75 Works

Data from: Testing models of reciprocal relations between social influence and integration in STEM across the college years

Paul Hernandez, V. Bede Agocha, Lauren Carney, Mica Estrada, Sharon Lee, David Loomis, Michelle Williams & Crystal Park
The present study tests predictions from the Tripartite Integration Model of Social Influences (TIMSI) concerning processes linking social interactions to social integration into science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) communities and careers. Students from historically overrepresented groups in STEM were followed from their senior year of high school through their senior year in college. Based on TIMSI, we hypothesized that interactions with social influence agents (operationalized as mentor network diversity, faculty mentor support, and research...

Data from: A new Devonian euthycarcinoid evidences the use of different respiratory strategies during the marine-to-terrestrial transition in the myriapod lineage

Pierre Gueriau, James C. Lamsdell, Roy A. Wogelius, Phillip L. Manning, Victoria M. Egerton, Uwe Bergmann, Loïc Bertrand & Julien Denayer
Myriapods were, together with arachnids, the earliest animals to occupy terrestrial ecosystems, by at least the Silurian. The origin of myriapods and their land colonization have long remained puzzling until euthycarcinoids, an extinct group of aquatic arthropods considered amphibious, were shown to be stem group myriapods, extending the lineage to the Cambrian and evidencing a marine-to-terrestrial transition. Although possible respiratory structures comparable to the air-breathing tracheal system of myriapods are visible in several euthycarcinoids, little...

Data from: Demographic stimulation of the obligate understorey herb, Panax quinquefolius L., in response to natural forest canopy disturbances

Jennifer L. Chandler & James B. McGraw
1.Natural and anthropogenic forest canopy disturbances significantly alter forest dynamics and lead to multi-dimensional shifts in the forest understorey. An understorey plant's ability to exploit alterations to the light environment caused by canopy disturbance leads to changes in population dynamics. The purpose of this work was to determine if population growth of a species adapted to low light increases in response to additional light inputs caused by canopy disturbance, or alternatively, declines due to long-term...

Data from: From success to persistence: Identifying an evolutionary regime shift in the diverse Paleozoic aquatic arthropod group Eurypterida, driven by the Devonian biotic crisis

James C. Lamsdell & Paul A. Selden
Mass extinctions have altered the trajectory of evolution a number of times over the Phanerozoic. During these periods of biotic upheaval a different selective regime appears to operate, although it is still unclear whether consistent survivorship rules apply across different extinction events. We compare variations in diversity and disparity across the evolutionary history of a major Paleozoic arthropod group, the Eurypterida. Using these data, we explore the group's transition from a successful, dynamic clade to...

Risk Factors Associated with Passenger Vehicle Fatal Rollover Crashes in West Virginia, 2001-2018

Yuni Tang, Toni Rudisill & Ruchi Bhandari
Background: Rollover crashes cause more injuries and fatalities than other types of motor vehicle crashes. West Virginia (WV) has high rates of drug overdose deaths and motor vehicle crash fatality. However, no studies have investigated risk factors associated with fatal rollover crashes in WV. Purpose: The objective of this study is to evaluate whether drug use and other risk factors are associated with fatal rollover crash fatalities in WV. Methods: This cross-sectional study utilized the...

Water availability drives fine root dynamics in a Eucalyptus woodland under elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration

Juan Piñeiro, Raul Ochoa-Hueso, John Drake, Mark Tjoelker & Sally Power
Fine roots are a key component of carbon and nutrient dynamics in forest ecosystems. Rising atmospheric [CO2] (eCO2) is likely to alter the production and activity of fine roots, with important consequences for forest carbon storage. Yet empirical evidence of the role of eCO2 in driving root dynamics in low-nutrient forested ecosystems is limited, particularly for grassy woodlands, an ecosystem type of global importance. We sampled fine roots across seasons over a two-year period to...

