81 Works

Emergence of Organizations out of Garbage Can Dynamics

Guido Fioretti
The Garbage Can Model of Organizational Choice (GCM) is a fundamental model of organizational decision-making originally proposed by J.D. Cohen, J.G. March and J.P. Olsen in 1972. In their model, decisions are made out of random meetings of decision-makers, opportunities, solutions and problems within an organization. With this model, these very same agents are supposed to meet in society at large where they make decisions according to GCM rules. Furthermore, under certain additional conditions decision-makers,...

Mnamon: Il moabitico

Daniele Tripaldi
Introduzione critica al moabitico, risorse elettroniche e bibliografia.

Data from: New material and systematic re-evaluation of Medusaceratops lokii (Dinosauria: Ceratopsidae) from the Judith River Formation (Campanian, Montana)

Kentaro Chiba, Michael J. Ryan, Federico Fanti, Mark A. Loewen & David C. Evans
Medusaceratops lokii is an enigmatic taxon of ceratopsid represented by partial parietals from the Mansfield bonebed in the Campanian Judith River Formation, Montana. Originally, all ceratopsid material collected from this bonebed was referred to the centrosaurine ceratopsid Albertaceratops, but subsequently two parietals were designated the types of the chasmosaurine, M. lokii, in part, because they were interpreted to have three epiparietals bilaterally. Here we describe new material from the bonebed that allows a systematic revision...

Data from: How much would it cost to monitor farmland biodiversity in Europe?

Ilse R. Geijzendorffer, Stefano Targetti, Manuel K. Schneider, Dick J. Brus, Philippe Jeanneret, Robert H. G. Jongman, Martin Knotters, Davide Viaggi, Siyka Angelova, Michaela Arndorfer, Debra Bailey, Katalin Balzacs, András Báldim, Marion M. B. Bogers, Robert G.H. Bunce, Jean-Philippe Choisis, Peter Dennis, Sebastian Eiter, Wendy Fjellstad, Jürgen F. Friedel, Tiziano Gomiero, Arjan Griffioen, Max Kainz, Anikó Kovács-Hostyánszki, Gisela Lüscher … & András Báldi
To evaluate progress on political biodiversity objectives, biodiversity monitoring provides information on whether intended results are being achieved. Despite scientific proof that monitoring and evaluation increase the (cost) efficiency of policy measures, cost estimates for monitoring schemes are seldom available, hampering their inclusion in policy programme budgets. Empirical data collected from 12 case studies across Europe were used in a power analysis to estimate the number of farms that would need to be sampled per...

Data from: The role of ventromedial prefrontal cortex in reward valuation and future thinking during intertemporal choice

Elisa Ciaramelli & R. Shayna Rosenbaum
The paper investigates the effect of reward magnitude and episodic future thinking (EFT) cues on delay discounting (DD) in 12 patients with lesions to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC patients) and 41 healthy controls. In the Standard condition, participants viewed pairs of monetary amounts (of different magnitude) and were asked to make hypothetical choices between smaller-immediate rewards and larger rewards available after a delay. In the EFT condition, participants imagined personal events to occur at...

Data on epiphytic lichens along elevational gradients in South Tyrol, Italy

Juri Nascimbene, Hugo Saiz, Alessandro Chiarucci & Matteo Dainese
1. Several studies have evaluated lichen responses in terms of shifts in species climate suitability, species richness, and community composition. In contrast, patterns of co-occurrence among species that could be related to complex species interactions have received less consideration. Biotic interactions play a major role in shaping species niches, fitness, and adaptation to new environments. Therefore, considering the specific relationships among co-occurring species is essential to further deepen our knowledge of biodiversity response to climate...

Data from: Differential responses of marine communities to natural and anthropogenic changes

Michal Kowalewski, Jacelyn M. Wittmer, Troy A. Dexter, Alessandro Amorosi & Daniele Scarponi
Responses of ecosystems to environmental changes vary greatly across habitats, organisms, and observational scales. The Quaternary fossil record of the Po Basin demonstrates that marine communities of Northern Adriatic reemerged unchanged following the most recent glaciation, which lasted ~100,000 years. The Late Pleistocene and Holocene interglacial ecosystems were both dominated by the same species, species turnover rates approximated predictions of resampling models of a homogenous system, and comparable bathymetric gradients in species composition, sample-level diversity,...

