88 Works

Flower-visiting insects and Flowering plants

Lichao Feng, Sina Adl & Qingfan Meng
Flower-visiting insects have co-evolved with flowering-plants. While it has been shown that floral traits and environmental factors influence insects visitations at day, it is yet unclear how these factors influence insects visitations at night. We sampled a montane meadow located near Jilin in northeastern China in July and August, 4 nights each month, and two time periods each night. We sampled 94 flower-visiting insect species in total and documented the floral traits and ambient factors....

Data from: Males migrate farther than females in a differential migrant: an examination of the fasting endurance hypothesis

Elizabeth A. Gow & Karen L. Wiebe
Patterns of migration including connectivity between breeding and non-breeding populations and intraspecific variation in the distance travelled are important to study because they can affect individual fitness and population dynamics. Using data from 182 band recoveries across North America and 17 light-level geolocators, we examined the migration patterns of the northern flicker (Colaptes auratus), a migratory woodpecker. This species is unusual among birds because males invest more in parental care than females. Breeding latitude was...

Data from: You are what you eat: diet-induced chemical crypsis in a coral-feeding reef fish

Rohan M. Brooker, Philip L. Munday, Douglas P. Chivers & Geoffrey P. Jones
The vast majority of research into the mechanisms of camouflage has focused on forms that confound visual perception. However, many organisms primarily interact with their surroundings using chemosensory systems and may have evolved mechanisms to ‘blend in’ with chemical components of their habitat. One potential mechanism is ‘chemical crypsis' via the sequestration of dietary elements, causing a consumer's odour to chemically match that of its prey. Here, we test the potential for chemical crypsis in...

Data from: Ecology and genomics of an important crop wild relative as a prelude to agricultural innovation

Eric J. B. Von Wettberg, Peter L Chang, Fatma Başdemir, Noelia Carrasquila-Garcia, Lijalem Korbu, Susan M. Moenga, Gashaw Bedada, Alex Greenlon, Ken S. Moriuchi, Vasantika Suryawanshi, Matilde A Cordeiro, Nina V. Noujdina, Kassaye Negash Dinegde, Syed Gul Abbas Shah Sani, Tsegaye Getahun, Lisa Vance, Emily Bergmann, Donna Lindsay, Bullo Erena Mamo, Emily J. Warschefsky, Emmanuel Dacosta-Calheiros, Edward Marques, Mustafa Abdullah Yilmaz, Ahmet Murat Cakmak, Janna Rose … & Douglas R. Cook
Domesticated species are impacted in unintended ways during domestication and breeding. Changes in the nature and intensity of selection impart genetic drift, reduce diversity, and increase the frequency of deleterious alleles. Such outcomes constrain our ability to expand the cultivation of crops into environments that differ from those under which domestication occurred. We address this need in chickpea, an important pulse legume, by harnessing the diversity of wild crop relatives. We document an extreme domestication-related...

Data from: Climatic conditions cause spatially dynamic polygyny thresholds in a large mammal

Jeffrey A. Manning & Philip D. Mcloughlin
The polygyny threshold (PT) is a critical transition point in the sexual selection process for many organisms in natural populations, characterizing when females choose to mate with an already mated male over an unmated one to improve fitness. Understanding its causes and consequences is therefore of high interest. While both theoretical and empirical work suggest that the degree of polygyny within a species is plastic and a function of male inequality, the functional relationship between...

Data from: No selection on immunological markers in response to a highly virulent pathogen in an Arctic breeding bird

Pierre Legagneux, Lisha L. Berzins, Mark Forbes, Naomi Jane Harms, Holly L. Hennin, H. G. Gilchrist, Sophie Bourgeon, Joël Bêty, Catherine Soos, Oliver P. Love, Jeffrey T. Foster, Sébastien Descamps & Gary Burness
In natural populations, epidemics provide opportunities to look for intense natural selection on genes coding for life history and immune or other physiological traits. If the populations being considered are of management or conservation concern, then identifying the traits under selection (or ‘markers’) might provide insights into possible intervention strategies during epidemics. We assessed potential for selection on multiple immune and life history traits of Arctic breeding common eiders (Somateria mollissima) during annual avian cholera...