Data from: A 454 survey reveals the community composition and core microbiome of the common bed bug (Cimex lectularius) across an urban landscape

Matthew Meriweather, Sara Matthews, Rita Rio & Regina S. Baucom
Elucidating the spatial dynamic and core constituents of the microbial communities found in association with arthropod hosts is of crucial importance for insects that may vector human or agricultural pathogens. The hematophagous Cimex lectularius (Hemiptera: Cimicidae), known as the human bed bug, has made a recent resurgence in North America, as well as worldwide, potentially owing to increased travel, climate change and resistance to insecticides. A comprehensive survey of the bed bug microbiome has not...

Data from: Large effect quantitative trait loci for salicinoid phenolic glycosides in Populus: implications for gene discovery

Scott A. Woolbright, Brian J. Rehill, Richard L. Lindroth, Stephen P. DiFazio, Gregory D. Martinsen, Mathew S. Zinkgraf, Gerard J. Allan, Paul Keim, Thomas G. Whitham & Matthew S. Zinkgraf
Genomic studies have been used to identify genes underlying many important plant secondary metabolic pathways. However, genes for salicinoid phenolic glycosides (SPGs)—ecologically important compounds with significant commercial, cultural, and medicinal applications—remain largely undescribed. We used a linkage map derived from a full‐sib population of hybrid cottonwoods (Populus spp.) to search for quantitative trait loci (QTL) for the SPGs salicortin and HCH‐salicortin. SSR markers and primer sequences were used to anchor the map to the V3.0...

Characterization of Salix nigra floral insect community and activity of three native Andrena bees

Stephen DiFazio, Sandra Simon, Ken Keefover-Ring, Yong-Lak Park, Gina Wimp & Julianne Grady
Salix nigra (black willow) is a widespread tree that hosts many species of polylectic hymenopterans and oligolectic bees of the genus Andrena. The early flowering of S. nigra makes it an important nutritive resource for insects emerging from hibernation. However, since S. nigra is dioecious, not all insect visits will lead to successful pollination. Using both visual observation and pan-trapping we characterized the community of insects that visited S. nigra flowers and assessed differences among...

America Contacts Congress: Providing Access to U.S. Congressional Correspondence Data

Danielle Emerling
$27,000 to complete a feasibility study that will assess and plan for the future collaborative technical infrastructure for an open-source congressional correspondence data access tool, to improve how libraries process and provide access to large data sets with sensitive information and how scholars and the public use data related to Americans’ civic engagement.

Review of: Ailing in Place

Jerry Paulson & Jennifer A. Mallow
The Journal of Appalachian Health is committed to reviewing published media that relate to contemporary concepts affecting the health of Appalachia. The Appalachian environmental inequities and the health disparities we face have a direct effect on our experience of illness. Dr. Jerome Paulson reviews the book Ailing in Place: Environmental Inequities and Health Disparities in Appalachia.

Advancing Cancer Prevention Practice Facilitation Work in Rural Primary Care During COVID-19

Dannell Boatman, Susan Eason, Mary E. Conn, Summer Miller & Stephenie Kennedy-Rea
COVID-19 and the response to slow the virus spread in West Virginia (WV), including a statewide stay-at-home order, presented challenges to rural primary care clinics on the frontlines. These challenges affected critical quality improvement work, including cancer screening services. In this commentary, the authors present the results of a survey of WV primary care practices that highlight potential long-term implications and identifies opportunities for practice facilitators to partner with rural primary care clinics to address...

Review of: The Cancer Crisis in Appalachia: Kentucky Students Take Action

Stephenie Kennedy-Rea
The Journal of Appalachian Health is committed to reviewing published media that relates to contemporary concepts affecting the health of Appalachia. With cancer mortality rates higher in rural and Appalachian communities, a focus on how cancer impacts our families and communities is more important than ever. Dr. Stephenie Kennedy-Rea reviews the book The Cancer Crisis in Appalachia: Kentucky Students Take Action.

