46 Works

Do tradeoffs govern plant species responses to different global change treatments?

J. Adam Langley, Emily Grman, Kevin Wilcox, Meghan Avolio, Kimberly Komatsu, Scott Collins, Sally Koerner, Melinda Smith, Andrew Baldwin, William Bowman, Nona Chiariello, Anu Eskelinen, Harry Harmens, Mark Hovenden, Kari Klanderud, Rebecca McCulley, Vladimir Onipchenko, Clare Robinson & Katharine Suding
Plants are subject to tradeoffs among growth strategies such that adaptations for optimal growth in one condition can preclude optimal growth in another. Thus, we hypothesized that the response of plant species abundance to one global change treatment would relate inversely to the response to a second treatment, particularly for treatment combinations that accentuate distinct traits. To address this hypothesis, we examined plant species abundances in 39 global change experiments manipulating CO2, nitrogen, phosphorus, water,...

A probable oligochaete from an Early Triassic Lagerstätte of the southern Cis-Urals and its evolutionary implications

Andrey Zhuravlev, Dmitry Shcherbakov, Tarmo Timm, Alexander Tzetlin & Olev Vinn
Oligochaetes, despite their important role in terrestrial ecosystems and a tremendous biomass, are extremely rare fossils. The palaeontological record of these worms is restricted to some cocoons, presumable trace fossils and a few body fossils the most convincing of which are discovered in Mesozoic and Cenozoic strata. The Olenekian (Lower Triassic) siliciclastic lacustrine Petropavlovka Lagerstätte of the southern Cis-Urals yields a number of extraordinary freshwater fossils including an annelid. The segmented body with a secondary...

Data from: An analysis of travel reports of the Finnish botanical expeditions to Russian Lapland (Murmansk Region and Northern Karelia) in 1861 and 1863

Alexander Sennikov & Mikhail Kozhin
Finnish botanical expeditions, which were made to Russian Lapland (present-day Murmansk Region and northern Karelia, Russia) in 1861 and 1863, published travel reports with preliminary information, which contained numerous floristic novelties and phytogeographical observations but have been overlooked in present-day studies. Two reports appeared in print, by Gustav Selin on the expedition made in 1861, and by Nils Isak Fellman on the expedition made in 1863. We analysed mentions of vascular plant species published in...

Data from: Body shrinkage due to Arctic warming reduces red knot fitness in tropical wintering range

Jan A. Van Gils, Simeon Lisovski, Tamar Lok, Włodzimierz Meissner, Agnieszka Ożarowska, Jimmy De Fouw, Eldar Rakhiemberdiev, Mikhail Y. Soloviev, Theunis Piersma & Marcel Klaassen
Reductions in body size are increasingly being identified as a response to climate warming. Here we present evidence for a case of such body shrinkage, potentially due to malnutrition in early life. We show that an avian long-distance migrant (red knot, Calidris canutus canutus), which is experiencing globally unrivaled warming rates at its high-Arctic breeding grounds, produces smaller offspring with shorter bills during summers with early snowmelt. This has consequences half a world away at...

Data from: Global pattern of nest predation is disrupted by climate change in shorebirds

Vojtěch Kubelka, Miroslav Šálek, Pavel Tomkovich, Zsolt Végvári, Robert P. Freckleton & Tamás Székely
Ongoing climate change is thought to disrupt trophic relationships, with consequences for complex interspecific interactions, yet the effects of climate change on species interactions are poorly understood, and such effects have not been documented at a global scale. Using a single database of 38,191 nests from 237 populations, we found that shorebirds have experienced a worldwide increase in nest predation over the past 70 years. Historically, there existed a latitudinal gradient in nest predation, with...