Local recruitment in Northern Flickers is related to environmental factors at multiple scales and provides reproductive benefits to yearling breeders settling close to home

Karen Wiebe
Natal dispersal and local recruitment are affected by factors both intrinsic and extrinsic to juveniles and may affect fitness. Understanding the relationship between dispersal and population density in birds has been hindered by a lack of long-term studies and a focus on resident species has neglected the role of weather operating at large spatial scales. I studied local recruitment and the reproductive consequences of natal dispersal distance within a population of Northern Flickers (Colaptes auratus),...

Data from: Better the devil you know? how familiarity and kinship affect prey responses to disturbance cues

Kevin R. Bairos-Novak, Adam L. Crane, Douglas P. Chivers, Maud C.O. Ferrari & Maud C O Ferrari
Prey can greatly improve their odds of surviving predator encounters by eavesdropping on conspecific risk cues, but the reliability of these cues depends on both previous accuracy as well as the cue’s relevance. During a predator chase, aquatic prey release chemical disturbance cues that may vary in their reliability depending on the individuals receiving them. Thus, prey may rely differentially on disturbance cues from familiar individuals (due to previous experience) or from kin (due to...

Data from: Density‐dependent and phenological mismatch effects on growth and survival in lesser snow and Ross's goslings

Megan V. Ross, Ray T. Alisauskas, David C. Douglas, Dana K. Kellett & Kiel L. Drake
Strong seasonality of high‐latitude environments imposes temporal constraints on forage availability and quality for keystone herbivores in terrestrial arctic ecosystems, including hyper‐abundant colonial geese. Changes in food quality due to intraspecific competition, or food availability relative to the breeding phenology of birds, may have consequences for growth and survival of young. We used long‐term data (1993‐2014) from the Karrak Lake nesting colony in the Canadian central arctic to study relative roles of density and phenological...

A haplotype-led approach to increase the precision of wheat breeding

Cristobal Uauy, Jemima Brinton, Ricardo Ramirez-Gonzalez, James Simmonds, Luzie Wingen, Simon Orford, Simon Griffiths, Georg Haberer, Manuel Spannagl, Sean Walkowiak & Curtis Pozniak
Crop productivity must increase at unprecedented rates to meet the needs of the growing worldwide population. Exploiting natural variation for the genetic improvement of crops plays a central role in increasing productivity. Although current genomic technologies can be used for high-throughput identification of genetic variation, methods for efficiently exploiting this genetic potential in a targeted, systematic manner are lacking. Here, we developed a haplotype-based approach to identify genetic diversity for crop improvement using genome assemblies...

Terrestrial lichen data for Saskatchewan, Canada

Jill Johnstone, Ruth Greuel, Sarah Hart, Alexandre Truchon-Savard & Philip McLoughlin
Increased fire activity due to climate change may impact the successional dynamics of boreal forests, with important consequences for caribou habitat. Early successional forests have been shown to support lower quantities of caribou forage lichens, but geographic variation in, and controls on, the rates of lichen recovery have been largely unexplored. In this study, we sampled across a broad region in northwestern Canada to compare lichen biomass accumulation in ecoprovinces, including the Saskatchewan Boreal Shield,...

Data from: Aerobic scope predicts dominance during early life in a tropical damselfish

Shaun S. Killen, Matthew D. Mitchell, Jodie L. Rummer, Douglas P. Chivers, Maud C. O. Ferrari, Mark I. McCormick & Mark G. Meekan
A range of physiological traits are linked with aggression and dominance within social hierarchies, but the role of individual aerobic capacity in facilitating aggression has seldom been studied. Further, links previously observed between an individual's metabolic rate and aggression level may be context dependent and modulated by factors such as social stress and competitor familiarity. We examined these issues in juvenile Ambon damselfish, Pomacentrus amboinensis, which display intraspecific competition for territories during settlement on coral...

Data from: Differential introgression in a mosaic hybrid zone reveals candidate barrier genes

Erica L. Larson, Jose A. Andres, Steven M. Bogdanowicz & Richard G. Harrison
Hybrid zones act as genomic sieves; although globally advantageous alleles will spread throughout the zone and neutral alleles can be freely exchanged between species, introgression will be restricted for genes that contribute to reproductive barriers or local adaptation. Seminal fluid proteins (SFPs) are known to contribute to reproductive barriers in insects and have been proposed as candidate barrier genes in the hybridizing field crickets G. pennsylvanicus and G. firmus. Here, we have used 125 SNPs...

