52 Works

Temporal isolation between sympatric host plants cascades across multiple trophic levels of host-associated insects

Linyi Zhang, Glen Hood, James Ott & Scott Egan
Phenological differences between host plants can promote temporal isolation among host-associated populations of insects with life cycles tightly coupled to plant phenology. Divergence in the timing of spring budbreak between two sympatric sister oak species has been shown to promote temporal isolation between host plants and their host-associated populations of a cynipid gall wasp. Here we examined the generality of this mechanism by testing the hypothesis of cascading temporal isolation for five additional gall-formers and...

Data from: Interactive effects of productivity and predation on zooplankton diversity

Mitra Asgari & Christopher F. Steiner
Recent studies suggest the necessity of understanding the interactive effects of predation and productivity on species coexistence and prey diversity. Models predict that coexistence of prey species with different competitive abilities can be achieved if inferior resource competitors are less susceptible to predation and if productivity and/or predation pressure are at intermediate levels. Hence, predator effects on prey diversity are predicted to be highly context dependent: enhancing diversity from low to intermediate levels of productivity...

Data from: Leaf size in three generations of a dioecious tropical tree, Ocotea tenera (Lauraceae): sexual dimorphism and changes with age

Nathaniel T. Wheelwright, Jordan Sinclair, Cris Hochwender, Frederic Janzen, Fredric J. Janzen & Jordan P. Sinclair
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: In dioecious species, selection should favor different leaf sizes in males and females whenever the sexes experience distinct environments or constraints, such as different costs of reproduction. We took advantage of a long-term experimental study of Ocotea tenera (Lauraceae), a dioecious understory tree in Monteverde, Costa Rica, to explore leaf size differences between genders and age classes across generations. METHODS: We measured leaf size in adult trees in a natural population,...

A 3D Adult Zebrafish Brain Atlas (AZBA) for the Digital Age

Justin W. Kenney, Patrick E. Steadman, Olivia Young, Meng Ting Shi, Maris Polanco, Saba Dubaishi, Kristopher Covert, Thomas Mueller & Paul W. Frankland
Zebrafish have made significant contributions to our understanding of the vertebrate brain and the neural basis of behavior, earning a place as one of the most widely used model organisms in neuroscience. Their appeal arises from the marriage of low cost, early life transparency, and ease of genetic manipulation with a behavioral repertoire that becomes more sophisticated as animals transition from larvae to adults. To further enhance the use of adult zebrafish, we created the...

Data from: Evidence for spatial clines and mixed geographic modes of speciation for North American cherry-infesting Rhagoletis (Diptera:Tephritidae) flies

Meredith Doellman, Gilbert Saint Jean, Scott Egan, Thomas Powell, Glen Hood, Hannes Schuler, Daniel Bruzzese, Mary Glover, James Smith, Wee Yee, Robert Goughnour, Juan Rull, Martin Aluja & Jeffrey Feder
An important criterion for understanding speciation is the geographic context of population divergence. Three major modes of allopatric, parapatric, and sympatric speciation define the extent of spatial overlap and gene flow between diverging populations. However, mixed modes of speciation are also possible, whereby populations experience periods of allopatry, parapatry, and/or sympatry at different times as they diverge. Here, we report clinal patterns of variation for 21 nuclear-encoded microsatellites and a wing spot phenotype for cherry-infesting...

Context-dependent reproductive isolation: host plant variability drives fitness of hybrid herbivores

Linyi Zhang, Glen Hood, Isaac Carroo, James Ott & Scott Egan
The role of divergent selection between alternative environments is well-recognized to promote reproductive isolation (RI) between lineages. However, most studies view each divergent environment as homogenous, thereby overlooking the potential role of within environment variation on RI between differentiating lineages. Here we test the importance of microenvironmental variation on RI using individual trees of two host plants each harboring locally adapted populations of the cynipid wasp, Belonocnema treatae. We compared the fitness surrogate (survival) of...

Data from: Trophoblast survival signaling during human placentation requires HSP70 activation of MMP2-mediated HBEGF shedding

Chandni V. Jain, Philip Jessmon, Charbel T. Barrak, Alan D. Bolnick, Brian A. Kilburn, Michael Hertz & D. Randall Armant
Survival of trophoblast cells in the low oxygen environment of human placentation requires metalloproteinase-mediated shedding of HBEGF and downstream signaling. A matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) antibody array and quantitative RT-PCR revealed upregulation of MMP2 post-transcriptionally in human first trimester HTR-8/SVneo trophoblast cells and placental villous explants exposed to 2% O2. Specific MMP inhibitors established the requirement for MMP2 in HBEGF shedding and upregulation. Because α-amanitin inhibited the upregulation of HBEGF, differentially expressed genes were identified by...