Italy

Claudia Padovani, Giuliano Bobba, Alice Baroni, Marinella Belluati, Cecilia Biancalana, Mauro Bomba, Alice Fubini, Francesco Marrazzo, Rossella Rega, Christian Ruggiero, Simone Sallusti, Sergio Splendore & Michele  Valente

Mnamon: L'ebraico

Daniele Tripaldi
Introduzione critica all'ebraico, risorse elettroniche e bibliografia.

Tra il dire e il fare (turismo smart), c’è di mezzo il “tourer”

Valentina Albanese & Ilaria Di Cocco

Data from: Stratigraphic signatures of mass extinctions: ecological and sedimentary determinants

Rafał Nawrot, Daniele Scarponi, Michele Azzarone, Troy A. Dexter, Kristopher M. Kusnerik, Jacalyn M. Wittmer, Alessandro Amorosi & Michal Kowalewski
Stratigraphic patterns of last occurrences of fossil taxa (LOs) potentially fingerprint mass extinctions and delineate rates and geometries of those events. Although empirical studies of mass extinctions recognize that random sampling causes LOs to occur earlier than the time of extinction (Signor–Lipps effect), sequence-stratigraphic controls on the position of LOs are rarely considered. By tracing stratigraphic ranges of extant mollusc species preserved in the Holocene succession of the Po coastal plain (Italy), we demonstrated that,...

Data from: Habitat continuity and stepping-stone oceanographic distances explain population genetic connectivity of the brown alga Cystoseira amentacea

Roberto Buonomo, Jorge Assis, Francisco Fernandes, Aschwin H. Engelen, Laura Airoldi & Ester A. Serrão
Effective predictive and management approaches for species occurring in a metapopulation structure require good understanding of inter-population connectivity. In this study we ask whether population genetic structure of marine species with fragmented distributions can be predicted by stepping-stone oceanographic transport and habitat continuity, using as model an ecosystem-structuring brown alga, Cystoseira amentacea var. stricta. To answer this question, we analyzed the genetic structure and estimated the connectivity of populations along discontinuous rocky habitat patches in...

Data from: The effect of pollination mode on seed performance of Gentiana lutea: a laboratory evaluation of seed germinability

Martina Rossi, Alessandro Fisogni & Marta Galloni
Gentiana lutea L. (yellow gentian, Gentianaceae) is a protected orophyte of central and southern Europe, mainly threatened by the uncontrolled collection of its rhizome, used in traditional medicine and for liquor production. The species is self-compatible, but outcrossing mediated by pollinators is needed to obtain a viable progeny. In this study, we considered five natural populations belonging to the four subspecies of G. lutea. We performed controlled pollinations in the field (self- versus cross-pollination) followed...

Data from: Combined exposure to sublethal concentrations of an insecticide and a fungicide affect feeding, ovary development and longevity in a solitary bee

Fabio Sgolastra, Xavier Arnan, Riccardo Cabbri, Gloria Isani, Piotr Medrzycki, Dariusz Teper & Jordi Bosch
Pollinators in agroecosystems are often exposed to pesticide mixtures. Even at low concentrations, the effects of these mixtures on bee populations are difficult to predict due to potential synergistic interactions. We orally exposed newly-emerged females of the solitary bee Osmia bicornis to environmentally-realistic levels of clothianidin (neonicotinoid insecticide) and propiconazole (fungicide), singly and in combination. The amount of feeding solution consumed was highest in bees exposed to the neonicotinoid, and lowest in bees exposed to...

