16 Works

Data from: Small N e of the isolated and unmanaged horse population on Sable Island

Andrea J. Uzans, Zoe Lucas, Brenna A. McLeod & Timothy R. Frasier
For small, isolated populations 2 common conservation concerns relate to genetic threats: inbreeding and negative consequences associated with loss of genetic diversity due to drift. Mitigating these threats often involves conservation actions that can be controversial, such as translocations or captive breeding programs. Although such actions have been successful in some situations, in others they have had undesirable outcomes. Here, we estimated the effective population size (N e) of the Sable Island horses to assess...

Data from: Conservation genetics of the eastern yellow-bellied racer (Coluber constrictor flaviventris) and bullsnake (Pituophis catenifer sayi): river valleys are critical features for snakes at northern range limits

Christopher M. Somers, Carly F. Graham, Jessica A. Martino, Timothy R. Frasier, Stacey L. Lance, Laura E. Gardiner & Ray G. Poulin
On the North American Great Plains, several snake species reach their northern range limit where they rely on sparsely distributed hibernacula located in major river valleys. Independent colonization histories for the river valleys and barriers to gene flow caused by the lack of suitable habitat between them may have produced genetically differentiated snake populations. To test this hypothesis, we used 10 microsatellite loci to examine the population structure of two species of conservation concern in...

Data from: Kinship influences sperm whale social organization within, but generally not among, social units

Christine M. Konrad, Shane Gero, Timothy Frasier & Hal Whitehead
Sperm whales have a multi-level social structure based upon long-term, cooperative social units. What role kinship plays in structuring this society is poorly understood. We combined extensive association data (518 days, during 2005-2016) and genetic data (18 microsatellites and 346bp mtDNA control region sequences) for 65 individuals from 12 social units from the Eastern Caribbean to examine patterns of kinship and social behaviour. Social units were clearly matrilineally-based, evidenced by greater relatedness within social units...

Data from: Convergence in organ size but not energy metabolism enzyme activities among wild Lake Whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) species pairs

Anne C. Dalziel, Martin Laporte, Clément Rougeux, Helga Guderley & Louis Bernatchez
The repeated evolution of similar phenotypes by similar mechanisms can be indicative of local adaptation, constraints or biases in the evolutionary process. Little is known about the incidence of physiological convergence in natural populations, so here we test whether energy metabolism in ‘dwarf’ and ‘normal’ Lake Whitefish evolves by similar mechanisms. Prior genomic and transcriptomic studies have found that divergence in energy metabolism is key to local adaptation in whitefish species pairs, but that distinct...

Data from: The diet of Myotis lucifugus across Canada: assessing foraging quality and diet variability

Elizabeth L. Clare, William O. C. Symondson, Hugh Broders, François Fabianek, Erin E. Frazer, Alistair MacKenzie, Andrew Boughen, Rachel Hamilton, Craig K. R. Willis, Felix Martinez-Nuñez, Allyson K. Menzies, Kaleigh J. O. Norquay, Mark Brigham, Joseph Poissant, Jody Rintoul, Robert M. R. Barclay, Jesika P. Reimer & Erin E. Fraser
Variation in prey resources influences the diet and behaviour of predators. When prey become limiting, predators may travel farther to find preferred food or adjust to existing local resources. When predators are habitat limited, local resource abundance impacts foraging success. We analysed the diet of Myotis lucifugus (little brown bats) from Nova Scotia (eastern Canada) to the Northwest Territories (north-western Canada). This distribution includes extremes of season length and temperature and encompasses colonies on rural...

Data from: Genetic connectivity among swarming sites in the wide ranging and recently declining little brown bat (Myotis lucifugus)

Lynne E. Burns, Timothy R. Frasier & Hugh G. Broders
Characterizing movement dynamics and spatial aspects of gene flow within a species permits inference on population structuring. As patterns of structuring are products of historical and current demographics and gene flow, assessment of structure through time can yield an understanding of evolutionary dynamics acting on populations that are necessary to inform management. Recent dramatic population declines in hibernating bats in eastern North America from white-nose syndrome have prompted the need for information on movement dynamics...

Data from: Cline coupling and uncoupling in a stickleback hybrid zone

Timothy H. Vines, Anne C. Dalziel, Arianne Albert, Thor Veen, Patricia Marita Schulte, Dolph Schluter & Arianne Y. K. Albert
Strong ecological selection on a genetic locus can maintain allele frequency differences between populations in different environments, even in the face of hybridization. When alleles at divergent loci come into tight linkage disequilibrium, selection acts on them as a unit and can significantly reduce gene flow. For populations interbreeding across a hybrid zone, linkage disequilibria between loci can force clines to share the same slopes and centers. However, strong ecological selection on a locus can...

Data from: Territory size decreases minimally with increasing food abundance in stream salmonids: implications for population regulation

James W. A. Grant, Laura K. Weir & Stefan Ó. Steingrimsson
How the local density of territorial animals responds to changes in food abundance will depend on the flexibility of territory size. Quantitative estimates of territory size over a broad range of food abundance are relatively rare because of the difficulty of measuring food abundance in the wild. Stream salmonids are an ideal model system for investigating flexibility in territory size, because food abundance can be quantified in the field and manipulated in the laboratory. We...

Data from: Designed habitat heterogeneity on green roofs increases seedling survival but not plant species diversity

Emily A. Walker & Jeremy T. Lundholm
Urban areas benefit from the ecosystem services provided by low input green roofs. However, limited substrate depth on these green roofs creates challenging conditions for plant establishment and survival, leading to industry reliance on non-native succulents. Through a green roof and glasshouse study, we assessed the impact of simple design modifications to the green roof surface, including redistribution of substrate and addition of logs and pebble piles, on both substrate temperature and moisture content. We...