Data from: A robust and tunable mitotic oscillator in artificial cells

Ye Guan, Zhengda Li, Shiyuan Wang, Patrick M Barnes, Xuwen Liu, Haotian Xu, Minjun Jin, Allen P Liu & Qiong Yang
Single-cell analysis is pivotal to deciphering complex phenomena like heterogeneity, bistability, and asynchronous oscillations, where a population ensemble cannot represent individual behaviors. Bulk cell-free systems, despite having unique advantages of manipulation and characterization of biochemical networks, lack the essential single-cell information to understand a class of out-of-steady-state dynamics including cell cycles. Here, by encapsulating Xenopus egg extracts in water-in-oil microemulsions, we developed artificial cells that are adjustable in sizes and periods, sustain mitotic oscillations for...

Data from: Characterization of breast tumors using diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI)

Dongmei Wu, Guanwu Li, Junxiang Zhang, Shixing Chang, Jiani Hu & Yongming Dai
Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate and evaluate the role of magnetic resonance (MR) diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) in characterizing breast lesions. Materials and Methods: One hundred and twenty-four lesions in 103 patients (mean age: 57±14 years) were evaluated by MR DKI performed with 7 b-values of 0, 250, 500, 750, 1,000, 1,500, 2,000 s/mm2 and dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MR imaging. Breast lesions were histologically characterized and DKI related parameters—mean diffusivity (MD)...

Data from: Coevolution drives the emergence of complex traits and promotes evolvability

Luis Zaman, Justin R. Meyer, Suhas Devangam, David M. Bryson, Richard E. Lenski & Charles Ofria
The evolution of complex organismal traits is obvious as a historical fact, but the underlying causes—including the role of natural selection—are contested. Gould argued that a random walk from a necessarily simple beginning would produce the appearance of increasing complexity over time. Others contend that selection, including coevolutionary arms races, can systematically push organisms toward more complex traits. Methodological challenges have largely precluded experimental tests of these hypotheses. Using the Avida platform for digital evolution,...

Wages of War, 1816-1965

J. David Singer & Melvin Small
The Wages of War is part of the Correlates of War (COW) Project at the University of Michigan under the guidance of J. David Singer and Melvin Small. The data are meant to be a statistical handbook of war from 1816-1965. It includes mainly bivariate data on every war fought in the time period. War data described cover all international wars that began and ended between 1816 and 1965, and those that satisfied the theoretical...

Scutellaria Extract Inhibits Proliferation and Migration of Brain-Metastatic Lung Cancer Cells via Regulation of Multiple Signaling Pathways

Robert E. Wright III, Lubana Shahin, Venumadhavi Gogineni, Zahin Hussain, Aroma Naeem, Sudha Sadasivan, Indrajit Sinha, Melody Neely, Sharon K. Michellhaugh, Sandeep Mittal, Nirmal Joshee & Prahlad Parajuli

Data from: Can the genomics of ecological speciation be predicted across the divergence continuum from host races to species? A case study in Rhagoletis

Meredith M. Doellman, Peter J. Meyers, Gregory J. Ragland, Glen R. Hood, Scott P. Egan, Thomas H. Q. Powell, Patrik Nosil & Jeffrey L. Feder
Studies assessing the predictability of evolution typically focus on short-term adaptation within populations or the repeatability of change among lineages. A missing consideration in speciation research is to determine whether natural selection predictably transforms standing genetic variation within populations into differences between species. Here, we test whether host-related selection on diapause timing anticipates genome-wide differentiation during ecological speciation by comparing ancestral hawthorn and newly formed apple-infesting host races of Rhagoletis pomonella to their sibling species...

Clinical recommendations to guide physical therapy practice for Huntington disease

Nora Fritz, Lori Quinn, Deb Kegelmeyer, Anne Kloos, Ashwini Rao & Monica Busse
Objective In the past decade, an increasing number of studies have examined the efficacy of physical therapy interventions in people with Huntington disease (HD). Methods We performed a mixed-methods systematic review using Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) methodology and included experimental and observational study designs. The search resulted in 23 quantitative studies and 3 qualitative studies from which we extracted data using JBI standardized extraction tools. Results of this review suggested that physical therapy interventions may...