Driving cell response through deep learning, a study in simulated 3D cell cultures

Marilisa Cortesi & Emanuele Giordano
Computational simulations are becoming increasingly relevant in biomedical research, providing strategies to reproduce experimental results, improve the resolution of in-vitro experiments, and predict the system’s behavior in untested conditions. The study of how each simulated variable influences measurable outcomes, however, has received little attention. To bridge this gap, we here propose a deep learning framework capable of reliably classify simulated time series data and identify class-defining features. This information will be shown to be useful...

Scale-dependent shifts in functional and phylogenetic structure of Mediterranean island plant communities over two centuries

Chunhui Zhang, Marc William Cadotte, Alessandro Chiarucci, Michel Loreau, Charles Willis, Xingfeng Si, Lanping Li & Marcus Cianciaruso
1. Since the Industrial Revolution, the rapid global population and economic expansion has had tremendous impacts on biodiversity across spatial scales, especially for islands. While changes in species richness are easily inferred, the impact of human activity on the underlying community assembly processes has been difficult to ascertain because of lack of long-term community data. 2. Here, we document how the manifestations of plant community assembly have changed over time and space in a Mediterranean...

Data from: Reliable wolf-dog hybrid detection in Europe using a reduced SNP panel developed for non-invasively collected samples

Jenni Harmoinen, Alina Von Thaden, Jouni Aspi, Laura Kvist, Berardino Cocchiararo, Anne Jarausch, Andrea Gazzola, Teodora Sin, Hannes Lohi, Marjo Hytönen, Ilpo Kojola, Astrid Vik Stronen, Romolo Caniglia, Federica Mattucci, Marco Galaverni, Raquel Godinho, Aritz Ruiz-González, Ettore Randi, Violeta Muñoz-Fuentes & Carsten Nowak
Background: Understanding the processes that lead to hybridization of wolves and dogs is of scientific and management importance, particularly over large geographical scales, as wolves can disperse great distances. However, a method to efficiently detect hybrids in routine wolf monitoring is lacking. Microsatellites offer only limited resolution due to the low number of markers showing distinctive allele frequencies between wolves and dogs. Moreover, calibration across laboratories is time-consuming and costly. In this study, we selected...

The plot thickens: Haploid and triploid-like thalli, hybridization, and biased mating type ratios in Letharia

Sandra Lorena Ament-Velásquez, Veera Tuovinen, Linnea Bergström, Toby Spribille, Dan Vanderpool, Juri Nascimbene, Yoshikazu Yamamoto, Göran Thor & Hanna Johannesson
The study of the reproductive biology of lichen fungal symbionts has been traditionally challenging due to their complex and symbiotic lifestyles. Against the common belief of haploidy, a recent genomic study found a triploid-like signal in Letharia. Here, we used genomic data from a pure culture and from thalli, together with a PCR survey of the MAT locus, to infer the genome organization and reproduction in Letharia. We found that the read count variation in...

Data from: All is fish that comes to the net: metabarcoding for rapid fisheries catch assessment

Lorenzo Talarico, Tommaso Russo, Giulia Maiello, Charles Baillie, Giuliano Colosimo, Lorenzo D'Andrea, Federico Di Maio, Fabio Fiorentino, Simone Franceschini, Germana Garofalo, Dario Scannella, Stefano Cataudella & Stefano Mariani
AbstractMonitoring marine resource exploitation is a key activity in fisheries science and biodiversity conservation. Since research surveys are time-consuming and costly, fishery-dependent data (i.e. derived directly from fishing vessels) are increasingly credited with a key role in expanding the reach of ocean monitoring. Fishing vessels may be seen as widely ranging data-collecting platforms, which could act as a fleet of sentinels for monitoring marine life, in particular exploited stocks. Here, we investigate the possibility of...