Additional material associated with the Matters Arising article published in Nature by Munday and colleagues

Philip Munday, Danielle Dixson, Megan Welch, Douglas Chivers, Paolo Domenici, Martin Grosell, Rachel Heuer, Geoffrey Jones, Mark McCormick, Mark Meekan, Göran Nilsson, Timothy Ravasi & Sue-Ann Watson

Data from: Temporal dynamics of snowmelt nutrient release from snow–plant residue mixtures: an experimental analysis and mathematical model development

Diogo Costa, Jian Liu, Jennifer Roste & Jane Elliott
Reducing eutrophication in surface water is a major environmental challenge in many countries around the world. In cold Canadian prairie agricultural regions, part of the eutrophication challenge arises during spring snowmelt when a significant portion of the total annual nutrient export occurs, and plant residues can act as a nutrient source instead of a sink. Although the total mass of nutrients released from various crop residues has been studied before, little research has been conducted...

Data from: A survey of invasive plants on grassland soil microbial communities and ecosystem services

Jennifer Bell, Steven Siciliano & Eric Lamb
Invasive plants can cause changes in structure and function of the ecosystem undergoing invasion. Any changes in ecosystem diversity and community composition will likely alter ecosystem services provided by that ecosystem. However, how these ecosystem services may change is poorly understood. To elucidate how these ecosystem services will change with invasion, we sampled 561 plots undergoing invasion by smooth brome (Bromus inermis) and four other invasive species at a native Rough Fescue prairie located near...

Data from: Repeat variants for the SbMATE transporter protect sorghum roots from aluminum toxicity by transcriptional interplay in cis and trans

Janaina O. Melo, Laura G. C. Martins, Beatriz A. Barros, Maiana R. Pimenta, Ubiraci G. P. Lana, Christiane E. M. Duarte, Maria M. Pastina, C. T. Guimaraes, Robert E. Schaffert, Leon V. Kochian, Elizabeth P. B. Fontes & Jurandir Vieira Magalhaes
Acidic soils, where aluminum (Al) toxicity is a major agricultural constraint, are globally widespread and are prevalent in developing countries. In sorghum, the root citrate transporter SbMATE confers Al tolerance by protecting root apices from toxic Al3+, but can exhibit reduced expression when introgressed into different lines. We show that allele-specific SbMATE transactivation occurs and is caused by factors located away from SbMATE. Using expression-QTL mapping and -GWAS, we establish that SbMATE transcription is controlled...

Data from: The fading of fear effects due to coral degradation is modulated by community composition

Maud Ferrari, Mark McCormick, Eric Fakan, Randall Barry & Douglas Chivers
An increasing number of coral reefs throughout the world have become degraded as a result of climate change. This degradation has resulted in a significant decline in local biodiversity. Studies have shown that some fishes (non-responders) within these altered habitats are not able to adequately access olfactory cues, specifically chemical alarm cues that are crucial in mediating predation risk. We propose that the inability to access this crucial information is a potential mechanism for increased...

Data from: Landscape connectivity predicts chronic wasting disease risk in Canada

Barry R. Nobert, Evelyn H. Merrill, Margo J. Pybus, Trent K. Bollinger & Yeen Ten Hwang
Predicting the spatial pattern of disease risk in wild animal populations is important for implementing effective control programmes. We developed a risk model predicting the probability that a deer harvested in a wild population was chronic wasting disease positive (CWD+) and evaluated the importance of landscape connectivity based on deer movements. We quantified landscape connectivity from deer ‘resistance’ to move across the landscape similar to the flow of electrical current across a hypothetical electronic circuit....

Data from: Northern flickers only work when they have to: how individual traits, population size and landscape disturbances affect excavation rates of an ecosystem engineer

Karen Wiebe & Karen L. Wiebe
Woodpeckers are considered ecosystem engineers because they excavate tree cavities which are used subsequently by many species of secondary cavity nesters for breeding. Woodpeckers have the choice of excavating a new hole or reusing an existing one, and this propensity to excavate (e) may affect community dynamics but has rarely been investigated. Using 18 years of data on a population of northern flickers Colaptes auratus, I tested six hypotheses to explain the propensity to excavate...