Data from: The phylogeny of pikas (Ochotona) inferred from a multilocus coalescent approach

José Melo-Ferreira, Ana Lemos De Matos, Helena Areal, Andrey A. Lissovsky, Miguel Carneiro & Pedro J. Esteves
The clarification of the systematics of pikas (genus Ochotona) has been hindered by largely overlapping morphological characters among species and the lack of a comprehensive molecular phylogeny. Here we estimate the first multilocus phylogeny of the genus to date, by analysing 12 nuclear DNA markers (total of 7.5 Kb) in 11 species of pikas from the four classified subgenera (Pika, Ochotona, Lagotona and Conothoa) using a multispecies coalescent-based framework. The species-tree confirmed the subgeneric classification...

Data from: Morphometric analysis and taxonomic revision of Anisopteromalus Ruschka (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Pteromalidae) – an integrative approach

Hannes Baur, Yvonne Kranz-Baltensperger, Astrid Cruaud, Jean-Yves Rasplus, Alexander V. Timokhov & Vladimir E. Gokhman
We use an integrative taxonomic approach to revise the genus Anisopteromalus. In particular, we apply multivariate ratio analysis (MRA), a rather new statistical method based on principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA), to numerous body measurements and combine the data with those from our molecular analysis of Cytb and ITS2 genetic markers (on a subset of species) and all available published data on morphology, karyology, behavior, host associations, and geographic distribution. We...

Data from: Juvenile divergence in adaptive traits among seven sympatric fish eco-morphs arises before moving to different lacustrine habitats

Evgeny V. Esin, Grigorii N. Markevich, Michail Yu. Pichugin & Michail Yu Pichugin
Identifying the mechanisms initiating sympatric diversification in vertebrates has remained a conceptual challenge. Here we analyze an assemblage of sympatric charr (Salvelinus malma) morphs from landlocked Lake Kronotskoe basin as a model to uncover the divergence pathways in freshwater fishes during the early life history stages. All morphs have distinct developmental biology, but a similar developmental rate retardation compared to the ancestor. Our study reveals that adult morphological differences, which acquire functionality at maturation, originate...

Data from: Transcriptome-based phylogeny of endemic Lake Baikal amphipod species flock: fast speciation accompanied by frequent episodes of positive selection

Sergey A. Naumenko, Maria D. Logacheva, Nina V. Popova, Anna V. Klepikova, Aleksey A. Penin, Georgii A. Bazykin, Anna E. Etingova, Nikolai S. Mugue, Alexey S. Kondrashov & Lev Y. Yampolsky
Endemic species flocks inhabiting ancient lakes, oceanic islands and other long-lived isolated habitats are often interpreted as adaptive radiations. Yet molecular evidence for directional selection during species flocks radiation is scarce. Using partial transcriptomes of 64 species of Lake Baikal (Siberia, Russia) endemic amphipods and two non-endemic outgroups, we report a revised phylogeny of this species flock, and analyze evidence for positive selection within the endemic lineages. We confirm two independent invasions of amphipods into...

Data from: Interspecific transfer of parasites following a range-shift in Ficedula flycatchers

William Jones, Katarzyna Kulma, Staffan Bensch, Mariusz Cichoń, Anvar Kerimov, Miloš Krist, Toni Laaksonen, Juan Moreno, Pavel Munclinger, Fred Slater, Eszter Szöllősi, Marcel E. Visser, Anna Qvarnström & Fred M. Slater
Human-induced climate change is expected to cause major biotic changes in species distributions and thereby including escalation of novel host-parasite associations. Closely related host species that come into secondary contact are especially likely to exchange parasites and pathogens. Two competing theories, the Enemy Release Hypothesis, where invading hosts escape their original parasites; and the Novel Weapon Hypothesis, where invading hosts bring new parasites that have detrimental effects on native hosts, have been described to predict...