Localized environmental heterogeneity drives the population differentiation of two endangered and endemic Opisthopappus Shih species

Hang Ye, Zhi Wang, Huimin Hou, Jiahui Wu, Yue Gao, Wei Han, Wenming Ru, Genlou Sun & Yiling Wang
Background: Climate heterogeneity not only indirectly shapes the genetic structures of plant populations, but also drives adaptive divergence by impacting demographic dynamics. The variable localized climates and topographic complexity of the Taihang Mountains make them a major natural boundary in Northern China that influences the divergence of organisms distributed across this region. Opisthopappus is an endemic genus of the Taihang Mountains that includes only two spatially partitioned species Opisthopappus longilobus and Opisthopappus taihangensis. For this...

Data from: Potential geographic distributions of endangered Opisthopappus Shih in response to environmental changes

Hao Zhang, Hang Ye, En Zang, Qiyang Qie, Shan He, Weili Hao, Yafei Lan, Zhixia Liu, Genlou Sun & Yiling Wang
Environmental changes could dramatically influence the distribution area and niche of organisms. Taihang Mountains contain numerous endemic species, regarded as a center of distribution and diversity for many plant genera. It is necessary that having more comprehensive studies of test climate effects on species in this area. Opisthopappus (containing two species Opisthopappus taihangensis and Opisthopappus longilobus) is an endangered and endemic genus in the Taihang Mountains. Predicting the suitable potential distribution, exploring the niche difference...

Data from: Species composition of First Nation whaling hunts in the Clayoquot Sound region of Vancouver Island as estimated through genetic analyses

Stephanie L. Béland, Brenna A. McLeod, Joe Martin, Gisele M. Martin, James D. Darling & Timothy R. Frasier
Deepening our understanding of whale hunting practices is important from both cultural and biological perspectives. Many cultures practice whaling activities, including the Nuu-cha-nulth Nations of the Pacific Northwest. Nuu-cha-nulth cultural lifeways and laws include great care and respect for these animals that provide so much wealth to their communities. The disruption of this culture by colonial governments, combined with the decimation of whale populations through industrial whaling, led to the loss of traditional whaling activities...

Genetic diversity and connectivity of southern right whales (Eubalaena australis) found in the Brazil and Chile–Peru wintering grounds and the South Georgia (Islas Georgias del Sur) feeding ground

Emma L Carroll, Paulo Ott, Louise McMillan, Bárbara Galletti Vernazzani, Petra Neveceralova, Els Vermeulen, Oscar Gaggiotti, Artur Andriolo, C. Scott Baker, Connor Bamford, Peter Best, Elsa Cabrera, Susannah Calderan, Andrea Chirife, Rachel M. Fewster, Paulo A. C. Flores, Timothy Frasier, Thales R. O. Freitas, Karina Groch, Pavel Hulva, Amy Kennedy, Russell Leaper, Mathew S. Leslie, Michael Moore, Larissa Oliviera … & Jennifer A Jackson
As species recover from exploitation, continued assessments of connectivity and population structure are warranted to provide information for conservation and management. This is particularly true in species with high dispersal capacity, such as migratory whales, where patterns of connectivity could change rapidly. Here we build on a previous long-term, large-scale collaboration on southern right whales (Eubalaena australis) to combine new (nnew) and published (npub) mitochondrial (mtDNA) and microsatellite genetic data from all major wintering grounds...

Data from: A unique, large-sized stem-Odonata (Insecta) found in the early Pennsylvanian of New Brunswick (Canada)

Olivier Béthoux, Rowan E. Norrad, Matthew Stimson, Olivia King, Luke F. Allen, Isabelle Deregnaucourt, Steven J. Hinds, Jake H. Lewis & Jörg W. Schneider
A stem-relative of dragon- and damselflies, Brunellopteron norradi Béthoux, Deregnaucourt and Norrad gen. et spec. nov., is documented based on a specimen found at Robertson Point (Grand Lake, New Brunswick, Canada; Sunburry Creek Formation; early Moscovian, Pennsylvanian) and preserving the basal half of a hindwing. A comparative analysis of the evolution of wing venation in early odonates demonstrates that it belongs to a yet poorly documented subset of species. Specifically, it displays a MP+CuA fusion,...

Data from: Combinations of reproductive, individual, and weather effects best explain torpor patterns among female little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus)

Nicole K. Besler & Hugh G. Broders
Heterothermic mammals can use torpor, a state of metabolic suppression, to conserve energy during times of limited food and poor environmental conditions. Females may use torpor throughout gestation and lactation; however, there are associated physiological and ecological costs with potential fitness consequences. Previous studies have controlled for, but not quantified the impact of interindividual variation on torpor patterns and understanding this may provide insight on why certain thermoregulatory responses are employed. The objective of this...

Data from: Population genetic structure within and among seasonal site types in the little brown bat (Myotis lucifugus) and the northern long-eared bat (M. septentrionalis)

Laura N. L. Johnson, Brenna A. McLeod, Lynne E. Burns, Krista Arseneault, Timothy R. Frasier & Hugh G. Broders
During late summer and early autumn, temperate bats migrate from their summering sites to swarming sites, where mating likely occurs. However, the extent to which individuals of a single summering site migrate to the same swarming site, and vice versa, is not known. We examined the migratory connectivity between summering and swarming sites in two temperate, North American, bat species, the little brown bat (Myotis lucifugus) and the northern long-eared bat (Myotis septentrionalis). Using mitochondrial...

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