29 Works

Data from: Temporal migration pattern and mating tactics influence size-assortative mating in Rana temporaria

Carolin Dittrich, Ariel Rodríguez, Ori Segev, Sanja Drakulić, Heike Feldhaar, Miguel Vences & Mark-Oliver Rödel
Assortative mating is a common pattern in sexually reproducing species, but the mechanisms leading to assortment remain poorly understood. By using the European common frog (Rana temporaria) as a model, we aim to understand the mechanisms leading to size-assortative mating in amphibians. With data from natural populations collected over several years, we first show a consistent pattern of size-assortative mating across our two study populations. We subsequently ask if assortative mating may be explained by...

Standardized nuclear markers improve and homogenize species delimitation in Metazoa

Lars Dietz, Jonas Eberle, Christoph Mayer, Sandra Kukowka, Claudia Bohacz, Hannes Baur, Marianne Espeland, Bernhard A. Huber, Carl Hutter, Ximo Mengual, Ralph S. Peters, Miguel Vences, Thomas Wesener, Keith Willmott, Bernhard Misof, Oliver Niehuis & Dirk Ahrens
Species are the fundamental units of life and evolution. Their recognition is essential for science and society. Molecular methods have been increasingly employed for the identification of animal species, despite several challenges. Here, we explore with genomic data from nine animal lineages a set of nuclear markers, namely metazoan-level universal single-copy orthologs (metazoan USCOs), for their use in species delimitation. Our data sets include arthropods and vertebrates. We use various data assembly strategies and employ...

Data from: Vegetation as self-adaptive coastal protection: reduction of current velocity and morphologic plasticity of a brackish marsh pioneer

Jana Carus, Maike Paul & Boris Schröder
By reducing current velocity, tidal marsh vegetation can diminish storm surges and storm waves. Conversely, currents often exert high mechanical stresses onto the plants and hence affect vegetation structure and plant characteristics. In our study, we aim at analysing this interaction from both angles. On the one hand, we quantify the reduction of current velocity by Bolboschoenus maritimus, and on the other hand, we identify functional traits of B. maritimus’ ramets along environmental gradients. Our...

\"Agile\" gesundheitspolitische Politikgestaltung

Nils C. Bandelow & Johanna Hornung
Über die letzten drei Jahre ist die Digitalisierung des deutschen Gesundheitssystems deutlich beschleunigt worden. In der Debatte wurde das schnelle und flexible Vorgehen der Politik oft als „agil“ bezeichnet. Doch was zeichnet agile Politikgestaltung genau aus – und kann sie ein Vorbild für andere gesundheitspolitische Reformen sein? Die Expertise zeigt: Agile Politikgestaltung kann nur erfolgreich sein, wenn es ein klar definiertes Ziel gibt und keine parteipolitische Polarisierung.

Circular Economy Roadmap für Deutschland

Susanne Kadner, Jörn Kobus, Erik G. Hansen, Seda Akinci, Peter Elsner, Christian Hagelüken, Melanie Jaeger-Erben, Marlene Kick, Arno Kwade, Thomas Müller-Kirschbaum, Carl Kühl, Dominik Obeth, Katharina Schweitzer, Martin Stuchtey, Tilmann Vahle, Thomas Weber, Patrick Wiedemann, Henning Wilts & Reinhard von Wittken
Wir durchleben eine Phase umfassender Dynamik: eine Zeit geprägt durch die rasante Entwicklung neuer Technologien, neue Muster im Verhalten der Konsumierenden, die Verknüpfung von bislang getrennten Wertschöpfungsketten zu neuen Lösungen, eine von den Kapitalmärkten befeuerte Begeisterung für neue Geschäftsmodelle und nicht zuletzt einen stärker gestaltenden und investierenden Staat. Gleichzeitig stößt die bisher vorherrschende Produktions- und Konsumlogik des „take, make, waste“ – im deutschen Sprachgebrauch pointiert auch als „Wegwerfgesellschaft“ umschrieben – zunehmend an die planetaren Belastungsgrenzen....

Data from: Hybridization masks speciation in the evolutionary history of the Galápagos marine iguana

Amy MacLeod, Ariel Rodríguez, Miguel Vences, Pablo Orozco-TerWengel, Carolina García, Fritz Trillmich, Gabriele Gentile, Adalgisa Caccone, Galo Quezada & Sebastian Steinfartz
The effects of the direct interaction between hybridization and speciation—two major contrasting evolutionary processes—are poorly understood. We present here the evolutionary history of the Galápagos marine iguana (Amblyrhynchus cristatus) and reveal a case of incipient within-island speciation, which is paralleled by between-island hybridization. In-depth genome-wide analyses suggest that Amblyrhynchus diverged from its sister group, the Galápagos land iguanas, around 4.5 million years ago (Ma), but divergence among extant populations is exceedingly young (less than 50...

