109 Works

Data from: The socially mediated recovery of a fearful fish paired with periodically replaced calm models

Adam L. Crane, Kevin R. Bairos-Novak, Laurel H. Sacco, Maud C.O. Ferrari & Maud C. O. Ferrari
Social learning is an important mechanism for acquiring knowledge about environmental risk. However, little work has explored the learning of safety and how such learning outcomes are shaped by the social environment. Here, we exposed minnows, Pimephales promelas, to a high-risk environment to induce behavioral responses associated with fear (e.g., neophobia). We then used the presence of calm conspecific models (low-risk individuals) to weaken these responses. When observers (individuals from the high-risk environment) and models...

Data from: Are more diverse parts of the mammalian skull more labile?

Marta Linde-Medina, Julia C. Boughner, Sharlene E. Santana & Rui Diogo
Morphological variation is unevenly distributed within the mammalian skull; some of its parts have diversified more than others. It is commonly thought that this pattern of variation is mainly the result of the structural organization of the skull, as defined by the pattern and magnitude of trait covariation. Patterns of trait covariation can facilitate morphological diversification if they are aligned in the direction of selection, or these patterns can constrain diversification if oriented in a...

Data from: Multilevel and sex-specific selection on competitive traits in North American red squirrels.

David N. Fisher, Stan Boutin, Ben Dantzer, Murray M. Humphries, Jeffrey E. Lane & Andrew G. McAdam
Individuals often interact more closely with some members of the population (e.g. offspring, siblings or group members) than they do with other individuals. This structuring of interactions can lead to multilevel natural selection, where traits expressed at the group-level influence fitness alongside individual-level traits. Such multilevel selection can alter evolutionary trajectories, yet is rarely quantified in the wild, especially for species that do not interact in clearly demarcated groups. We quantified multilevel natural selection on...

Data from: DIY meteorology: use of citizen science to monitor snow dynamics in a data-sparse city

Willemijn M. Appels, Lori Bradford, Kwok Pan Chun, Anna E. Coles & Graham Strickert
Cities are under pressure to operate their services effectively and project costs of operations across various timeframes. In high-latitude and high-altitude urban centers, snow management is one of the larger unknowns and has both operational and budgetary limitations. Snowfall and snow depth observations within urban environments are important to plan snow clearing and prepare for the effects of spring runoff on cities’ drainage systems. In-house research functions are expensive, but one way to overcome that...

Data from: Multivariate species boundaries and conservation of harlequin poison frogs

Andres Posso-Terranova & Jose Andrés
In this paper we present an iterative method for delimiting species under the general lineage concept (GLC) based on the multivariate clustering of morphological, ecological, and genetic data. Our rationale is that distinct multivariate groups correspond to evolutionarily independent metapopulation lineages because they reflect the common signal of different secondary defining properties (environmental and genetic distinctiveness, phenotypic diagnosability, etc.) that imply the existence of barriers preventing or limiting gene exchange. We applied this method to...

Data from: Machine learning to classify animal species in camera trap images: applications in ecology

Micheal A. Tabak, Mohammad Sadegh Norouzzadeh, Michael A. Tabak, David W. Wolfson, Steven J. Sweeney, Paul A. Di Salvo, Ryan S. Miller, Jesse S. Lewis, Jeff Clune, Ryan K. Brook, Elizabeth G. Mandeville, Paul M. Lukacs, Anna K. Moeller, Raoul K. Boughton, Bethany Wight, James C. Beasley & Peter E. Schlichting
Motion‐activated cameras (“camera traps”) are increasingly used in ecological and management studies for remotely observing wildlife and are amongst the most powerful tools for wildlife research. However, studies involving camera traps result in millions of images that need to be analysed, typically by visually observing each image, in order to extract data that can be used in ecological analyses. We trained machine learning models using convolutional neural networks with the ResNet‐18 architecture and 3,367,383 images...

Data from: Individual quality and age but not environmental or social conditions modulate costs of reproduction in a capital breeder

Lucie Debeffe, Jocelyn Poissant & Philip D. McLoughlin
Costs associated with reproduction are widely known to play a role in the evolution of reproductive tactics with consequences to population and eco-evolutionary dynamics. Evaluating these costs as they pertain to species in the wild remains an important goal of evolutionary ecology. Individual heterogeneity, including differences in individual quality (i.e., among-individual differences in traits associated with survival and reproduction) or state, and variation in environmental and social conditions can modulate the costs of reproduction; however,...

Data from: The ichnogenus Tubotomaculum: an enigmatic pellet-filled structure from Upper Cretaceous to Miocene deep-marine deposits of southern Spain

Jose Carlos García-Ramos, María Gabriela Mángano, Laura Piñuela, Luis A. Buatois & Francisco J. Rodríguez-Tovar
The trace-fossil name Tubotomaculum has been extensively used to refer to spindle-shaped pellet-filled tubes present in Upper Cretaceous to Miocene deep-marine deposits of the western Mediterranean region. However, it has never been formally diagnosed, and accordingly it was regarded as a nomen nudum. In this paper, we formally introduce the ichnogenus Tubotomaculum, including the new ichnospecies Tubotomaculum mediterranensis. Bioglyphs, represented by scratch traces that may be present on the basal and lateral surfaces of the...

Data from: Condition-dependent expression of carotenoid- and melanin-based plumage colour of northern flicker nestlings revealed by manipulation of brood size

Annessa B. Musgrove & Karen L. Wiebe
Carotenoid-based colouration in feathers is widely accepted to be a reliable signal of the health of an individual, but the condition-dependence of melanin-based plumage ornaments has been highly debated. Using broods that were manipulated in size, we tested whether nutritional stress during rearing affected the carotenoid pigmentation in secondary feathers and the size, shape, and symmetry of melanin spots on breast plumage of northern flicker Colaptes auratus nestlings. Two measures of carotenoid colour (chroma and...

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