28 Works

Gene-drive suppression of mosquito populations in large cages as a bridge between lab and field

Andrew Hammond, Paola Pollegioni, Tania Persampieri, Ace North, Roxana Minuz, Alessandro Trusso, Alessandro Bucci, Kyros Kyrou, Ioanna Morianou, Alekos Simoni, Tony Nolan, Ruth Müller & Andrea Crisanti
CRISPR-based gene-drives targeting the gene doublesex in the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae effectively suppressed the reproductive capability of mosquito populations reared in small laboratory cages. To bridge the gap between laboratory and the field, this gene-drive technology must be challenged with vector ecology. Here we report the suppressive activity of the gene-drive in age-structured An. gambiae populations in large indoor cages that permit complex feeding and reproductive behaviours. The gene-drive element spreads rapidly through the...

Data from: Achieving a step change in the tuberculosis epidemic through comprehensive community-wide intervention: A model-based analysis

Sourya Shrestha, Emily Kendall, Rebekah Chang, Roy Joseph, Parastu Kasaie, Laura Gillini, Anthony Todd Fojo, Michael Campbell, Nimalan Arinaminpathy & David Dowdy
Background: Global progress towards reducing tuberculosis (TB) incidence and mortality has consistently lagged behind World Health Organization targets leading to a perception that large reductions in TB burden cannot be achieved. However, several recent and historical trials suggest that intervention efforts that are comprehensive and focused can have substantial epidemiological impact. We aimed to quantify the potential epidemiological impact of an intensive but realistic, community-wide campaign utilizing existing tools, and designed to achieve a “step...

Projected climate risk of aquatic food system benefits

Michelle Tigchelaar, William Cheung, Essam Mohammed, Michael Phillips, Hanna Payne, Elizabeth Selig, Colette Wabnitz, Muhammed Oyinlola, Thomas Frölicher, Jessica Gephart, Christopher Golden, Edward Allison, Abigail Bennett, Ling Cao, Jessica Fanzo, Benjamin Halpern, Fiorenza Micheli, Rosamond Naylor, Rashid Sumaila, Alessandro Tagliabue & Max Troell
Aquatic foods from marine and freshwater systems are critical to the nutrition, health, livelihoods, economies and culture of billions of people worldwide – but climate-related hazards may compromise their ability to provide these benefits. This analysis estimates national-level aquatic food system climate risk using a fuzzy logic modeling approach that connects climate hazards impacting marine and freshwater capture fisheries and aquaculture to their contributions to sustainable food system outcomes, and vulnerability to losing those contributions....

Emergent Gestural Scores in a Recurrent Neural Network Model of Vowel Harmony

Caitlin Smith, Charlie O'Hara, Eric Rosen & Paul Smolensky

Human-Model Divergence in the Handling of Vagueness

Elias Stengel-Eskin, Jimena Guallar-Blasco & Benjamin Van Durme

Improved household living standards can restore dry tropical forests

Ruth DeFries, Meghna Agarwala, Sandra Baquie, Pooja Choksi, Sarika Khanwilkar, Pinki Mondal, Harini Nagendra & Johannes Uperlainen.
Despite multiple approaches over the last several decades to harmonize conservation and development goals in the tropics, forest-depende­­­­­­nt households remain the poorest in the world. Durable housing and alternatives to fuelwood for cooking are critical needs to reduce multi-dimensional poverty. These improvements also potentially reduce pressure on forests and alleviate forest degradation. We test this possibility in dry tropical forests of the Central Indian Highlands where tribal and other marginalized populations rely on forests for...

Bone structural data for the Denver Longitudinal Growth Study

Christopher Ruff
Long bone structural dimensions have been shown to be responsive to mechanical loadings during life. Thus, they can be used to track behavioral changes as well as changes in body size during ontogeny. Radiographic measurements of long bone structural properties (lengths, cross-sectional geometric properties, articular breadths) were carried out for a sample of 20 children who had participated in the Denver Growth Study. An average of 36 longitudinal time points for each individual, taken at...