Addressing Diabetes Distress in Self-Management Programs

Ranjita Misra, Samantha Shawley-Brzoska, Raihan Khan, Brenna Kirk, Sijin Wen & Usha Sambamoorthi
Background: West Virginia ranks 1st nationally in the prevalence of hypertension (HTN; 43.8%) and diabetes (16.2%). Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are distressed over physical and psychological burden of disease self-management. Methods: This study investigated the effectiveness of an intervention to reduce diabetes distress and outcomes [glycemic control, blood pressure (BP)] among T2DM adults with comorbid HTN. Participants were randomized to a 12-week diabetes and hypertension self-management program versus a 3-month wait-listed control...

The Compounding Effect of Rurality on Health Disparities Among Black Patients with COVID-19

Jessica Johnson, Ruchi Bhandari, Allison Lastinger & Rebecca Reece
Background: West Virginia had garnered national attention for its vaccination rollout against coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19). Outcomes of this mostly rural population, however, have been underreported. As the pandemic continues, identifying high risk populations remains important to further epidemiologic information and target vaccines. Purpose: The objective of this study is to examine the effects of COVID-19 and the influence of race and rurality on hospitalization and outcomes in Appalachians. Methods: In this retrospective study, data from...

Data from: Altered spring phenology of North American freshwater turtles and the importance of representative populations

Fredric J. Janzen, Luke A. Hoekstra, Ronald J. Brooks, David M. Carroll, J. Whitfield Gibbons, Judith L. Greene, John B. Iverson, Jacqueline D. Litzgus, Edwin D. Michael, Steven G. Parren, Willem M. Roosenburg, Gabriel F. Strain, John K. Tucker & Gordon R. Ultsch
Globally, populations of diverse taxa have altered phenology in response to climate change. However, most research has focused on a single population of a given taxon, which may be unrepresentative for comparative analyses, and few long‐term studies of phenology in ectothermic amniotes have been published. We test for climate‐altered phenology using long‐term studies (10–36 years) of nesting behavior in 14 populations representing six genera of freshwater turtles (Chelydra, Chrysemys, Kinosternon, Malaclemys, Sternotherus, and Trachemys). Nesting...

Data from: Decay rates of leaf litters from arbuscular mycorrhizal trees are more sensitive to soil effects than litters from ectomycorrhizal trees

Meghan G. Midgley, Edward Brzostek & Richard P. Phillips
While it is well established that leaf litter decomposition is controlled by climate and substrate quality at broad spatial scales, conceptual frameworks that consider how local-scale factors affect litter decay in heterogeneous landscapes are generally lacking. A critical challenge in disentangling the relative impacts of and interactions among local-scale factors is that these factors frequently covary due to feedbacks between plant and soil communities. For example, forest plots dominated by trees that associate with ectomycorrhizal...

Data from: Early phylogeny of crinoids within the pelmatozoan clade

William I. Ausich, Thomas W. Kammer, Elizabeth C. Rhenberg & David F. Wright
Phylogenetic relationships among early crinoids are evaluated by maximizing parsimonious-informative characters that are unordered and unweighted. Primarily Tremadocian–Darriwilian (Early–Middle Ordovician) taxa are analysed. Stratigraphic congruence metrics support the best phylogenetic hypothesis derived using parsimony methods. This study confirms the traditionally recognized lineages of Palaeozoic crinoids and provides new information on the branching order of evolving lineages. Camerates are basal crinoids with progressively more tipward groups (from an Ordovician perspective) being protocrinoids, cladids (paraphyletic), hybocrinids and...

Data from: Sulfur resistance of Ce-Mn/TiO2 catalysts for low-temperature NH3–SCR

Quan Xu, Wenjing Yang, Shitong Cui, Jason Street & Yan Luo
Ce-Mn/TiO2 catalyst prepared using a simple impregnation method demonstrated a better low-temperature selective catalytic reduction of NO with NH3 (NH3-SCR) activity in comparison with the sol-gel method. The Ce-Mn/TiO2 catalyst loading with 20% Ce had the best low-temperature activity and achieved a NO conversion rate higher than 90% at 140-260°C with a 99.7% NO conversion rate at 180 °C. The Ce-Mn/TiO2 catalyst only had a 6% NO conversion rate decrease after 100 ppm of SO2...