Data from: Extensive phenotypic diversification coexists with little genetic divergence and a lack of population structure in the White Wagtail subspecies complex (Motacilla alba)

Georgy A. Semenov, Evgeniy A. Koblik, Yaroslav A. Red'kin & Alexander V. Badyaev
Geographically clustered phenotypes often demonstrate consistent patterns in molecular markers, particularly mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) traditionally used in phylogeographic studies. However distinct evolutionary trajectories among traits and markers can lead to their discordance. First, geographic structure in phenotypic traits and nuclear molecular markers can be co-aligned but inconsistent with mtDNA (mito-nuclear discordance). Alternatively, phenotypic variation can have little to do with patterns in neither mtDNA nor nuclear markers. Disentangling between these distinct patterns can provide insight...

Data from: Bursts of amino acid replacements in protein evolution

Anastasia V. Stolyarova, Georgii A. Bazykin, Tatiana V. Neretina & Alexey S. Kondrashov
Evolution can occur both gradually and through alternating episodes of stasis and rapid changes. However, the prevalence and magnitude of fluctuations of the rate of evolution remains obscure. Detecting a rapid burst of changes requires a detailed record of past evolution, so that events that occurred within a short time interval can be identified. Here, we use the phylogenies of the Baikal Lake amphipods and of Catarrhini, which contain very short internal edges facilitating this...

Data from: Peculiar macrophagous adaptations in a new Cretaceous pliosaurid

Valentin Fischer, Maxim S. Arkhangelsky, Ilya M. Stenshin, Gleb N. Uspensky, Nikolay G. Zverkov & Roger B. J. Benson
During the Middle and Late Jurassic, pliosaurid plesiosaurs evolved gigantic body size and a series of craniodental adaptations that have been linked to the occupation of an apex predator niche. Cretaceous pliosaurids (i.e. Brachaucheninae) depart from this morphology, being slightly smaller and lacking the macrophagous adaptations seen in earlier forms. However, the fossil record of Early Cretaceous pliosaurids is poor, concealing the evolution and ecological diversity of the group. Here, we report a new pliosaurid...

THE DEVELOPMENT OF RUSSIAN CHURCH ARCHITECTURE IN THE 1990s-2017: THE STATE AND PROSPECTS

Bogdan Ershov, Igor Ashmarov & Sergey Danilchenko
The article examines church architecture in modern Russia. The historical processes of the development of church architecture are analyzed and systematized not only from the point of view of formal stylistic but also global significance. For this purpose, for the first time, a wide range of sources containing information on the sacred component of church art and on the monuments of temple architecture was studied. At the same time, many fragments of sources were first...

Dunlin subspecies exhibit regional segregation and high site fidelity along the East Asian−Australasian Flyway

Benjamin Lagassé, Richard Lanctot, Mark Barter, Stephen Brown, Chung-Yu Chiang, Chi-Yeung Choi, Yuri Gerasimov, Steve Kendall, Joseph Liebezeit, Konstantin Maslovsky, Alexander Matsyna, Ekaterina Matsyna, David Payer, Sarah Saalfeld, Yoshimitsu Shigeta, Ivan Tiunov, Pavel Tomkovich, Olga Valchuk & Michael Wunder
The degree that individuals migrate among particular breeding, migration, and wintering sites can have important implications for prioritizing conservation efforts. Four subspecies of Dunlin (Calidris alpina) migrate along the East Asian−Australasian Flyway (EAAF). Each subspecies has a distinct and well-defined breeding range, but their migration and winter ranges are poorly defined or unknown. We assessed the migratory connectivity of 3 of these subspecies by evaluating a dataset that encompasses 57 years (1960–2017), and comprises more...

Data from: Ornithogenic vegetation: How significant has the seabird influence been on the Aleutian Island vegetation during the Holocene?

Olesya Smyshlyaeva, Elena Severova, Olga Krylovich, Evgeniya Kuzmicheva, Arkady Savinetsky, Dixie West & Virginia Hatfield
In the Aleutian Islands during the Holocene, terrestrial predators were actually absent; as a result, large seabird colonies thrived along the coasts or across entire islands. Bird guano enriches the soil with nitrogen, which can lead to the formation of highly modified ornithogenic (bird-formed) ecosystems. For a more detailed investigation of avian influence, we reconstructed more than 10,000-year-old vegetation dynamics of the coast of Shemya Island (Near Islands) by pollen analysis. At the initial stages...

