180 Works

Data from: Disentangling visual and olfactory signals in mushroom-mimicking Dracula orchids using realistic three-dimensional printed flowers

Tobias Policha, Aleah Davis, Melinda Barnadas, Bryn T. M. Dentinger, Robert A. Raguso & Bitty A. Roy
Flowers use olfactory and visual signals to communicate with pollinators. Disentangling the relative contributions and potential synergies between signals remains a challenge. Understanding the perceptual biases exploited by floral mimicry illuminates the evolution of these signals. Here, we disentangle the olfactory and visual components of Dracula lafleurii, which mimics mushrooms in size, shape, color and scent, and is pollinated by mushroom-associated flies. To decouple signals, we used three-dimensional printing to produce realistic artificial flower molds...

Data from: Interactions between plant genome size, nutrients and herbivory by rabbits, molluscs and insects on a temperate grassland

Maïté S. Guignard, Michael J. Crawley, Dasha Kovalenko, Richard A. Nichols, Mark Trimmer, Andrew R. Leitch & Ilia J. Leitch
Angiosperm genome sizes (GS) vary c. 2,400-fold. Recent research has shown that GS influences plant abundance, and plant competition. There are also tantalising reports that herbivores may select plants as food dependent on their GS. To test the hypothesis that GS plays a role in shaping plant communities under herbivore pressure, we exploit a grassland experiment that has experimentally excluded herbivores and applied nutrient over 8 years. Using phylogenetically-informed statistical models and path analyses, we...

Data from: An allometry between seed kernel and seed coat shows greater investment in physical defense in small seeds

La-Mei Wu, Si-Chong Chen & Bo Wang
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Numerous studies have treated the mass of a whole seed as an integrated unit, although the two components, seed kernel and seed coat, play different roles and suffer from different evolutionary selection pressures. In this study, we provided the first global-scale quantification of the relative biomass investments in seed coats and seed kernels. We tested the following hypotheses: there is a negative allometry between seed kernel mass and seed coat mass,...

Data from: Cryptic lineage diversity, body size divergence and sympatry in a species complex of Australian lizards (Gehyra)

Craig C. Moritz, Renae C. Pratt, Sarah Bank, Gayleen Bourke, Jason G. Bragg, Paul Doughty, J. Scott Keogh, Rebecca J. Laver, Sally Potter, Luisa C. Teasdale, Leonardo G. Tedeschi & Paul M. Oliver
Understanding the joint evolutionary and ecological underpinnings of sympatry among close relatives remains a key challenge in biology. This problem can be addressed through joint phylogenomic and phenotypic analysis of complexes of closely related lineages within, and across, species and hence representing the speciation continuum. For a complex of tropical geckos from northern Australia – Gehyra nana and close relatives – we combine mtDNA phylogeography, exon-capture sequencing and morphological data to resolve independently evolving lineages...

Data from: Taxonomic notes on the genus Piper (Piperaceae)

Chalermpol Suwanphakdee, David A. Simpson, Trevor R. Hodkinson & Pranom Chantaranothai
Sixteen lectotypifications of Asian Piper species are provided. Piper argyrites, P. baccatum, P. leptostachyum, P. majusculum, P. peepuloides, P. quinqueangulatum and P. sulcatum are accepted as species and many new synonyms are proposed. Useful diagnostic characters are described and geographical distribution data of each species are provided.

Data from: Stable isotope signatures of underground seedlings reveal the organic matter gained by adult orchids from mycorrhizal fungi

Julienne Marie-Isabelle Schweiger, Martin I. Bidartondo, Gerhard Gebauer & Julienne M.-I. Schweiger
1.Orchids produce dust seeds dependent on the provision of organic carbon by mycorrhizal fungi for their early development stages. Hence, all chlorophyllous orchids experience a dramatic switch in trophic strategies from initial mycoheterotrophy to either autotrophy or partial mycoheterotrophy during ontogeny. Yet, the degree to which partially mycoheterotrophic orchids gain carbon from their mycorrhizal fungi is unclear based on existing approaches. 2.Here, we propose a novel approach to quantify the fungal-derived organic matter gain of...

Data from: Plant toxin levels in nectar vary spatially across native and introduced populations

Paul A. Egan, Phillip C. Stevenson, Erin Jo Tiedeken, Geraldine A. Wright, Fabio Boylan & Jane C. Stout
Secondary compounds in nectar can function as toxic chemical defences against floral antagonists, but may also mediate plant-pollinator interactions. Despite their ecological importance, few studies have investigated patterns of spatial variation in toxic nectar compounds in plant species, and none outside their native range. Grayanotoxin I (GTX I) occurs in nectar of invasive Rhododendron ponticum where it is toxic to honeybees and some solitary bee species. We examined (i) geographic variation in the composition of...