Data from: Landscape determinants of fine-scale genetic structure of a small rodent in a heterogeneous landscape (Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Park, South Africa)

Isa-Rita M. Russo, Catherine L. Sole, Mario Barbato, Ullrich Von Bramann & Michael W. Bruford
Small mammals provide ecosystem services, acting, for example, as pollinators and seed dispersers. In addition, they are also disease reservoirs that can be detrimental to human health and they can also act as crop pests. Knowledge of their dispersal preferences is therefore useful for population management and landscape planning. Genetic data were used alongside landscape data to examine the influence of the landscape on the demographic connectedness of the Natal multimammate mouse (Mastomys natalensis) and...

Data from: No signs of inbreeding despite long-term isolation and habitat fragmentation in the critically endangered Montseny brook newt (Calotriton arnoldi)

Emilio Valbuena-Ureña, Anna Soler-Membrives, Sebastian Steinfartz, Pablo Orozco-TerWengel & Salvador Carranza
Endemic species with restricted geographic ranges potentially suffer the highest risk of extinction. If these species are further fragmented into genetically isolated subpopulations, the risk of extinction is elevated. Habitat fragmentation is generally considered to have negative effects on species survival, despite some evidence for neutral or even positive effects. Typically, non-negative effects are ignored by conservation biology. The Montseny brook newt (Calotriton arnoldi) has one of the smallest distribution ranges of any European amphibian...

Data from: Adhesion force mapping on wood by atomic force microscopy: influence of surface roughness and tip geometry

Xin Jin & Bohumil Kasal
This study attempts to address the interpretation of atomic force microscopy (AFM) adhesion force measurements conducted on the heterogeneous rough surface of wood and natural fibre materials. The influences of wood surface roughness, tip geometry and wear on the adhesion force distribution are examined by cyclic measurements conducted on wood surface under dry inert conditions. It was found that both the variation of tip and surface roughness of wood can widen the distribution of adhesion...

A mixed methods study of effects and antecedents of solution-focused questions in coaching

Stefanie Jordan & Simone Kauffeld
The coaching interaction regarding questioning is still under-researched. This study investigates clients’ behavioural responses to coaches’ solution-focused questions (SFQ), their effects on coaching outcomes, and coaches’ career-related attributes promoting SFQ. Using a mixed methods design, we applied longitudinal self-report and behavioural data for 23 coach-client dyads. Lag sequential analyses and regressions revealed coaches’ SFQ to elicit clients’ solution and self-efficient statements and the importance of coaches’ career adaptability for SFQ. Our findings contribute to the...

Rückkehr zum Mond

Marie-Luise Heuser
Erhebliche finanzielle und intellektuelle Ressourcen wurden investiert, um Menschen zum Mond zu bringen. Kaum war das Ziel erreicht, wurde das Apollo-Programm beendet. Zurückzuführen ist dieses überraschende Motivationstief auch darauf, dass kulturell nicht ausreichend verstanden wurde, was Raum- und Mondfahrt bedeutet. Die Frage ist, ob wir das heute besser verstehen als vor fünfzig Jahren. – Gastbeitrag der Philosophin Marie-Luise Heuser vom Institut für Raumfahrtsysteme der TU Braunschweig.

Difference between Algorithmic Processing and the Process of Lifeworld (Lebenswelt)

Domenico Schneider
The following article compares the temporality of the life-world with the digital processing. The temporality of the life-world is determined to be stretched and spontaneous. The temporality of the digital is given by discrete step-by-step points of time. Most ethical issues can be traced back to a mismatch of these two ways of processing. This creates a foundation for the ethics of the digital processing. Methodologically, phenomenological considerations are merged with media-philosophical considerations in the...

Projected shifts in deadwood bryophytes in Sweden, data used for species distribution modelling and for climate and forest scenario analysis

Swantje Löbel, Boris Schröder-Esselbach & Tord Snäll
Climate change and habitat loss are main threats to forest biodiversity. We fitted ensembles of single species distribution models for 23 deadwood-living bryophyte species in Sweden, based on species records from the Swedish Lifewatch website. This data set comprises the species and environmental data used for species distribution modelling, and coefficients of the fitted single species distribution models (GLM, Poisson point-process, MaxEnt). Based on the fitted species distribution models, we conducted simulations of future species...

Data from: Large-scale phylogeny of chameleons suggests African origins and Eocene diversification

Krystal A. Tolley, Ted M. Townsend & Miguel Vences
Oceanic dispersal has emerged as an important factor contributing to biogeographic patterns in numerous taxa. Chameleons are a clear example of this, as they are primarily found in Africa and Madagascar, but the age of the family is post-Gondwanan break-up. A Malagasy origin for the family has been suggested, yet this hypothesis has not been tested using modern biogeographic methods with a dated phylogeny. To examine competing hypotheses of African and Malagasy origins, we generated...

