulator portion of the study which gathered information relating to average velocity and lateral position, eye-tracking fixations, galvanic skin response, and survey data to describe driver behavior as they approach and make turning...

Response of soil respiration to changes in soil temperature and water table level in drained and restored peatlands of the southeastern United States

E. E. Swails, M. Ardón, K. W. Krauss, A. L. Peralta, R. E. Emanuel, A. M. Helton, J. L. Morse, L. Gutenberg, N. Cormier, D. Shoch, S. Settlemyer, E. Soderholm, B. P. Boutin, C. Peoples & S. Ward
Abstract Background Extensive drainage of peatlands in the southeastern United States coastal plain for the purposes of agriculture and timber harvesting has led to large releases of soil carbon as carbon dioxide (CO2) due to enhanced peat decomposition. Growth in mechanisms that provide financial incentives for reducing emissions from land use and land-use change could increase funding for hydrological restoration that reduces peat CO2 emissions from these ecosystems. Measuring soil respiration and physical drivers across...

Response of soil respiration to changes in soil temperature and water table level in drained and restored peatlands of the southeastern United States

E. E. Swails, M. Ardón, K. W. Krauss, A. L. Peralta, R. E. Emanuel, A. M. Helton, J. L. Morse, L. Gutenberg, N. Cormier, D. Shoch, S. Settlemyer, E. Soderholm, B. P. Boutin, C. Peoples & S. Ward
Abstract Background Extensive drainage of peatlands in the southeastern United States coastal plain for the purposes of agriculture and timber harvesting has led to large releases of soil carbon as carbon dioxide (CO2) due to enhanced peat decomposition. Growth in mechanisms that provide financial incentives for reducing emissions from land use and land-use change could increase funding for hydrological restoration that reduces peat CO2 emissions from these ecosystems. Measuring soil respiration and physical drivers across...

Data from: Climate suitable planting as a strategy for maintaining forest productivity and functional diversity

Matthew Joshua Duveneck & Robert Michael Scheller
Within the time frame of the longevity of tree species, climate change will change faster than the ability of natural tree migration. Migration lags may result in reduced productivity and reduced diversity in forests under current management and climate change. We evaluated the efficacy of planting climate-suitable tree species (CSP), those tree species with current or historic distributions immediately south of a focal landscape, to maintain or increase aboveground biomass, productivity, and species and functional...

Data from: Prozac in the water: chronic fluoxetine exposure and predation risk interact to shape behaviors in an estuarine crab

Joseph R. Peters, Elise F. Granek, Catherine E. De Rivera & Matthew Rollins
Predators exert considerable top-down pressure on ecosystems by directly consuming prey or indirectly influencing their foraging behaviors and habitat use. Prey is, therefore, forced to balance predation risk with resource reward. A growing list of anthropogenic stressors such as rising temperatures and ocean acidification has been shown to influence prey risk behaviors and subsequently alter important ecosystem processes. Yet, limited attention has been paid to the effects of chronic pharmaceutical exposure on risk behavior or...

Data from: Macroecological drivers of zooplankton communities across the mountains of western North America

Charlie J.G. Loewen, Angela L. Strecker, Gary L. Larson, Allan Vogel, Janet M. Fischer, Rolf D. Vinebrooke & Charlie J. G. Loewen
Disentangling the environmental and spatial drivers of biological communities across large scales increasingly challenges modern ecology in a rapidly changing world. Here, we investigate the hierarchical and trait-based organization of regional and local factors of zooplankton communities at a macroscale of 1,240 mountain lakes and ponds spanning western North America (California, USA, to Yukon Territory, Canada). Variation partitioning was used to test the hypothesized importance of climate, connectivity, catchment features, and exotic sportfish to zooplankton...