Data from: Matching symbiotic associations of an endangered orchid to habitat to improve conservation outcomes

Noushka Reiter, Ann C. Lawrie & Celeste C. Linde
Background and Aims: An understanding of mycorrhizal variation, orchid seed germination temperature and the effect of co-occurring plant species could be critical for optimising conservation translocation of endangered plants with specialised mycorrhizal associations. Methods: Focussing on the orchid Thelymitra epipactoides we isolated mycorrhizal fungi from ten plants within each of three sites; Shallow Sands Woodland (SSW), Damp Heathland (DH) and Coastal Heathland Scrub (CHS). Twenty-seven fungal isolates were tested for symbiotic germination under three temperature...

Data from: Reducing wildlife damage with cost-effective management programmes

Cheryl R. Krull, Margaret C. Stanley, Bruce R. Burns, David Choquenot & Thomas E. Etherington
Limiting the impact of wildlife damage in a cost effective manner requires an understanding of how control inputs change the occurrence of damage through their effect on animal density. Despite this, there are few studies linking wildlife management (control), with changes in animal abundance and prevailing levels of wildlife damage. We use the impact and management of wild pigs as a case study to demonstrate this linkage. Ground disturbance by wild pigs has become a...

Spatial, climate and ploidy factors drive genomic diversity and resilience in the widespread grass Themeda triandra

Collin Ahrens, Elizabeth A. James, Adam D. Miller, Ferguson Scott, Nicola C. Aitken, Ashley W. Jones, Patricia Lu‐Irving, Justin O. Borevitz, David J. Cantrill & Paul D. Rymer
This data set was used to assess the climate resilience of Themeda triandra, a foundational species and the most widespread plant in Australia, by assessing the relative contributions of spatial, environmental, and ploidy factors to contemporary genomic variation. Reduced-representation genome sequencing on 472 samples from 52 locations was used to test how the distribution of genomic variation, including ploidy polymorphism, supports adaptation to hotter and drier climates.

Data from: Genomics of the divergence continuum in an African plant biodiversity hotspot, I: drivers of population divergence in Restio capensis (Restionaceae)

Christian Lexer, Rafael O. Wüest, Sofia Mangili, Myriam Heuertz, Kai N. Stolting, Peter B. Pearman, Felix Forest, Nicolas Salamin, Niklaus E. Zimmermann & Eligio Bossolini
Understanding the drivers of population divergence, speciation and species persistence is of great interest to molecular ecology, especially for species-rich radiations inhabiting the world’s biodiversity hotspots. The toolbox of population genomics holds great promise for addressing these key issues, especially if genomic data are analyzed within a spatially and ecologically explicit context. We have studied the earliest stages of the divergence continuum in the Restionaceae, a species-rich and ecologically important plant family of the Cape...

Data from: Phylogeny and classification of the East Asian Amitostigma alliance (Orchidaceae: Orchideae) based on six DNA markers

Ying Tang, Tomohisa Yukawa, Richard M. Bateman, Hong Jiang & Hua Peng
Background: Tribe Orchideae dominates the orchid flora of the temperate Northern Hemisphere but its representatives in East Asia had been subject to less intensive phylogenetic study than those in Eurasia and North America. Although this situation was improved recently by the molecular phylogenetic study of Jin et al., comparatively few species were analyzed from the species-rich and taxonomically controversial East Asian Amitostigma alliance. Here, we present a framework nrITS tree of 235 accessions of Orchideae...

Data from: Early consequences of allopolyploidy alter floral evolution in Nicotiana (Solanaceae)

Elizabeth W. McCarthy, Jacob B. Landis, Amelda Kurti, Amber J. Lawhorn, Mark W. Chase, Sandra Knapp, Steven C. Le Comber, Andrew R. Leitch & Amy Litt
Background: Polyploidy has played a major role in angiosperm evolution. Previous studies have examined polyploid phenotypes in comparison to their extant progenitors, but not in context of predicted progenitor phenotypes at allopolyploid origin. In addition, differences in the trends of polyploid versus diploid evolution have not been investigated. We use ancestral character-state reconstructions to estimate progenitor phenotype at allopolyploid origin to determine patterns of polyploid evolution leading to morphology of the extant species. We also...

Data from: Plant host and soil origin influence fungal and bacterial assemblages in the roots of woody plants

Gregory Bonito, Hannah Reynolds, Brendan P. Hodkinson, Jessica Nelson, Gerald Tuskan, , Christopher W. Schadt, Rytas Vilgalys & Michael S. Robeson
Microbial communities in plant roots provide critical links between above and belowground processes in terrestrial ecosystems. Variation in root communities has been attributed to plant host effects and microbial host preferences, as well as to factors pertaining to soil conditions, microbial biogeography and the presence of viable microbial propagules. To address hypotheses regarding the influence of plant host and soil biogeography on root fungal and bacterial communities we designed a trap-plant bioassay experiment. Replicate Populus,...