Identifying diagnostic genetic markers for a cryptic invasive agricultural pest: a test case using the apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella (Diptera: Tephritidae)

Meredith M. Doellman, Glen R. Hood, Jacob Gersfeld, Amanda Driscoe, Charles C.Y. Xu, Ryan N. Sheehy, Noah Holmes, Wee L. Yee & Jeffrey L. Feder
Insect pests destroy ~15% of all USA crops, resulting in losses of $15 billion annually. Thus, developing cheap, quick and reliable methods for detecting harmful species is critical to curtail insect damage and lessen economic impact. The apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a major invasive pest threatening the multibillion-dollar apple industry in the Pacific Northwest USA. The fly is also sympatric with a benign but morphologically similar and genetically closely related species,...

Data from: Habitat isolation reduces intra- and interspecific biodiversity and stability

Christopher Steiner & Mitra Asgari
Fragmentation is predicted to reduce biodiversity and stability by increasing habitat isolation and impeding dispersal among patches. These effects may manifest at both the interspecific and intraspecific levels, yet few studies have simultaneously explored dispersal effects across levels of organization. We used field mesocosm experiments to examine how habitat isolation (in the form of dispersal rate) alters inter- and intraspecific stability and diversity in local zooplankton communities. We observed effects of increasing dispersal rate at...

Data from: Are there general laws for digit evolution in squamates? The loss and re-evolution of digits in a clade of fossorial lizards (Brachymeles, Scincinae)

Günter P. Wagner, Oliver W. Griffith, Philip J. Bergmann, Gaelle Bello-Hellegouarch, Tiana Kohlsdorf, Anjan Bhullar & Cameron D. Siler
Evolutionary simplification of autopodial structures is a major theme in studies of body‐form evolution. Previous studies on amniotes have supported Morse's law, that is, that the first digit reduced is Digit I, followed by Digit V. Furthermore, the question of reversibility for evolutionary digit loss and its implications for “Dollo's law” remains controversial. Here, we provide an analysis of limb and digit evolution for the skink genus Brachymeles. Employing phylogenetic, morphological, osteological, and myological data,...

Data from: Comparative analysis of encephalization in mammals reveals relaxed constraints on anthropoid primate and cetacean brain scaling

Amy M. Boddy, Michael R. McGowen, Chet C. Sherwood, Lawrence I. Grossman, Morris Goodman & Derek E. Wildman
There is a well-established allometric relationship between brain and body mass in mammals. Deviation of relatively increased brain size from this pattern appears to coincide with enhanced cognitive abilities. To examine whether there is a phylogenetic structure to such episodes of changes in encephalization across mammals, we used phylogenetic techniques to analyse brain mass, body mass and encephalization quotient (EQ) among 630 extant mammalian species. Among all mammals, anthropoid primates and odontocete cetaceans have significantly...

Data from: Standing geographic variation in eclosion time and the genomics of host race formation in Rhagoletis pomonella fruit flies

Meredith M. Doellman, Scott P. Egan, Gregory J. Ragland, Peter J. Meyers, Glen R. Hood, Thomas H.Q. Powell, Peter Lazorchak, Daniel A. Hahn, Stewart H. Berlocher, Patrik Nosil, Jeff L. Feder, Jeffrey L. Feder & Thomas H. Q. Powell
Taxa harboring high levels of standing variation may be more likely to adapt to rapid environmental shifts and experience ecological speciation. Here, we characterize geographic and host-related differentiation for 10,241 single nucleotide polymorphisms in Rhagoletis pomonella fruit flies to infer if standing genetic variation in adult eclosion time in the ancestral hawthorn (Crataegus spp.)-infesting host race, as opposed to new mutations, contributed substantially to its recent shift to earlier fruiting apple (Malus domestica). Allele frequency...

Data from: Post-fire changes in forest carbon storage over a 300-year chronosequence of Pinus contorta-dominated forests

Daniel M. Kashian, William H. Romme, Daniel Tinker, Monica G. Turner, Michael G. Ryan & Daniel B. Tinker
A warming climate may increase the frequency and severity of stand-replacing wildfires, reducing carbon (C) storage in forest ecosystems. Understanding the variability of post-fire C cycling on heterogeneous landscapes is critical for predicting changes in C storage with more frequent disturbance. We measured C pools and fluxes for 77 lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud var. latifolia Engelm.) stands in and around Yellowstone National Park (YNP) along a 300-year chronosequence to examine how quickly...

