308 Works

Social status, forest disturbance, and Barred Owls shape long-term trends in breeding dispersal distance of Northern Spotted Owls

Julianna Jenkins, Damon Lesmeister, Eric Forsman, Katie Dugger, Steven Ackers, L. Steven Andrews, Chris McCafferty, M. Shane Pruett, Janice Reid, Stan Sovern, Rob Horn, Scott Gremel, J. David Wiens & Zhiqiang Yang
Dispersal among breeding sites in territorial animals (i.e. breeding dispersal) is driven by numerous selection pressures, including competition and spatiotemporal variation in habitat quality. The scale and trend of dispersal movements over time may signal changing conditions within the population or on the landscape. We examined 2,158 breeding dispersal events from 694 male and 608 female individually-marked Northern Spotted Owls (Strix occidentalis caurina) monitored over 28 years on seven study areas to assess the relative...

An animal without a mitochondrial genome: the salmon parasite Henneguya salminicola (Cnidaria: Myxozoa)

Dorothée Huchon, Dayana Yahalomi, Stephen D. Atkinson, Moran Neuhof, E. Sally Chang, Hervé Philippe, Paulyn Cartwright & Jerri L. Bartholomew
Although aerobic respiration is a hallmark of eukaryotes, a few unicellular lineages, growing in hypoxic environments, have secondarily lost this ability. In the absence of oxygen, the mitochondria of these organisms have lost all or parts of their genomes and evolved into mitochondria related organelles (MROs). There has been debate regarding the presence of MROs in animals. Using deep sequencing approaches, we discovered that a member of the Cnidaria, the myxozoan Henneguya salminicola, has no...

Data for Analysis of Keystone Predation - trait based or driven by extrinsic processes?

Bruce Menge, Melissa Foley, Matthew Robart, Erin Richmond, Mae Noble & Francis Chan
Keystone predation can be a determinant of community structure, including species diversity, but factors underlying “keystoneness” have been minimally explored. Using the system in which the original keystone, the sea star Pisaster ochraceus, was discovered, we focused on two potential (but overlapping) determinants of keystoneness: intrinsic traits or state variables of the species (e.g., size, density), and extrinsic environmental parameters (e.g., prey productivity) that may provide conditions favorable for keystone predator evolution. Using a comparative-experimental...

Data from: Climate drives the geography of marine consumption by changing predator communities

Matthew Whalen, Ross Whippo & Emmett Duffy
The global distribution of primary production and consumption by humans (fisheries) is well-documented, but we have no map linking the central ecological process of consumption within food webs to temperature and other ecological drivers. Using standardized assays that span 105° of latitude on four continents, we show that rates of bait consumption by generalist predators in shallow marine ecosystems are tightly linked to both temperature and the composition of consumer assemblages. Unexpectedly, rates of consumption...

Data from: Biogeography of ocean acidification: differential field performance of transplanted mussels to upwelling-driven variation in carbonate chemistry

Bruce Menge, Francis Chan, Jeremy Rose, Eric Sanford, Peter Raimondi, Carol Blanchette & Tarik Gouhier
Ocean acidification (OA) represents a serious challenge to marine ecosystems. Laboratory studies addressing OA indicate broadly negative effects for marine organisms, particularly those relying on calcification processes. Growing evidence also suggests OA combined with other environmental stressors may be even more deleterious. Scaling these laboratory studies to ecological performance in the field, where environmental heterogeneity may mediate responses, is a critical next step toward understanding OA impacts on natural communities. We leveraged an upwelling-driven pH...

Data from: Big fishery, big data, and little crabs: using genomic methods to examine the seasonal recruitment patterns of early life stage Dungeness crab (Cancer magister) in the California current ecosystem

Elizabeth Lee
The California Current Ecosystem (CCE) is a dynamic marine ecosystem from which many socioeconomically important fisheries species are harvested. Here, a genotypingby-sequencing (GBS) approach was used to examine genomic variation in an early life stage (megalopae) of the Dungeness crab (Cancer magister), which constitutes the most valuable single-species commercial fishery in the CCE. Variation in abundance and timing of megalopae recruitment has been extensively studied for over two decades in Coos Bay, Oregon, United States....

