180 Works

Data from: Targeted enrichment of large gene families for phylogenetic inference: phylogeny and molecular evolution of photosynthesis genes in the Portullugo clade (Caryophyllales)

Abigail J. Moore, Jurriaan M. De Vos, Lillian P. Hancock, Eric Goolsby & Erika J. Edwards
Hybrid enrichment is an increasingly popular approach for obtaining hundreds of loci for phylogenetic analysis across many taxa quickly and cheaply. The genes targeted for sequencing are typically single-copy loci, which facilitate a more straightforward sequence assembly and homology assignment process. However, this approach limits the inclusion of most genes of functional interest, which often belong to multi-gene families. Here we demonstrate the feasibility of including large gene families in hybrid enrichment protocols for phylogeny...

Data from: The phylogeny and biogeography of Hakea (Proteaceae) reveals the role of biome shifts in a continental plant radiation

Marcel Cardillo, Peter H. Weston, Zoe K.M. Reynolds, Peter M. Olde, Austin R. Mast, Emily Lemmon, Alan Richard Lemmon, Lindell Bromham, Emily M. Lemmon & Zoe K. M. Reynolds
The frequency of evolutionary biome shifts during diversification has important implications for our ability to explain geographic patterns of plant diversity. Recent studies present several examples of biome shifts, but whether frequencies of biome shifts closely reflect geographic proximity or environmental similarity of biomes remains poorly known. We explore this question by using phylogenomic methods to estimate the phylogeny of Hakea, a diverse Australian genus occupying a wide range of biomes. Model-based estimation of ancestral...

Fast diversification through a mosaic of evolutionary histories characterizes the endemic flora of ancient Neotropical mountains

Thais Vasconcelos, Suzana Alcantara, Caroline Andrino, Félix Forest, Marcelo Reginato, Marcelo Simon & José Pirani
Mountains are among the most biodiverse areas on the globe. In young mountain ranges, exceptional plant species-richness is often associated to recent and rapid radiations linked to the mountain uplift itself. In ancient mountains, however, orogeny vastly precedes the evolution of vascular plants, so species-richness has been explained by species accumulation during long periods of low extinction rates. Here we evaluate these assumptions by analyzing plant diversification dynamicsin thecampo rupestre, an ecosystem associated to pre-Cambrian...

Data from: Evolutionary diversity in tropical tree communities peaks at intermediate precipitation

Danilo M. Neves, Kyle G. Dexter, Timothy R. Baker, Fernanda Coelho De Souza, Ary T. Oliveira-Filho, Luciano P. Queiroz, Haroldo C. Lima, Marcelo F. Simon, Gwilym P. Lewis, Ricardo A. Segovia, Luzmila Arroyo, Carlos Reynel, José L. Marcelo-Peña, Isau Huamantupa-Chuquimaco, Daniel Villarroel, G. Alexander Parada, Aniceto Daza, Reynaldo Linares-Palomino, Leandro V. Ferreira, Rafael P. Salomão, Geovane S. Siqueira, Marcelo T. Nascimento, Claudio N. Fraga & R. Toby Pennington
Global patterns of species and evolutionary diversity in plants are primarily determined by a temperature gradient, but precipitation gradients may be more important within the tropics, where plant species richness is positively associated with the amount of rainfall. The impact of precipitation on the distribution of evolutionary diversity, however, is largely unexplored. Here we detail how evolutionary diversity varies along precipitation gradients by bringing together a comprehensive database on the composition of angiosperm tree communities...

Thermal niche traits of high alpine plant species and communities across the tropical Andes and their vulnerability to global warming

Francisco Cuesta & Carolina Tovar
Aim The Climate Variability Hypothesis (CVH) predicts that locations with reduced seasonal temperature variation select for species with narrower thermal ranges. Here we (1) test the CVH by assessing the effect of latitude and elevation on the thermal ranges of Andean vascular plant species and communities, and (2) assess tropical alpine plants vulnerability to warming based on their thermal traits. Location Tropical Andes Taxon Vascular plants Methods Temperature data for 505 vascular plant species from...

WEGE: A new metric for ranking locations for biodiversity conservation

Harith Farooq, Josué Andersson, Francesco Belluardo, Cristóvão Nanvonamuquitxo, Dominic Bennett, Justin Moat, Amadeu Soares, Søren Faurby & Alexandre Antonelli
Aim Effective policy making for biological conservation requires the identification and ranking of the most important areas for protection or management. One of the most frequently used systems for selecting priority areas is Key Biodiversity Areas (hereafter KBAs), developed by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). However, KBAs cannot be used to rank areas, potentially limiting their use when limited funding is available. To tackle this shortcoming and facilitate spatial prioritization, here we...