Simulated distribution of the fluid salinity, Cu and temperature in a sub-volcanic region

Jon Blundy, Andrey Afanasyev, Oleg Melnik, Brian Tattitch, Steve Sparks, Alison Rust & Ivan Utkin
The files brinelens.00.vtu, brinelens.01.vtu,... contain the simulated distributions of the fluid bulk salinity (a), the Cu concentration in fluid for the 'no sulfur' case (b), the Cu concenration in fluid for the 'sulfur unlimited' case (c), the Cu deposition for the 'sulfur unlimited' case (d), and the temperature (e) at t=0 yr, 10000 yr, 20000 yr,..., respectively. The distributions shown in Fig. 6a-e are in brinelens.10.vtu. The file brinelens.csv contains the simulated time evolution of...

Global flyway evolution in red knots Calidris canutus and genetic evidence for a Nearctic refugium

Jesse Conklin, Yvonne Verkuil, Phil Battley, Chris Hassell, Job Ten Horn, James Johnson, Pavel Tomkovich, Allan Baker, Theunis Piersma & Michaël Fontaine
Present-day ecology and population structure are the legacies of past climate and habitat perturbations, and this is particularly true for species that are widely distributed at high latitudes. The red knot, Calidris canutus, is an arctic-breeding, long-distance migratory shorebird with six recognized subspecies defined by differences in morphology, migration behavior, and annual-cycle phenology, in a global distribution thought to have arisen just since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). We used nextRAD sequencing of 10,881 single-nucleotide...

Quantitative assessment of the terrain transformation in proglacial areas (the Djankuat River catchment case study, Caucuses)

Andrei Kedich
Proglacial areas are extremely unstable and characterized by highly intensive geomorphic processes. In this study, we consider a typical proglacial area on the Caucuses – Djankuat river catchment. This research presents the first results for the complex monitoring of exogenic geomorphic process rates within the selected catchment. A repeated UAV survey for selected sites conducted in September 2019 and in August 2020 was the primary method. Also, high-resolution DEMs derived from stereo satellite images and...

Seasonal Ice Removal in the Barents Sea and its Dependence on Heat Advection by Atlantic Waters

A. A. Sumkina, K. K. Kivva, V. V. Ivanov & A. V. Smirnov
The Barents Sea is one of the key areas in the Arctic for monitoring of climate change. Although the Barents Sea is one of the Arctic seas, it is never completely covered with ice. One of the parameters characterizing the change in the ice regime is the date of ice retreat (DOR). The study is based on ice concentration data from the NOAA / NSIDC Climate Data Record (CDR) from 1979 to 2019 and the...

Data from: Candidate genes for colour and vision exhibit signals of selection across the pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca) breeding range

Paula K. Lehtonen, Toni Laaksonen, Aleksandr V. Artemyev, Eugen Belskii, Paul R. Berg, Christiaan Both, Laura Buggiotti, Stanislav Bureš, Malcolm D. Burgess, Andrey V. Bushuev, Indrikis Krams, Juan Moreno, Marko Mägi, Andreas Nord, Jaime Potti, Pierre-Alain Ravussin, Glenn Peter Sætre, Paivi Sirkiä, Wolfgang Winkel & Craig R. Primmer
The role of natural selection in shaping adaptive trait differentiation in natural populations has long been recognized. Determining its molecular basis, however, remains a challenge. Here, we search for signals of selection in candidate genes for colour and its perception in a passerine bird. Pied flycatcher plumage varies geographically in both its structural and pigment-based properties. Both characteristics appear to be shaped by selection. A single-locus outlier test revealed two of fourteen loci to exhibit...

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