13 Works

Data from: Evaluating mechanisms of diversification in a Guineo-Congolian tropical forest frog using demographic model selection

Daniel M. Portik, Adam D. Leaché, Danielle Rivera, Michael F. Barej, Marius Burger, Mareike Hirschfeld, Mark-Oliver Rödel, David C. Blackburn & Matthew K. Fujita
The accumulation of biodiversity in tropical forests can occur through multiple allopatric and parapatric models of diversification, including forest refugia, riverine barriers and ecological gradients. Considerable debate surrounds the major diversification process, particularly in the West African Lower Guinea forests, which contain a complex geographic arrangement of topographic features and historical refugia. We used genomic data to investigate alternative mechanisms of diversification in the Gaboon forest frog, Scotobleps gabonicus, by first identifying population structure and...

HSV-2/HIV-1 primer sets, extended data, and their associated raw data

Oluwafemi Samuel Obisesan, Nomathamsanqa Patricia Sithebe & Hazel Tumelo Mufhandu
Herpes simplex viruses (HSVs) are highly pervasive and show a strong synergistic interaction with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). 44 convenience samples were screened for HSV and HIV-1 using the highly sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Of 44 samples, 81.8% were positive for HIV-1, while 79.5% were positive for HSV when screened with ELISA kits. The results of PCR with type specific primers showed that 11.4% samples were specific for HSV-1 while 85.7% were specific for...

Data from: The million-year wait for macroevolutionary bursts

Josef C Uyeda, Thomas F Hansen, Stevan J Arnold & Jason Pienaar
We lack a comprehensive understanding of evolutionary pattern and process because short-term and long-term data have rarely been combined into a single analytical framework. Here we test alternative models of phenotypic evolution using a dataset of unprecedented size and temporal span (nearly 8,000 data points). The data are body-size measurements taken from historical studies, the fossil record, and among-species comparative data representing mammals, squamates, and birds. By analyzing this unusually large dataset, we identify stochastic...

Data from: Sympatric serpentine endemic Monardella (Lamiaceae) species maintain habitat differences despite hybridization

Kathleen M. Kay, Suzie Woolhouse, Brett A. Smith, Nathaniel S. Pope & Nishanta Rajakaruna
Ecological differentiation and genetic isolation are thought to be critical in facilitating coexistence between related species, but the relative importance of these phenomena, and the interactions between them, are not well understood. Here we examine divergence in abiotic habitat affinity and the extent of hybridization and introgression between two rare species of Monardella (Lamiaceae) that are both restricted to the same serpentine soil exposure in California. Although broadly sympatric, they are found in microhabitats that...

Data from: Idiosyncratic responses to climate-driven forest fragmentation and marine incursions in reed frogs from Central Africa and the Gulf of Guinea Islands

Rayna C. Bell, Juan L. Parra, Gabriel Badjedjea, Michael F. Barej, David C. Blackburn, Marius Burger, Alan Channing, J. Maximilian Dehling, Eli Greenbaum, Václav Gvoždík, Jos Kielgast, Chifundera Kusamba, Stefan Lötters, Patrick J. McLaughlin, Zoltán T. Nagy, Mark-Oliver Rödel, Daniel M. Portik, Bryan L. Stuart, Jeremy VanDerWal, Ange-Ghislain Zassi Boulou & Kelly R. Zamudio
Organismal traits interact with environmental variation to mediate how species respond to shared landscapes. Thus, differences in traits related to dispersal ability or physiological tolerance may result in phylogeographic discordance among co-distributed taxa, even when they are responding to common barriers. We quantified climatic suitability and stability, and phylogeographic divergence within three reed frog species complexes across the Guineo-Congolian forests and Gulf of Guinea archipelago of Central Africa to investigate how they responded to a...

Data from: Seedless gold nanostars with seed-like advantages for biosensing applications

Masauso Moses Phiri, Danielle Mulder & Barend Christiaan Vorster
Gold nanostars (AuNSs) are seen as promising building blocks for biosensors with potential for easy readouts based on naked-eye and ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy detection. We present a seedless synthesis strategy for AuNSs that has the advantages of the seeded methods. The method used ascorbic acid as a reducing agent and silver nitrate as an anisotropic growth control assisting agent. AuNSs with multiple branches and diameter of 59 nm were produced. They showed good stability when...