Data from: Increased diversity and concordant shifts in community structure of coral-associated Symbiodiniaceae and bacteria subjected to chronic human disturbance

Danielle Claar, Jamie McDevitt-Irwin, Melissa Garren, Rebecca Vega Thurber, Ruth Gates & Julia Baum
Coral-associated bacteria and endosymbiotic algae (Symbiodiniaceae spp.) are both vitally important for the biological function of corals. Yet little is known about their co-occurrence within corals, how their diversity varies across coral species, or how they are impacted by anthropogenic disturbances. Here, we sampled coral colonies (n = 472) from seven species, encompassing a range of life history traits, across a gradient of chronic human disturbance (n = 11 sites on Kiritimati (Christmas) atoll) in...

Data from: Gene expression associated with white syndromes in a reef building coral, Acropora hyacinthus

Rachel M. Wright, Galina V. Aglyamova, Eli Meyer & Mikhail V. Matz
Background: Corals are capable of launching diverse immune defenses at the site of direct contact with pathogens, but the molecular mechanisms of this activity and the colony-wide effects of such stressors remain poorly understood. Here we compared gene expression profiles in eight healthy Acropora hyacinthus colonies against eight colonies exhibiting tissue loss commonly associated with white syndromes, all collected from a natural reef environment near Palau. Two types of tissues were sampled from diseased corals:...

Data from: Molecular phylogenetics and microsatellite analysis reveals cryptic species of speckled dace (Cyprinidae: Rhinichthys osculus) in Oregon’s Great Basin

Kendra Hoekzema & Brian L. Sidlauskas
Speckled dace (Rhinichthys osculus) is a small cyprinid that occurs throughout western North America and is the most commonly occurring fish in Oregon. Because of the high genetic and morphological variation in this species across its range, it has been referred to as a species complex; however, no revision to its taxonomy has occurred since 1984. Here, the phylogenetics and population genetics of speckled dace are examined throughout Oregon’s Great Basin to describe genetic variation...

Data from: Trophic omnivory across a productivity gradient: intraguild predation theory and the structure and strength of species interactions

Mark Novak
Intraguild predation theory centres on two predictions: (i) for an omnivore and an intermediate predator (IG-prey) to coexist on shared resources, the IG-prey must be the superior resource competitor, and (ii) increasing resource productivity causes the IG-prey's equilibrium abundance to decline. I tested these predictions with a series of species-rich food webs along New Zealand's rocky shores, focusing on two predatory whelks, Haustrum haustorium, a trophic omnivore, and Haustrum scobina, the IG-prey. In contrast to...

Data from: Dispersal ability and habitat requirements determine landscape-level genetic patterns in desert aquatic insects

Ivan C. Phillipsen, Emily H. Kirk, Michael T. Bogan, Meryl C. Mims, Julian D. Olden & David A. Lytle
Species occupying the same geographic range can exhibit remarkably different population structures across the landscape, ranging from highly diversified to panmictic. Given limitations on collecting population-level data for large numbers of species, ecologists seek to identify proximate organismal traits—such as dispersal ability, habitat preference and life history—that are strong predictors of realized population structure. We examined how dispersal ability and habitat structure affect the regional balance of gene flow and genetic drift within three aquatic...

Data from: Can observation skills of citizen scientists be estimated using species accumulation curves?

Steve Kelling, Alison Johnston, Wesley M. Hochachka, Marshall Iliff, Daniel Fink, Jeff Gerbracht, Carl Lagoze, Frank A. La Sorte, Travis Moore, Andrea Wiggins, Weng-Keen Wong, Chris Wood & Jun Yu
Volunteers are increasingly being recruited into citizen science projects to collect observations for scientific studies. An additional goal of these projects is to engage and educate these volunteers. Thus, there are few barriers to participation resulting in volunteer observers with varying ability to complete the project’s tasks. To improve the quality of a citizen science project’s outcomes it would be useful to account for inter-observer variation, and to assess the rarely tested presumption that participating...

Data from: Sexual conflict over mating in red-sided garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis) as indicated by experimental manipulation of genitalia

Christopher R. Friesen, Emily J. Uhrig, Mattie K. Squire, Robert T. Mason & Patricia L. R. Brennan
Sexual conflict over mating can result in sex specific morphologies and behaviors that allow each sex to exert control over the outcome of reproduction. Genital traits, in particular, are often directly involved in conflict interactions. Via genital manipulation, we experimentally investigated whether genital traits in red-sided garter snakes influence copulation duration and formation of a copulatory plug. The hemipenes of male red-sided garter snakes have a large basal spine that inserts into the female cloaca...