Inflectional paradigms as interacting systems

Eric R. Rosen

Left ventricular MRI segmentations

Ryan O'Hara
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) causes sudden cardiac death (SCD) due to ventricular arrhythmias (VA) manifesting from myocardial fibrosis proliferation. Current clinical risk stratification criteria inadequately identify at-risk patients in need of primary prevention of VA. Here, we use mechanistic computational modeling of the heart to analyze how HCM-specific remodeling of the heart promotes arrhythmogenesis and to develop a personalized strategy to forecast risk of VAs in these patients. We combine contrast-enhanced cardiac magnetic-resonance (CMR) imaging and...

Quantitative assessment of agricultural sustainability reveals divergent priorities among nations

Guolin Yao, Xin Zhang, Srishti Vishwakarma, Carole Dalin, Adam Komarek, David Kanter, Kyle Davis, Kimberly Pfeifer, Jing Zhao, Tan Zou, Paolo D'Odorico, Christian Folberth, Fernando Galeana Rodriguez, Jessica Fanzo, Lorenzo Rosa, William Dennison, Mark Musumba, Amy Heyman & Eric Davidson
Agriculture is fundamental to all three pillars of sustainability, environment, society, and economy. However, the definition of sustainable agriculture and capacities to measure it remain elusive. Independent and transparent measurements of national sustainability are needed to gauge progress, encourage accountability, and inform policy. Here, we developed a Sustainable Agriculture Matrix (SAM) to quantify national performance indicators in agriculture and to investigate the tradeoffs and synergies based on historical data for most countries of the world....

2-back task in split-belt adaptation

Cristina Rossi, Ryan Roemmich, Nicolas Schweighofer, Amy Bastian & Kristan Leech
We studied split-belt treadmill adaptation and savings in young (21±2 y/o) and older (56±6 y/o) adults with or without a secondary 2-back task during adaptation. We here provide here kinematic data for split-belt treadmill walking - specifically, step length asymmetry, double support asymmetry, and limb excursion asymmetry measure. We provide raw response data (button presses and reaction time) for performance in the 2-back cognitive task. We also provide scripts that can be used to analyse...

The human origin recognition complex (ORC) is essential for pre-RC assembly, mitosis and maintenance of nuclear structure

Hsiang-Chen Chou, Kuhulika Bhalla, Osama-El Demerdesh, Olaf Klingbeil, Kaarina Hanington, Sergey Aganezov, Peter Andrews, Habeeb Alsudani, Kenneth Chang, Christopher R. Vakoc, Michael C. Schatz, Richard W. McCombie & Bruce Stillman
The origin recognition complex (ORC) cooperates with CDC6, MCM2-7, and CDT1 to form pre-RC complexes at origins of DNA replication. Here, using tiling-sgRNA CRISPR screens, we report that each subunit of ORC and CDC6 is essential in human cells. Using an auxin-inducible degradation system, we created stable cell lines capable of ablating ORC2 rapidly, revealing multiple cell division cycle phenotypes. The primary defects in the absence of ORC2 were cells encountering difficulty in initiating DNA...

Robust and distributed neural representation of action values

Eunju Shin, YunSil Jang, Soyoun Kim, Hoseok Kim, Xinying Cai, Hyunjung Lee, Jung Hoon Sul, Sung-Hyun Lee, Yeonseung Chung, Daeyeol Lee & Min Whan Jung
Studies in rats, monkeys, and humans have found action-value signals in multiple regions of the brain. These findings suggest that action-value signals encoded in these brain structures bias choices toward higher expected rewards. However, previous estimates of action-value signals might have been inflated by serial correlations in neural activity and also by activity related to other decision variables. Here, we applied several statistical tests based on permutation and surrogate data to analyze neural activity recorded...

PTH Direct Target at Netrin-1/DCC for Low Back Pain

Richard Skolasky
Low back pain (LBP) is one of the most prevalent diseases leading to a decline in mobility and frailty – an extremely common health problem affecting roughly 80% of people during their life course. As there is no effective drug to treat LBP, LBP symptoms tend to recur after discontinuing these pain medications. Opioids are often prescribed next, and overprescribing of opioids reflects, in part, limited treatment options for patients with chronic pain. In this...