Dataframe from: Diversity of European habitat types is correlated with geography more than climate and human pressure

Marco Cervellini, Michele Di Musciano, Piero Zannini, Simone Fattorini, Borja Jiménez-Alfaro, Emiliano Agrillo, Fabio Attorre, Pierangela Angelini, Carl Beierkuhnlein, Laura Casella, Richard Field, Jan-Christopher Fischer, Piero Genovesi, Samuel Hoffmann, Severin D.H. Irl, Juri Nascimbene, Duccio Rocchini, Manuel Steinbauer, Ole R. Vetaas & Alessandro Chiarucci
We generated this dataframe to model EU habitat richness at continental scale as a function of geographical, climate and anthropogenic variables (please, see Material and Method section in the published paper version for all the details). We found geographical variables were by far the most strongly correlated with habitat richness, followed by climate. However, anthropogenic variables gained importance when consindering their interactions, with important implications for conservation planning.

Macroevolutionary analyses provide new evidence of phasmid wings evolution as a reversible process

Andrea Luchetti, Giobbe Forni & Jacopo Martelossi
The concept that complex ancestral traits can never be re-acquired after their loss is still widely accepted, despite phylogenetic and molecular approaches suggesting instances where phenotypes may have been lost throughout the evolutionary history of a clade and subsequently reverted back in derived lineages. One of the first and most notable examples of such a process is wing evolution in phasmids; this polyneopteran order of insects, which comprises stick and leaf insects, has played a...

Data from: Spatial dynamics and mixing of bluefin tuna in the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea revealed using next generation sequencing

Gregory Neils Puncher, Alessia Cariani, Gregory E. Maes, Jeroen Van Houdt, Koen Herten, Rita Cannas, Naiara Rodriguez-Ezpeleta, Aitor Albaina, M. Andone Estonba, Molly Lutcavage, Alex Hanke, Jay Rooker, James S. Franks, Joseph M. Quattro, Gualtiero Basilone, Igaratza Fraile, Urtzi Laconcha, Nicolas Goñi, Ai Kimoto, A. David Macías, Francisco Alemany, Simeon Deguara, Salem W. Zgozi, Fulvio Garibaldi, Isik K. Oray … & Fausto Tinti
The Atlantic bluefin tuna is a highly migratory species emblematic of the challenges associated with shared fisheries management. In an effort to resolve the species’ stock dynamics, a genome-wide search for spatially informative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was undertaken, by way of sequencing reduced representation libraries. An allele frequency approach to SNP discovery was used, combining the data of 555 larvae and young-of-the-year (LYOY) into pools representing major geographical areas and mapping against a newly...

Data from: MHC variability in an isolated wolf population in Italy

Marco Galaverni, Romolo Caniglia, Elena Fabbri, Silvana Lapalombella & Ettore Randi
Small, isolated populations may experience increased extinction risk due to reduced genetic variability at important functional genes, thus decreasing the population’s adaptive potential. The major histocompatibility complex (MHC), a key immunological gene cluster, usually shows high variability maintained by positive or balancing selection in response to challenges by pathogens. Here we investigated for the first time, the variability of 3 MHC class II genes (DRB1, DQA1, and DQB1) in 94 samples collected from Italian wolves....

Data from: Genetic structure and differentiation of the Italian Catria horse

Daniele Bigi & Giovanna Perrotta
Catria is one of the 22 native Italian horse breeds that now survive from a larger number. 30 individuals, representative of the Catria horse, were analyzed for 11 microsatellites and compared to data of 10 breeds reared in Italy. Three different approaches, genetic distances, correspondence analysis and clustering methods, were considered to study genetic relationships among Catria and the other horse populations. Genetic differentiation among breeds was highly significant (P < 0.01) for all loci....

Data from: Molecular analysis of carnivore Protoparvovirus detected in white blood cells of naturally infected cats

Andrea Balboni, Francesca Bassi, Stefano De Arcangeli, Rosanna Zobba, Carla Dedola, Alberto Alberti & Mara Battilani
Background: Cats are susceptible to feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) and canine parvovirus (CPV) variants 2a, 2b and 2c. Detection of FPV and CPV variants in apparently healthy cats and their persistence in white blood cells (WBC) and other tissues when neutralising antibodies are simultaneously present, suggest that parvovirus may persist long-term in the tissues of cats post-infection without causing clinical signs. The aim of this study was to screen a population of 54 cats from...

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