Plant dispersal strategies of high tropical alpine communities across the Andes

Carolina Tovar, Inga Melcher, Buntarou Kusumoto, Francisco Cuesta, Antoine Cleef, Rosa Isela Meneses, Stephan Halloy, Luis Daniel Llambi, Stephan Beck, Priscilla Muriel, Ricardo Jaramillo, Jorge Jacome & Julieta Carilla
• Dispersal is a key ecological process that influences plant community assembly. Therefore, understanding whether dispersal strategies are associated with climate is of utmost importance, particularly in areas greatly exposed to climate change. We examined alpine plant communities located in the mountain summits of the tropical Andes across a 4000 km latitudinal gradient. We investigated species dispersal strategies and tested their association with climatic conditions and their evolutionary history. • We used dispersal-related traits (dispersal...

Orchid Research Newsletter no. 65

Alec Pridgeon

Pertusariales: Ochrolechiaceae, including the genera Lepra, Ochrolechia and Varicellaria.

Paul Cannon, M. Kukwa, B. Coppins, A. Fletcher, N. Sanderson & J. Simkin

Orchid Research Newsletter no. 68

Andre Schuiteman

Arovy ny Oviala sady hanigny no hariagna!

Mamy Tiana Rajaonah

Ireo karazana oviala hita amin’ny faritra avaratr’i Madagasikara (DIANA, SOFIA).

Mamy Tiana Rajaonah

Understanding the conservation gaps to threatened Alpine flora.

Blake Perkins

A taxonomic revision of the genus Hydnora (Hydnoroideae, Aristolochiaceae).

Sebastian Hatt

Orchid Research Newsletter no. 53

Alec Pridgeon

Data from: Next-Gen phylogeography of rainforest trees: measuring landscape-level cpDNA variation from whole-genome sequencing.

Marlien Van Der Merwe, Hannah McPherson, Maurizio Rossetto & Juelian Siow
Standardized phylogeographic studies across co-distributed taxa can identify important refugia and biogeographic barriers, and potentially uncover how changes in adaptive constraints through space and time impact on the distribution of genetic diversity. The combination of Next Generation Sequencing and methodologies that enable uncomplicated analysis of the full chloroplast genome may provide an invaluable resource for such studies. Here we assess the potential of a shotgun-based method across twelve non-model rainforest trees sampled from two evolutionary...

Data from: A universal probe set for targeted sequencing of 353 nuclear genes from any flowering plant designed using k-medoids clustering

Matthew G. Johnson, Lisa Pokorny, Steven Dodsworth, Laura R. Botigue, Robyn S. Cowan, Alison Devault, Wolf L. Eiserhardt, Niroshini Epitawalage, Félix Forest, Jan T. Kim, James Leebens-Mack, Ilia J. Leitch, Olivier Maurin, Doug Soltis, Pamela S. Soltis, Gane Ka-Shu Wong, William J. Baker & Norman Wickett
Sequencing of target-enriched libraries is an efficient and cost-effective method for obtaining DNA sequence data from hundreds of nuclear loci for phylogeny reconstruction. Much of the cost of developing targeted sequencing approaches is associated with the generation of preliminary data needed for the identification of orthologous loci for probe design. In plants, identifying orthologous loci has proven difficult due to a large number of whole-genome duplication events, especially in the angiosperms (flowering plants). We used...

Data from: Interglacial microrefugia and diversification of a cactus species complex: phylogeography and palaeodistributional reconstructions for Pilosocereus aurisetus and allies

Isabel A. S. Bonatelli, Manolo F. Perez, A. Townsend Peterson, Nigel P. Taylor, Daniela C. Zappi, Marlon C. Machado, Ingrid Koch, Adriana H. C. Pires & Evandro M. Moraes
The role of Pleistocene climate changes in promoting evolutionary diversification in global biota is well documented, but the great majority of data regarding this subject come from North America and Europe, which were greatly affected by glaciation. The effects of Pleistocene changes on cold- and/or dry-adapted species in tropical areas where glaciers were not present remain sparsely investigated. Many such species are restricted to small areas surrounded by unfavourable habitats, which may represent potential interglacial...