The tepary bean genome provides insight into evolution and domestication under heat stress

Samira Mafi Moghaddam, Atena Oladzad, Chu Shin Koh, Larissa Ramsay, John Hart, Sujan Mamidi, Genevieve Hoopes, Avinash Sreedasyam, Andrew Wiersma, Dongyan Zhao, Jane Grimwood, John P. Hamilton, Jerry Jenkins, Brieanne Vaillancourt, Joshua C. Wood, Jeremy Schmutz, Sateesh Kahale, Tiomothy Porch, Kirstin E. Bett, C. Robin Buell & Phillip E. McClean
Tepary bean (Phaseolus acutifolis A. Gray), native to the Sonoran Desert, is highly adapted to heat and drought. It is a sister species of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), the most important legume protein source for direct human consumption, and whose production is threatened by climate change. Analysis of the tepary genome revealed mechanisms for resilience to moderate heat stress and a reduced disease resistance gene repertoire, consistent with adaptation to arid, hot environments. Extensive...

Data from: Biomarker of burden: feather corticosterone reflects energetic expenditure and allostatic overload in captive waterfowl

David W. Johns, Tracy A. Marchant, Graham D. Fairhurst, John R. Speakman & Robert G. Clark
1.Allostatic load describes the interplay between energetic demand and availability and is highly context dependent, varying between seasons and life history stages. When energy demands exceed physiological set points modulated by glucocorticoid hormones, individuals may experience allostatic overload and transition between stages in sub-optimal physiological states. 2.Corticosterone, the major glucocorticoid hormone regulating energy expenditure in birds, is incorporated into growing feathers (CORTf), and it has been suggested that CORTf reflects long-term records of allostatic load...

Data from: Reproduction as a bottleneck to treeline advance across the circumarctic forest tundra ecotone

Carissa D. Brown, Geneviève Dufour-Tremblay, Ryan G. Jameson, Steven D. Mamet, Andrew J. Trant, Xanthe J. Walker, Stéphane Boudraeu, Karen A. Harper, Greg H.R. Henry, Luise Hermanutz, Annika Hofgaard, Ludmila Isaeva, G. Peter Kershaw, Jill F. Johnstone & Gregory H. R. Henry
The fundamental niche of many species is shifting with climate change, especially in sub-arctic ecosystems with pronounced recent warming. Ongoing warming in sub-arctic regions should lessen environmental constraints on tree growth and reproduction, leading to increased success of trees colonising tundra. Nevertheless, variable responses of treeline ecotones have been documented in association with warming temperatures. One explanation for time lags between increasingly favourable environmental conditions and treeline ecotone movement is reproductive limitations caused by low...

Data from: The ecology of avian influenza viruses in wild dabbling ducks (Anas spp.) in Canada

Zsuzsanna Papp, Robert G. Clark, E. Jane Parmley, Frederick A. Leighton, Cheryl Waldner & Catherine Soos
Avian influenza virus (AIV) occurrence and transmission remain important wildlife and human health issues in much of the world, including in North America. Through Canada's Inter-Agency Wild Bird Influenza Survey, close to 20,000 apparently healthy, wild dabbling ducks (of seven species) were tested for AIV between 2005 and 2011. We used these data to identify and evaluate ecological and demographic correlates of infection with low pathogenic AIVs in wild dabbling ducks (Anas spp.) across Canada....

Data from: miR-122, small RNA annealing and sequence mutations alter the predicted structure of the Hepatitis C virus 5′ UTR RNA to stabilize and promote viral RNA accumulation

Yalena Amador-Cañizares, Mamata Panigrahi, Adam Huys, Rasika D. Kunden, Halim M. Adams, Michael J. Schinold & Joyce A. Wilson
Annealing of the liver-specific microRNA, miR-122, to the Hepatitis C virus (HCV) 5′ UTR is required for efficient virus replication. By using siRNAs to pressure escape mutations, 30 replication-competent HCV genomes having nucleotide changes in the conserved 5′ untranslated region (UTR) were identified. In silico analysis predicted that miR-122 annealing induces canonical HCV genomic 5′ UTR RNA folding, and mutant 5′ UTR sequences that promoted miR-122-independent HCV replication favored the formation of the canonical RNA...

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