Lexical strata and phonotactic perplexity minimization

Eric R. Rosen

Deep neural networks easily learn unnatural infixation and reduplication patterns

Coleman Haley & Colin Wilson

Serotonin neurons modulate learning rate through uncertainty

Jeremiah Cohen, Cooper Grossman & Bilal Bari
Regulating how fast to learn is critical for flexible behavior. Learning about the consequences of actions should be slow in stable environments, but accelerate when that environment changes. Recognizing stability and detecting change is difficult in environments with noisy relationships between actions and outcomes. Under these conditions, theories propose that uncertainty can be used to modulate learning rates ("meta-learning"). We show that mice behaving in a dynamic foraging task exhibit choice behavior that varied as...

Multiple cropping alone does not improve year-round food security among smallholders in rural India

Pinki Mondal, Ruth DeFries, Jessica Clark, Nicole Flowerhill, , Aurélie Harou, Shauna Downs & Jessica Fanzo
Achieving and maintaining food and nutrition security is an important Sustainable Development Goal (SDG), especially in countries with largely vulnerable population with high occurrence of hunger and malnutrition. By studying a small-scale agricultural system in India, we aim to understand the current state of dietary diversity and food insecurity among the farmer communities. The study landscape has witnessed a steady rise in multiple cropping along with irrigation over the last two decades. Whether this multiple...

Adaptation without specialization early in a host shift: fecundity data

Rafael Rodriguez, Thomas Wood, Frank Stearns, Robert Snyder, Kelley Tilmon, Michael Cast, Randy Hunt & Reginald Cocroft
Students of speciation debate the role of performance trade-offs across different environments early in speciation. We tested for early performance trade-offs with a host shift experiment using a member of the Enchenopa binotata species complex of treehoppers (Hemiptera: Membracidae). In this clade of plant-feeding insects, different species live on different host plants and exhibit strong behavioral and physiological host specialization. After five generations, the experimental host shifts resulted either in no adaptation or in adaptation...

Structure Here, Bias There: Hierarchical Generalization by Jointly Learning Syntactic Transformations

Karl Mulligan, Robert Frank & Tal Linzen

Learning the surface structure of wh-questions in English and French with a non-parametric Bayesian model

An Nguyen & Colin Wilson

Learnability of derivationally opaque processes in the Gestural Harmony Model

Caitlin Smith & Charlie O'Hara

Testing for Grammatical Category Abstraction in Neural Language Models

Najoung Kim & Paul Smolensky

Do tradeoffs govern plant species responses to different global change treatments?

J. Adam Langley, Emily Grman, Kevin Wilcox, Meghan Avolio, Kimberly Komatsu, Scott Collins, Sally Koerner, Melinda Smith, Andrew Baldwin, William Bowman, Nona Chiariello, Anu Eskelinen, Harry Harmens, Mark Hovenden, Kari Klanderud, Rebecca McCulley, Vladimir Onipchenko, Clare Robinson & Katharine Suding
Plants are subject to tradeoffs among growth strategies such that adaptations for optimal growth in one condition can preclude optimal growth in another. Thus, we hypothesized that the response of plant species abundance to one global change treatment would relate inversely to the response to a second treatment, particularly for treatment combinations that accentuate distinct traits. To address this hypothesis, we examined plant species abundances in 39 global change experiments manipulating CO2, nitrogen, phosphorus, water,...

Data supplement for: Disrupting cortico-cerebellar communication impairs dexterity

Britton Sauerbrei, Jian-Zhong Guo, Jeremy Cohen, Matteo Mischiati, Austin Graves, Ferruccio Pisanello, Kristin Branson & Adam Hantman
This dataset, along with the corresponding code, is a supplement to “Disrupting cortico-cerebellar communication impairs dexterity” (Guo*, Sauerbrei* et al., eLife 2021). It consists of single-unit electrophysiology data from the pontine nuclei, Purkinje cells, cerebellar nuclei, and motor cortex of awake mice, along with measurements of the hand position of mice performing reaching movements. These data address the question of how the dynamics of motor cortex and cerebellum interact to control skilled reaching. First, we...

Registration Year

  • 2021

Resource Types

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  • Text
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  • Johns Hopkins University
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  • New York University
  • University of Southern California
  • Imperial College London
  • Azim Premji University
  • Howard Hughes Medical Institute
  • Sao Paulo State University