Data from: Effects of pesticide mixtures on host-pathogen dynamics of the amphibian chytrid fungus

Julia C. Buck, Jessica Hua, , Trang D. Dang, Jenny Urbina, Randall J. Bendis, Aaron B. Stoler, Andrew R. Blaustein, Rick A. Relyea & William R. Brogan
Anthropogenic and natural stressors often interact to affect organisms. Amphibian populations are undergoing unprecedented declines and extinctions with pesticides and emerging infectious diseases implicated as causal factors. Although these factors often co-occur, their effects on amphibians are usually examined in isolation. We hypothesized that exposure of larval and metamorphic amphibians to ecologically relevant concentrations of pesticide mixtures would increase their post-metamorphic susceptibility to the fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), a pathogen that has contributed to amphibian...

Data from: Past tree influence and prescribed fire mediate biotic interactions and community reassembly in a grassland-restoration experiment

Charles B. Halpern, Joseph A. Antos, Donald McKenzie & Annette M. Olson
Woody plant encroachment of grasslands is occurring globally, with profound ecological consequences. Attempts to restore herbaceous dominance may fail if the woody state is resilient or if intervention leads to an alternate, undesirable state. Restoration outcomes often hinge on biotic interactions – particularly on priority effects that inhibit or promote community reassembly. Following experimental tree removal from conifer-invaded grasslands, we documented substantial variation in community reassembly associated with the changing abundance of the native clonal...

Data from: Tropical forest fragmentation limits movements, but not occurrence of a generalist pollinator species

Noelia L. Volpe, W. Douglas Robinson, Sarah J. K. Frey, Adam S. Hadley & Matthew G. Betts
Habitat loss and fragmentation influence species distributions and therefore ecological processes that depend upon them. Pollination may be particularly susceptible to fragmentation, as it depends on frequent pollinator movement. Unfortunately, most pollinators are too small to track efficiently which has precluded testing the hypothesis that habitat fragmentation reduces or eliminates pollen flow by disrupting pollinator movement. We used radio-telemetry to examine space use of the green hermit hummingbird (Phaethornis guy), an important 'hub' pollinator of...

Data from: Sequencing historical specimens: successful preparation of small specimens with low amounts of degraded DNA

John S. Sproul & David R. Maddison
Despite advances that allow DNA sequencing of old museum specimens, sequencing small-bodied, historical specimens can be challenging and unreliable as many contain only small amounts of fragmented DNA. Dependable methods to sequence such specimens are especially critical if the specimens are unique. We attempt to sequence small-bodied (3–6 mm) historical specimens (including nomenclatural types) of beetles that have been housed, dried, in museums for 58–159 years, and for which few or no suitable replacement specimens...

Data from: First circumglobal assessment of Southern Hemisphere humpback whale mitochondrial genetic variation and implications for management

Howard C. Rosenbaum, Francine Kershaw, Martin Mendez, Cristina Pomilla, Matthew S. Leslie, Ken P. Findlay, Peter B. Best, Timothy Collins, Michel Vely, Marcia H. Engel, Robert Baldwin, Gianna Minton, Michael Meyer, Lillian Florez-Gonzalez, M. Michael Poole, Nan Hauser, Claire Garrigue, Muriel Brasseur, John Bannister, Megan Anderson, Carlos Olavarria & C. Scott Baker
The description of genetic population structure over a species’ geographic range can provide insights into its evolutionary history and also support effective management efforts. Assessments for globally distributed species are rare, however, requiring significant international coordination and collaboration. The global distribution of demographically discrete populations for the humpback whale Megaptera novaeangliae is not fully known, hampering the definition of appropriate management units. Here, we present the first circumglobal assessment of mitochondrial genetic population structure across...

Data from: Differential host responses to parasitism shape divergent fitness costs of infection

Sarah A. Budischak, Dawn O'Neal, Anna E. Jolles & Vanessa O. Ezenwa
Fitness costs of infection are fundamental to understanding the ecology and evolution of host-parasite interactions. However, these costs, and particularly their underlying mechanisms, are challenging to evaluate in wild populations. Here, we quantified total and species-specific costs of gastrointestinal worms on African buffalo, by combining the power of an anthelmintic treatment experiment that perturbed the entire worm community with a longitudinal study that tracked the two most dominant community members. Reducing all worms improved buffalo...