Data from: PalmTraits 1.0, a species-level functional trait database for palms worldwide

W. Daniel Kissling, Henrik Balslev, William J. Baker, John Dransfield, Bastian Göldel, Jun Ying Lim, Renske E. Onstein & Jens-Christian Svenning
Plant traits are critical to plant form and function —including growth, survival and reproduction— and therefore shape fundamental aspects of population and ecosystem dynamics as well as ecosystem services. Here, we present a global species-level compilation of key functional traits for palms (Arecaceae), a plant family with keystone importance in tropical and subtropical ecosystems. We derived measurements of essential functional traits for all (>2500) palm species from key sources such as monographs, books, other scientific...

Data from: Evolutionary prediction of medicinal properties in the genus Euphorbia L.

Madeleine Ernst, C. Haris Saslis-Lagoudakis, Olwen M. Grace, Niclas Nilsson, Henrik Toft Simonsen, James W. Horn & Nina Rønsted
The current decrease of new drugs brought to the market has fostered renewed interest in plant-based drug discovery. Given the alarming rate of biodiversity loss, systematic methodologies in finding new plant-derived drugs are urgently needed. Medicinal uses of plants were proposed as proxy for bioactivity, and phylogenetic patterns in medicinal plant uses have suggested that phylogeny can be used as predictive tool. However, the common practice of grouping medicinal plant uses into standardised categories may...

Data from: Phylogenomic analysis of transcriptome data elucidates co-occurrence of a paleopolyploid event and the origin of bimodal karyotypes in Agavoideae (Asparagaceae)

Michael R. McKain, Norman Wickett, Yeting Zhang, Saravanaraj Ayyampalayam, W. Richard McCombie, Mark W. Chase, J. Chris Pires, Claude W. DePamphilis, Jim Leebens-Mack & Claude W. De Pamphilis
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: The stability of the bimodal karyotype found in Agave and closely related species has long interested botanists. The origin of the bimodal karyotype has been attributed to allopolyploidy, but this hypothesis has not been tested. Next Generation transcriptome sequence data were used to test whether a paleopolyploid event occurred on the same branch of the Agavoideae phylogenetic tree as the origin of the Yucca-Agave bimodal karyotype. METHODS: Illumina RNAseq data were...

A comprehensive phylogenomic platform for exploring the angiosperm tree of life

William Baker, Paul Bailey, Vanessa Barber, Abigail Barker, Sidonie Bellot, David Bishop, Laura Botigue, Grace Brewer, Tom Carruthers, James Clarkson, Jeffrey Cook, Robyn Cowan, Steven Dodsworth, Niroshini Epitawalage, Elaine Françoso, Berta Gallego, Matthew Johnson, Jan Kim, Kevin Leempoel, Olivier Maurin, Catherine McGinnie, Lisa Pokorny, Shyamali Roy, Malcolm Stone, Eduardo Toledo … & Félix Forest
The tree of life is the fundamental biological roadmap for navigating the evolution and properties of life on Earth, and yet remains largely unknown. Even angiosperms (flowering plants) are fraught with data gaps, despite their critical role in sustaining terrestrial life. Today, high-throughput sequencing promises to significantly deepen our understanding of evolutionary relationships. Here, we describe a comprehensive phylogenomic platform for exploring the angiosperm tree of life, comprising a set of open tools and data...

Mapping Africa’s biodiversity: more of the same is just not good enough

Harith Farooq, Josué Azevedo, Amadeu Soares, Alexandre Antonelli & Søren Faurby
Species distribution data are fundamental to the understanding of biodiversity patterns and processes. Yet, such data are strongly affected by sampling biases, mostly related to site accessibility. The understanding of these biases is therefore crucial in systematics, biogeography and conservation. Here we present a novel approach for quantifying sampling effort and its impact on biodiversity knowledge, focusing on Africa. In contrast to previous studies assessing sampling completeness (percentage of species recorded in relation to predicted),...

What drives diversification in a pantropical plant lineage with extraordinary capacity for long-distance dispersal and colonisation?

Isabel Larridon, Javier Galán Díaz, Kenneth Bauters & Marcial Escudero
Aim: Colonisation of new areas may entail shifts in diversification rates linked to biogeographic movement (dispersification), which may involve niche evolution if species were not pre-adapted to the new environments. Scleria (Cyperaceae) includes c. 250 species and has a pantropical distribution suggesting an extraordinary capacity for long-distance dispersal and colonisation. We investigate patterns of diversification in Scleria, and whether they are coupled with colonisation events, climate niche shifts or both. Location: Tropics and subtropics. Taxon:...

Orchid Research Newsletter no. 75

Andre Schuiteman

Orchid Research Newsletter no. 71

Andre Schuiteman

Guía práctica para potencializar el uso sostenible de los ingredientes naturales en Colombia.

Mabel Tatiana Rojas, Carlos Cortés, Mariana Noguera, Paola Acosta & Mauricio Diazgranados

Diversity and evolutionin Urochloa grasses for the application in sustainable tropical forage systems.

Lizo Masters

Patterns and drivers of crop diversity in the highlands of southwest Ethiopia.

Chris Rampersad

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