Data from: Phylotranscriptomic consolidation of the jawed vertebrate timetree

Iker Irisarri, Denis Baurain, Henner Brinkmann, Frédéric Delsuc, Jean-Yves Sire, Alexander Kupfer, Jörn Petersen, Michael Jarek, Axel Meyer, Miguel Vences & Hervé Philippe
Phylogenomics is extremely powerful but introduces new challenges as no agreement exists on “standards” for data selection, curation and tree inference. We use jawed vertebrates (Gnathostomata) as model to address these issues. Despite considerable efforts in resolving their evolutionary history and macroevolution, few studies have included a full phylogenetic diversity of gnathostomes and some relationships remain controversial. We tested a novel bioinformatic pipeline to assemble large and accurate phylogenomic datasets from RNA sequencing and find...

Data from: Breeding bird species diversity across gradients of land use from forest to agriculture in Europe

Matti J. Koivula, Dan E. Chamberlain, Robert J. Fuller, Stephen C. F. Palmer, Attila Bankovics, Fintan Bracken, Tom Bolger, Eduardo De Juana, Marc Montadert, Renato Neves, Rui Rufino, Angel Sallent, Luís Lopes Da Silva, Pedro J. Leitão, Manfred Steffen & Allan D. Watt
Loss, fragmentation and decreasing quality of habitats have been proposed as major threats to biodiversity world-wide, but relatively little is known about biodiversity responses to multiple pressures, particularly at very large spatial scales. We evaluated the relative contributions of four landscape variables (habitat cover, diversity, fragmentation and productivity) in determining different components of avian diversity across Europe. We sampled breeding birds in multiple 1-km2 landscapes, from high forest cover to intensive agricultural land, in eight...

Data from: How to fight multiple enemies: target-specific chemical defences in an aposematic moth

Bibiana Rojas, Emily Burdfield-Steel, Hannu Pakkanen, Kaisa Suisto, Michael Maczka, Stefan Schulz & Johanna Mappes
Animals have evolved different defensive strategies to survive predation, among which chemical defences are particularly widespread and diverse. Here we investigate the function of chemical defence diversity, hypothesising that such diversity has evolved as a response to multiple enemies. The aposematic wood tiger moth (Arctia plantaginis) displays conspicuous hindwing colouration and secretes two distinct defensive fluids, from their thoracic glands and abdomen. We presented fluids from lab-reared moths to two biologically relevant predators, birds and...

Data from: Comparison of photo-matching algorithms commonly used for photographic capture-recapture studies

Maximilian Matthé, Marco Sannolo, Kristopher Winiarski, Annemarieke Spitzen-Van Der Sluijs, Daniel Goedbloed, Sebastian Steinfartz & Ulrich Stachow
Photographic capture–recapture is a valuable tool for obtaining demographic information on wildlife populations due to its noninvasive nature and cost-effectiveness. Recently, several computer-aided photo-matching algorithms have been developed to more efficiently match images of unique individuals in databases with thousands of images. However, the identification accuracy of these algorithms can severely bias estimates of vital rates and population size. Therefore, it is important to understand the performance and limitations of state-of-the-art photo-matching algorithms prior to...

Clustering of loci controlling species differences in male chemical bouquets of sympatric Heliconius butterflies

Kelsey Byers, Kathy Darragh, Sylvia Fernanda Garza, Diana Abondano Almeida, Ian Warren, Pasi Rastas, Richard Merrill, Stefan Schulz, W. Owen McMillan & Chris Jiggins
The degree to which loci promoting reproductive isolation cluster in the genome – i.e. the genetic architecture of reproductive isolation - can influence the tempo and mode of speciation. Tight linkage between these loci can facilitate speciation in the face of gene flow. Pheromones play a role in reproductive isolation in many Lepidoptera species, and the role of endogenously-produced compounds as secondary metabolites decreases the likelihood of pleiotropy associated with many barrier loci. Heliconius butterflies...

Data for: Winners and losers over 35 years of dragonfly and damselfly distributional change in Germany

Diana Bowler, David Eichenberg, Klaus-Jürgen Conze, Frank Suhling, Kathrin Baumann, Theodor Benken, André Bönsel, Torsten Bittner, Arne Drews, André Günther, Nick Isaac, Falk Petzold, Marcel Seyring, Torsten Spengler, Bernd Trockur, Christoph Willigalla, Helge Bruelheide, Florian Jansen & Aletta Bonn
Aim: Recent studies suggest insect declines in parts of Europe; however, the generality of these trends across different taxa and regions remains unclear. Standardized data are not available to assess large-scale, long-term changes for most insect groups but opportunistic citizen science data is widespread for some. Here, we took advantage of citizen science data to investigate distributional changes of Odonata. Location: Germany Methods: We compiled over 1 million occurrence records from different regional databases. We...