Data from: Regulation of HBEGF by micro-RNA for survival of developing human trophoblast cells

Chandni V. Jain, Philip Jessmon, Brian A. Kilburn, Meritxell Jodar, Edward Sendler, Stephen A. Krawetz & D. Randall Armant
Introduction: The growth factor HBEGF is upregulated post-transcriptionally in the low O2 environment of the human placenta during the first 10 weeks of pregnancy. We have examined the possible roles of HBEGF turnover and micro-RNA (miRNA) in its regulation by O2 in human first trimester trophoblast. Methods: HTR-8/SVneo trophoblast cells were cultured at 2% or 20% O2. The cells were transfected with a dual luciferase reporter construct (psiCHECK-2) containing no insert (control), the HBEGF 3’...

Data from: Episodic radiations in the fly tree of life

Brian M. Wiegmann, Michelle D. Trautwein, Isaac S. Winkler, Norman B. Barr, Jung-Wook Kim, Christine Lambkin, Matthew A. Bertone, Brian K. Cassel, Keith M. Bayless, Alysha M. Heimberg, Benjamin M. Wheeler, Kevin J. Peterson, Thomas Pape, Bradley J. Sinclair, Jeffrey H. Skevington, Vladimir Blagoderov, Jason Caravas, Sujatha Narayanan Kutty, Urs Schmidt-Ott, Gail E. Kampmeier, F. Christian Thompson, David A. Grimaldi, Andrew T. Beckenbach, Gregory W. Courtney, Markus Friedrich … & J.-W. Kim
Flies are one of four superradiations of insects (along with beetles, wasps, and moths) that account for the majority of animal life on Earth. Diptera includes species known for their ubiquity (Musca domestica house fly), their role as pests (Anopheles gambiae malaria mosquito), and their value as model organisms across the biological sciences (Drosophila melanogaster). A resolved phylogeny for flies provides a framework for genomic, developmental, and evolutionary studies by facilitating comparisons across model organisms,...

Data from: Characterization of human cortical gene expression in relation to glucose utilization.

Kirstin N. Sterner, Michael R. McGowen, Harry T. Chugani, Adi L. Tarca, Chet C. Sherwood, Patrick R. Hof, Christopher W. Kuzawa, Amy M. Boddy, Ryan L. Raaum, Amy Weckle, Leonard Lipovich, Lawrence I. Grossman, Monica Uddin, Morris Goodman & Derek E. Wildman
Objectives: Human brain development follows a unique pattern characterized by a prolonged period of postnatal growth and reorganization, and a postnatal peak in glucose utilization. The molecular processes underlying these developmental changes are poorly characterized. The objectives of this study were to determine developmental trajectories of gene expression and to examine the evolutionary history of genes differentially expressed as a function of age. Methods: We used microarrays to determine age-related patterns of mRNA expression in...

Data from: Divergent diapause life history timing drives both allochronic speciation and reticulate hybridization in an adaptive radiation of Rhagoletis flies

Meredith Doellman, Katherine Inskeep, Thomas Powell, Stewart Berlocher, Nicholas Seifert, Glen Hood, Gregory Ragland, Peter Meyers & Jeff Feder
Divergent adaptation to new ecological opportunities can be an important factor initiating speciation. However, as niches are filled during adaptive radiations, trait divergence driving reproductive isolation between sister taxa may also result in trait convergence with more distantly related taxa, increasing the potential for reticulated gene flow across the radiation. Here, we demonstrate such a scenario in a recent adaptive radiation of Rhagoletis fruit flies, specialized on different host plants. Throughout this radiation, shifts to...

Beyond bold versus shy: Zebrafish exploratory behavior falls into several behavioral clusters and is influenced by strain and sex

Neha Rajput, Kush Parikh & Justin Kenney
Individual differences in exploratory behavior have been found across a range of taxa and are thought to contribute to evolutionary fitness. Animals that explore more of a novel environment and visit areas of high predation risk are considered bold, whereas animals with the opposite behavioral pattern are shy. Here, we determined whether this bimodal characterization of bold versus shy adequately captures the breadth of behavioral variation in zebrafish or if there are more than these...

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