Annual killifish embryo ecology

Matej Polačik, Milan Vrtilek, Martin Reichard, Jakub Žák, Radim BLažek & Jason Podrabsky
Embryo-environment interactions are of paramount importance during the development of all organisms, and impacts during this period can echo far into later stages of ontogeny. African annual fish of the genus Nothobranchius live in temporary pools and their eggs survive the dry season in the dry bottom substrate of the pools by entering a facultative developmental arrest termed diapause. Uniquely among animals, the embryos (encased in eggs) may enter diapause at three different developmental stages....

Microarthropod contributions to fitness variation in the common moss Ceratodon purpureus

Erin Shortlidge, Adam Payton, Sarah Carey, Stuart McDaniel, Todd Rosenstiel & Sarah Eppley
The evolution of sustained plant-animal interactions depends critically upon genetic variation in the fitness benefits from the interaction. Genetic analyses of such interactions are limited to a few model systems, in part because genetic variation may be absent or the interacting species may be experimentally intractable. Here we examine the role of sperm-dispersing microarthropods in shaping reproduction and genetic variation in mosses. We established experimental mesocosms with known moss genotypes and inferred the parents of...

Weak coupling among barrier loci and waves of neutral and adaptive introgression across an expanding hybrid zone

Mitch Cruzan, Pamela Thompson, Nicolas Diaz, Elizabeth Hendrickson, Katie Gerloff, Katie Kline, Hannah Machiorlete & Jessica Persinger
Hybridization can serve as an evolutionary stimulus, but we have little understanding of introgression at early stages of hybrid zone formation. We analyze reproductive isolation and introgression between a range-limited and a widespread species. Reproductive barriers are estimated based on differences in flowering time, ecogeographic distributions, and seed set from crosses. We find an asymmetrical mating barrier due to cytonuclear incompatibility that is consistent with observed clusters of coincident and concordant tension zone clines (barrier...

Data from: Testing conceptual models of early plant succession across a disturbance gradient

Cynthia C. Chang, Charles B. Halpern, Joseph A. Antos, Meghan L. Avolio, Abir Biswas, James E. Cook, Roger Del Moral, Dylan G. Fischer, Andrés Holz, Robert J. Pabst, Mark E. Swanson & Donald B. Zobel
1.Studies of succession have a long history in ecology, but rigorous tests of general, unifying principles are rare. One barrier to these tests of theory is the paucity of longitudinal studies that span the broad gradients of disturbance severity that characterize large, infrequent disturbances. The cataclysmic eruption of Mount St. Helens (Washington, USA) in 1980 produced a heterogeneous landscape of disturbance conditions, including primary to secondary successional habitats, affording a unique opportunity to explore how...

Nanoclepta gen. nov., Nanoclepta minutus sp. nov.

Emily St. John

Fine‐scale habitat heterogeneity and vole runways influence seed dispersal in Plagiobothrys nothofulvus

MItchell Cruzan, Monica Grasty, Pam Thompson, Elizabeth Hendrickson & Avery Pheil
PREMISE: Seed dispersal allows plants to colonize new sites and contributes to gene flow among populations. Despite its fundamental importance to ecological and evolutionary processes, our understanding of seed dispersal is limited due to the difficulty of directly observing dispersal events. This is particularly true for the majority of plant species that are considered to have gravity as their primary dispersal mechanism. The potential for long-distance movement of gravity-dispersed seeds by secondary dispersal vectors is...

Data from: Microplastic prevalence in 4 Oregon rivers along a rural to urban gradient applying a cost‐effective validation technique

Amy Valine, Ashley Peterson, Dorothy Horn, Kaegan Scully-Engelmeyer & Elise Granek
Microplastics are ubiquitous in our environment and are found in rivers, streams, oceans, and even tap water. Riverine microplastics are relatively understudied compared to those in marine ecosystems. In Oregon, we sampled eight sites along four freshwater rivers spanning rural to urban areas to quantify microplastics. Plankton tow samples from sites along the Columbia, Willamette, Deschutes, and Rogue Rivers were analyzed using traditional light microscopy for initial microplastic counts. Application of Nile Red dye to...

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