Ressourcenschonende Batteriekreisläufe – mit Circular Economy die Elektromobilität antreiben

Kwade Arno, Christian Hagelüken, Holger Kohl, Matthias Buchert, Christoph Herrmann, Tilmann Vahle, Reinhard von Wittken, Matteo Carrara, Steven Daelemans, Helmut Ehrenberg, Sarah Fluchs, Daniel Goldmann, Georg Henneboel, Julia Hobohm, Michael Krausa, Johanna Lettgen, Kerstin Meyer, Manuel Michel, Marcel Rakowski, Markus Reuter, Dirk Uwe Sauer, Michael Schnell, Magnus Schulz-Mönninghoff, Paul Spurk, Wassilij Weber … & Susanne Kadner
Heutige Produktions- und Konsummuster folgen weitgehend einer linearen Logik: abbauen, herstellen, konsumieren, entsorgen. Nur neun Prozent der Weltwirtschaft sind laut Circular Gap Report 2020 kreislaufgeführt. Doch dieses Wirtschaftsprinzip trägt zu einer massiven Überschreitung der „Planetaren Grenzen“ und damit zu einer Destabilisierung der Ökosysteme und Lebensgrundlage der Menschen bei, wie etwa des Klimasystems und der Artenvielfalt. Demzufolge wird derzeit viel über einen Paradigmenwechsel in der Logik industrieller Wertschöpfung diskutiert – weg von einem ressourcenintensiven hin zu...

Data from: Disruption of skin microbiota contributes to salamander disease

Molly C. Bletz, Moira Kelly, Joana Sabino-Pinto, Emma Bales, Sarah Van Praet, Wim Bert, Miguel Vences, Sebastian Steinfartz, Frank Pasmans, A. Martel & Filip Boyen
Escalating occurrences of emerging infectious diseases underscore the importance of understanding microbiome-pathogen interactions. The amphibian cutaneous microbiome is widely studied for its potential to mitigate disease-mediated amphibian declines. Other microbial interactions in this system, however, have been largely neglected in the context of disease outbreaks. European fire salamanders have suffered dramatic population crashes as a result of the newly emerged Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans(Bsal). We investigate microbial interactions on multiple fronts within this system. We show that...

Data from: Do wolf spiders' egg-sacs emit tactochemical signals perceived by mothers?

Fanny Ruhland, Stefan Schulz, Maxime R. Hervé & Marie Trabalon
Parent-offspring relationships take many forms. One particular form of parental behaviour is egg care when parents brood their eggs after laying them. Parents of many oviparous vertebrates and terrestrial arthropods brood their eggs. Spiders present a particular interesting form of parental behaviour, enclosing their eggs in a silk sac (or egg-sac) and can care for it until spiderlings emerge. This study investigated proximal cues which stimulate the wolf spider Pardosa saltans (Lycosidae) to care for...

Mechanisms of convergent egg provisioning in poison frogs

Eva K. Fischer, Alexandre B. Roland, Nora A. Moskowitz, Charles Vidoudez, Ndimbintsoa Ranaivorazo, Elicio E. Tapia, Sunia A. Trauger, Miguel Vences, Luis A. Coloma & Lauren A. O'Connell
Parental provisioning of offspring with physiological products (nursing) occurs in many animals, yet little is known about the neuroendocrine basis of nursing in non-mammalian species. Within amphibians, maternal provisioning has evolved multiple times, with mothers of some species feeding unfertilized eggs to their developing offspring until tadpoles complete metamorphosis. We conducted field studies in Ecuador and Madagascar to ask whether convergence at the behavioral level provides similar benefits to offspring and relies on shared neural...

A major locus controls a biologically active pheromone component in Heliconius melpomene

Kelsey Byers, Kathy Darragh, Jamie Musgrove, Diana Abondano Almeida, Sylvia Fernanda Garza, Ian Warren, Pasi Rastas, Marek Kučka, Yingguang Frank Chan, Richard Merrill, Stefan Schulz, W. Owen McMillan & Chris Jiggins
Understanding the production, response, and genetics of signals used in mate choice can inform our understanding of the evolution of both intraspecific mate choice and reproductive isolation. Sex pheromones are important for courtship and mate choice in many insects, but we know relatively little of their role in butterflies. The butterfly Heliconius melpomene uses a complex blend of wing androconial compounds during courtship. Electroantennography in H. melpomene and its close relative H. cydno showed that...

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