Data from: Palaeo-precipitation is a major determinant of palm species richness patterns across Madagascar: a tropical biodiversity hotspot

Mijoro Rakotoarinivo, Anne Blach-Overgaard, William J. Baker, John Dransfield, Justin Moat, Jens-Christian Svenning & J.-C. Svenning
The distribution of rainforest in many regions across the Earth was strongly affected by Pleistocene ice ages. However, the extent to which these dynamics are still important for modern-day biodiversity patterns within tropical biodiversity hotspots has not been assessed. We employ a comprehensive dataset of Madagascan palms (Arecaceae) and climate reconstructions from the last glacial maximum (LGM; 21 000 years ago) to assess the relative role of modern environment and LGM climate in explaining geographical...

Data from: Using targeted enrichment of nuclear genes to increase phylogenetic resolution in the neotropical rain forest genus Inga (Leguminosae: Mimosoideae)

James A. Nicholls, R. Toby Pennington, Erik J. Koenen, Colin E. Hughes, Jack Hearn, Lynsey Bunnefeld, Kyle G. Dexter, Graham N. Stone, Catherine A. Kidner & Erik J. M. Koenen
Evolutionary radiations are prominent and pervasive across many plant lineages in diverse geographical and ecological settings; in neotropical rainforests there is growing evidence suggesting that a significant fraction of species richness is the result of recent radiations. Understanding the evolutionary trajectories and mechanisms underlying these radiations demands much greater phylogenetic resolution than is currently available for these groups. The neotropical tree genus Inga (Leguminosae) is a good example, with ~300 extant species and a crown...

Data from: Flower preferences and pollen transport networks for cavity nesting solitary bees: implications for the design of agri-environment schemes

Catherine E.A. Gresty, Elizabeth Clare, Dion S. Devey, Robyn S. Cowan, Laszlo Csiba, Panagiota Malakasi, Owen T. Lewis, Katherine J. Willis & Catherine E. A. Gresty
Floral foraging resources are valuable for pollinator conservation on farmland, and their provision is encouraged by agri-environment schemes in many countries. Across Europe, wildflower seed mixtures are widely sown on farmland to encourage pollinators, but the extent to which key pollinator groups such as solitary bees exploit and benefit from these resources is unclear. We used high-throughput sequencing of 164 pollen samples extracted from the brood cells of 6 common cavity nesting solitary bee species...

Data from: Seed size and the evolution of leaf defences

Thomas S. Kraft, S. Joseph Wright, Ian Turner, Peter W. Lucas, Christopher E. Oufiero, , I-Fang Sun & Nathaniel J. Dominy
1. Leaf defences vary widely among tree species, affecting rates of herbivory, survival and reproduction. 2. Two contrasting hypotheses account for variation in leaf defences among species. The first predicts that a slow life history, which is characteristic of larger seeded species adapted to resource-limited environments, is associated with well-defended leaves. The second, apparency theory, predicts that elevated leaf defences are necessitated for species that are more detectable to herbivores. 3. Here we use comparative...

Data from: Stable epigenetic effects impact adaptation in allopolyploid orchids (Dactylorhiza: Orchidaceae)

Ovidiu Paun, Richard M. Bateman, Michael F. Fay, Mikael Hedrén, Laure Civeyrel & Mark W. Chase
Epigenetic information includes heritable signals that modulate gene expression but are not encoded in the primary nucleotide sequence. We have studied natural epigenetic variation in three allotetraploid sibling orchid species that differ radically in geography/ecology. The epigenetic variation released by genome doubling has been restructured in species-specific patterns that reflect their recent evolutionary history, and have an impact on their ecology and evolution, hundreds of generations after their formation. Epigenome scans pinpointed epiloci under divergent...

Data from: A comparative analysis of the mechanisms underlying speciation on Lord Howe Island

Alexander S. T. Papadopulos, Zuzana Price, Celine Devaux, Helen Hipperson, Carole M. Smadja, Ian Hutton, William J. Baker, Roger K. Butlin & Vincent Savolainen
On Lord Howe Island, speciation is thought to have taken place in situ in a diverse array of distantly related plant taxa (Metrosideros, Howea and Coprosma; Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 108, 2011, 13188). We now investigate whether the speciation processes were driven by divergent natural selection in each genus by examining the extent of ecological and genetic divergence. We present new and extensive, ecological and genetic data for all three genera. Consistent with ecologically...

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