Data from: Facile immobilisation of glucose oxidase onto gold nanostars with enhanced binding affinity and optimal function

Masauso Moses Phiri, Danielle Mulder, Shayne Mason & Barend Christiaan Vorster
Gold nanoparticles provide a user-friendly and efficient surface for immobilisation of enzymes and proteins. In this paper, we present a novel approach for enzyme bioconjugation to gold nanostars (AuNSs). AuNSs were modified with L-cysteine (Cys) and covalently bound to N-hydroxysulfosuccinimide (NHS)-terminated glucose oxidase (GOx) to fabricate a stable and sensitive AuNSs-Cys-GOx bioconjugate complex. Observed, were: 1) Increased attachment affinity without protein absorption onto the AuNSs surface. 2) Good dispersity in buffer suspension, as well as...

Behaviour of S, SO and SO3 on Pt (001), (011) and (111) surfaces: A DFT Study - data

Marietjie J Ungerer, Cornelia G C E Van Sittert & Nora H De Leeuw
Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were uasd with long-range dispersion corrections to study the interaction of S, SO and SO3 with Pt (001), (011), and (111) surfaces. Platinum is a noble metal that is widely used for the electro-catalytic production of H2, in the Hybrid Sulphur (HyS) cycle. However, during this cycle sulphur poisoning occurs and the process is not yet fully understood. The work involved studying the surface energies of the mayor Pt surfaces...

Data from: A revision of African helmeted terrapins (Testudines: Pelomedusidae: Pelomedusa), with descriptions of six new species

Alice Petzold, Mario Vargas-Ramírez, Christian Kehlmaier, Melita Vamberger, William R. Branch, Louis Du Preez, Margaretha D. Hofmeyr, Leon Meyer, Alfred Schleicher, Pavel Široký & Uwe Fritz
Using nearly range-wide sampling, we analyze up to 1848 bp of mitochondrial DNA of 183 helmeted terrapins and identify a minimum of 12 deeply divergent species-level clades. Uncorrected p distances of these clades equal or clearly exceed those between the currently recognized species of Pelusios, the genus most closely related to Pelomedusa. We correlate genetic discontinuities of Pelomedusa with data on morphology and endoparasites and describe six new Pelomedusa species. Moreover, we restrict the name...

Data from: Genetic hitchhiking and resistance evolution to transgenic Bt toxins: insights from the African stalk borer Busseola fusca (Noctuidae)

Pascal Campagne, Claire Capdevielle-Dulac, Rémy Pasquet, Stephen J. Cornell, Marlene Vanrooyen-Kruger, Jean-François Silvain, Bruno LeRu & Johnnie Van Den Berg
Since transgenic crops expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins were first released, resistance evolution leading to failure in control of pests populations has been observed in a number of species. Field resistance of the moth Busseola fusca was acknowledged 8 years after Bt maize was introduced in South Africa. Since then, field resistance of this corn borer has been observed at several locations, raising questions about the nature, distribution and dynamics of the resistance trait. Using...

Data from: Testing the link between perceived and actual risk of predation: mosquito oviposition site selection and egg predation by native and introduced fish

Ori Segev, Ruhan Verster & Che Weldon
1. According to the threat-sensitivity hypothesis, prey avoidance behaviour should reflect the magnitude of predation risk. Since predation can strongly affect reproduction success, ovipositing females are expected to adaptively adjust their predator-avoidance response, or local breeding patch selectivity, in accordance with the perceived level of threat posed for their progeny by specific predators. However, association between avoidance and predation can be disrupted when the prey and the predator lack spatio-temporal opportunities to co-evolve, such as...

Speciation history of European (Anguilla anguilla) and American eel (A. rostrata), analyzed using genomic data

Natacha Nikolic, Shenglin Liu, Magnus W. Jacobsen, Bjarni Jónsson, Louis Bernatchez, Pierre-Alexandre Gagnaire & Michael M. Hansen
Speciation in the ocean could differ from terrestrial environments due to fewer barriers to gene flow. Hence, sympatric speciation might be common, with American and European eel being candidates for exemplifying this. They show disjunct continental distributions on both sides of the Atlantic, but spawn in overlapping regions of the Sargasso Sea from where juveniles are advected to North American, European and North African coasts. Hybridization and introgression is known to occur, with hybrids almost...

Fluid-preserved fishes are one solution for assessing historical change in fish trophic level

Rachel Welicky, Terry Rolfe, Karrin Leazer, Katherine Pearson Masklenikov, Luke Tornabene, Gordon Holtgrieve & Chelsea Wood
There are few resources available for assessing historical change in fish trophic dynamics, but specimens held in natural history collections could serve as this resource. In contemporary trophic ecology studies, trophic and source information can be obtained from compound-specific stable nitrogen isotope analysis (CSIA-AA-N). Can this method yield reliable trophic information from chemically-altered fish specimens held in natural history collections? We tested whether CSIA-AA-N can be used on fluid-preserved specimens by experimentally subjecting specimens to...

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