Data from: Human macular Müller cells rely more on serine biosynthesis to combat oxidative stress than those from the periphery

Ting Zhang, Ling Zhu, Michele Catherine Madigan, Wei Liu, Weiyong Shen, Svetlana Cherepanoff, Fanfan Zhou, Shaoxue Zeng, Jianhai Du & Mark Cedric Gillies
The human macula is more susceptible than the peripheral retina to developing blinding conditions such as age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy. A key difference between them may be the nature of their Müller cells. We found primary cultured Müller cells from macula and peripheral retina display significant morphological and transcriptomic differences. Macular Müller cells expressed more Phosphoglycerate Dehydrogenase (PHGDH, a rate-limiting enzyme in serine synthesis) than peripheral Müller cells. The serine synthesis, glycolytic and mitochondrial...

Data from: Stranger than a scorpion: a reassessment of Parioscorpio venator, a problematic arthropod from the Llandoverian Waukesha Lagerstätte

Evan Anderson, James Schiffbauer, Sarah Jacquet, James Lamsdell, Joanne Kluessendorf & Donald Mikulic
A relatively uncommon arthropod of the Waukesha lagerstätte, Parioscorpio venator, is redescribed as an arthropod bearing a combination of characters that defy ready classification. Diagnostic features include sub-chelate ‘great appendages’, a lack of antennae, multiramous anterior trunk appendages, filamentous fan-like rear trunk appendages, and apparently thin and poorly preserved pleural fields. Phylogenetic analysis resolves this organism as basal to crown-group Mandibulata and Chelicerata, but its exact placement is inconclusive. Thus, we compare its morphology to...

Bayesian N-mixture and occupancy modeling code for songbirds

Eric Margenau, Christopher Rota & Petra Wood
The proliferation of energy rights-of-way (pipelines and powerlines; ROWs) in the central Appalachian region has prompted wildlife management agencies to consider ways to use these features to manage and conserve at-risk songbird species. However, little empirical evidence exists regarding best management strategies to enhance habitat surrounding ROWs for the songbird community during stopover or breeding periods. We used a before-after-control-impact design to study cut-back border (linear tree cuttings along abrupt forest edges) harvest width (15...

Bioaccumulation of the pesticide Imidacloprid in stream organisms and sublethal effects in salamanders in West Virginia

Sara Crayton, Petra Wood, Donald Brown, Alice Millikin, Terence McManus, Tyler Simpson, Kang-Mo Ku & Yong-Lak Park
Dataset for the article "Bioaccumulation of the Pesticide Imidacloprid in Stream Organisms and Sublethal Effects on Salamanders." Contains imidacloprid and metabolite concentrations for Desmognathus spp., benthic macroinvertebrates, and stream water. Also contains corticosterone concentration data for Desmognathus spp. and body condition indices for 5 species of stream salamander in relation to water imidacloprid concentrations.Dataset for the article "Bioaccumulation of the Pesticide Imidacloprid in Stream Organisms and Sublethal Effects on Salamanders." Contains imidacloprid and metabolite concentrations...

Evolution and development at the origin of a phylum

Bradley Deline, Jeffery Thompson, Nicholas Smith, Samuel Zamora, Imran Rahman, Sarah Sheffield, William Ausich, Thomas Kammer & Colin Sumrall
Quantifying morphological evolution is key to determining the patterns and processes underlying the origin of phyla. We constructed a hierarchical morphological character matrix to characterize the radiation and establishment of echinoderm body plans during the early Paleozoic. This showed that subphylum-level clades diverged gradually through the Cambrian, and the distinctiveness of the resulting body plans was amplified by the extinction of transitional forms and obscured by convergent evolution during the Ordovician. Higher-order characters that define...

A new method for quantifying heterochrony in evolutionary lineages

James Lamsdell
The occupation of new environments by evolutionary lineages is frequently associated with morphological changes. This co-variation of ecotype and phenotype is expected due to the process of natural selection, whereby environmental pressures lead to the proliferation of morphological variants that are a better fit for the prevailing abiotic conditions. One primary mechanism by which phenotypic variants are known to arise is through changes in the timing or duration of organismal development resulting in alterations to...

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