Data from: Confirmation of independent introductions of an exotic plant pathogen of Cornus species, Discula destructiva, on the east and west coasts of North America

Kristie Mantooth, Denita Hadziabdic, Sarah Boggess, Mark Windham, Stephen Miller, Cai Guohong, Joseph Spatafora, Ning Zhang, Meg Staton, Bonnie Ownley, Robert Trigiano & Guohong Cai
Cornus florida (flowering dogwood) and C. nuttallii (Pacific dogwood) are North American native tree species that belong to the big-bracted group of dogwoods. Cornus species are highly valued for their ornamental characteristics, and have fruits that contain high fat content for animals. Also, they are an important understory tree in natural forests. Dogwood anthracnose, caused by Discula destructiva, was observed in the late 1970s on the east and west coasts of the United States and...

Data from: Using simulations to evaluate Mantel-based methods for assessing landscape resistance to gene flow

Katherine A. Zeller, Tyler G. Creech, Katie L. Millette, Rachel S. Crowhurst, Robert A. Long, Helene H. Wagner, Niko Balkenhol & Erin L. Landguth
Mantel-based tests have been the primary analytical methods for understanding how landscape features influence observed spatial genetic structure. Simulation studies examining Mantel-based approaches have highlighted major challenges associated with the use of such tests and fueled debate on when the Mantel test is appropriate for landscape genetics studies. We aim to provide some clarity in this debate using spatially explicit, individual-based, genetic simulations to examine the effects of the following on the performance of Mantel-based...

Data from: Distinguishing distribution dynamics from temporary emigration using dynamic occupancy models

Jonathon J. Valente, Rebecca A. Hutchinson & Matthew G. Betts
1. Dynamic occupancy models are popular for estimating dynamic distribution rates (colonization and extinction) from repeated presence/absence surveys of unmarked animals. This approach assumes closure among repeated samples within primary periods, allowing estimation of dynamic rates between these periods. However, the impact of temporary emigration (reversible changes in sampling availability) on dynamic rate estimates, has not been tested. 2. Using simulated data, we investigated the degree to which temporary emigration could mislead researchers interested in...

Data from: Intraspecific haplotype diversity in Cherleria sedoides L. (Caryophyllaceae) is best explained by chloroplast capture from an extinct species

Abigail J. Moore, Francisco J. Valtueña, Markus S. Dillenberger, Joachim W. Kadereit & Chris D. Preston
Cherleria sedoides, a plant species widespread in alpine areas of the major European mountain ranges and in Scotland, contains two highly divergent chloroplast haplotype groups, one widespread (WH) and one present only in some populations in the Alps (AH). We investigated whether this haplotype diversity is the result of (1) intraspecific differentiation, (2) retention of an ancestral polymorphism or (3) hybridisation. For this purpose, 106 matK sequences from throughout the Caryophyllaceae and 80 trnQ-rps16 and...

Data from: Dynamic occupancy modeling reveals a hierarchy of competition among fishers, grey foxes, and ringtails

David S. Green, Sean M. Matthews, Robert C. Swiers, Richard L. Callas, J. Scott Yaeger, Stuart L. Farber, Michael K. Schwartz & Roger A. Powell
1. Determining how species coexist is critical for understanding functional diversity, niche partitioning and interspecific interactions. Identifying the direct and indirect interactions among sympatric carnivores that enable their coexistence are particularly important to elucidate because they are integral for maintaining ecosystem function. 2. We studied the effects of removing 9 fishers (Pekania pennanti) on their population dynamics and used this perturbation to elucidate the interspecific interactions among fishers, grey foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus), and ringtails (Bassariscus...

Data from: Phylogenetic patterns of trait and trait plasticity evolution: Insights from amphibian embryos

Rick Relyea, Patrick R. Stephens, Lisa N. Barrow, Andrew Blaustein, Paul Bradley, Julia Buck, Ann Chang, Brian I Crother, James Collins, Julia Earl, Stephanie S. Gervasi, Jason T. Hoverman, Olliver Hyman, Emily Claire Moriarty Lemmon, Thomas Luhring, Moses Michelsohn, Christopher M. Murray, Steven Price, Raymond Semlitsch, Andy Sih, Aaron Stoler, Nick VandenBroek, Alexa Warwick, Greta Wengert, John Hammond … & Aaron B. Stoler
Environmental variation favors the evolution of phenotypic plasticity. For many species, we understand the costs and benefits of different phenotypes, but we lack a broad understanding of how plastic traits evolve across large clades. Using identical experiments conducted across North America, we examined prey responses to predator cues. We quantified five life history traits and the magnitude of their plasticity for 23 amphibian species/populations (spanning three families and five genera) when exposed to no cues,...

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